The information contained in this summary is based on information collected by HRIC in July and is not intended as a complete list. Rather, it should be viewed as a representation of larger trends of dissent and repression in China.
In the lead-up to the Olympics, HRIC will be monitoring Olympics-related news in the Monthly Briefs, in addition to regular topic areas.
Beijing Air Falls Short of International Standards
According to tests conducted by a reporter one month before the Olympics, air quality in Beijing still failed to meet standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, Chinese experts were optimistic about Beijing’s various measures for pollution control, including the temporary closings of factories and restrictions on vehicles. Beijing’s official “blue sky” standard has been challenged by international experts due to its deviation from WHO standards and the questionable placement of monitoring stations. On July 31, the Ministry of Environmental Protection issued the “Public Announcement of the Emergency Measures for Controlling Air Pollution in the Instance of Extremely Unfavorable Air Conditions during the Olympics and Special Olympics” (关于发布北京奥运会残奥会期间极端不利气象条件下空气污染控制应急措施的公告), which includes banning more cars from the road and halting production at over 200 factories in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hubei. The Emergency Measures would take effect if the forecasted air quality over the following 48 hours did not meet required standards.
Power Shortage Expected
According to an analyst at China’s State Grid Corporation, the country may encounter a worse-than-expected power shortfall this summer due to insufficient fuel supplies and the recent forced closure of 2.5% of China’s coal-fired power plants. While some critics say that this is largely due to the Olympics, others point out that fundamental problems with China’s energy policy and supply have never been solved.
Experts Blame Pollution for Qingdao Algae
Despite explanations from Chinese officials that heavy rain and hot weather caused Qingdao’s massive algae bloom in mid-June, marine biologist Hironao Kataoka said that the water’s nutrient-rich condition invariably comes from “agricultural run-off and urban drainage.” Concerns over the safety of the water have been expressed by coaches from some countries, while others reported seeing improvement in water quality.
Balancing Media Freedom, Security, and Image at the Beijing Olympics
One month before the Olympics, critics say China continues to breach its promise of complete press freedom, harassing foreign journalists covering sensitive topics and restricting travel to certain areas. Although much of the harassment comes from lower level officials, journalists say that senior authorities are unwilling or unable to intervene. In the face of criticism, officials such as Vice-President Xi Jinping (习近平) stress that security is a top priority. In addition, an official from the National Copyright Administration of China said that authorities are determined to prevent unauthorized broadcasting of Olympic events, citing penalties that range from confiscating equipment to imprisonment.
In response to this criticism, on July 9, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (BOCOG) announced that CCTV will carry live Olympic footage without the usual 30-second delay and that foreign media crews will be allowed to film anywhere in the city, including Tiananmen Square. At the time, several previously-blocked websites became accessible, including the Wall Street Journal, Apple Daily, and Taiwan’s Central News Agency (in Chinese: “台湾中央社”). Also, officials announced plans to expand sales of overseas newspapers and magazines during the Olympics, but only to the international population. Li Changchun (李长春), a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and regarded as China’s propaganda chief, told reporters that any complaints regarding media restrictions could be filed with BOCOG President Liu Qi (刘淇).
IOC Admits Internet Restrictions Deal
On July 30, IOC press chief Kevan Gosper revealed that unnamed IOC officials had cut a deal with Chinese officials to block certain “sensitive” websites, despite previously agreeing to unrestricted access. Gosper said that he been taken by surprise by the deal and told reporters that he had been providing incomplete information. BOCOG spokesman Sun Weide told a news conference that censorship would not affect reporting of the games, and acknowledged that some websites were inaccessible. Authorities launched a pre-Olympics Internet crackdown on illicit websites that focused on pornography and gambling, but also restricted many politically sensitive sites.
Olympics Security Measures Strengthened
Entering July, the Chinese government continued to beef up Olympics security measures. The elite Snow Wolf Commando Unit was put on alert for any terrorist activities while surface-to-air missiles and unmanned spy planes have been deployed. Camera surveillance has been enhanced—with over 300,000 cameras placed throughout Beijing—and security personnel have received specialized training from international experts. Tougher visa restrictions were imposed and tourists must now have a return air ticket and hotel booking before being issued a tourist visa. Random checks are being carried out in Beijing and stringent security has been placed on public transport.
Authorities have stepped up security measures in Tibet and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) in an effort to prevent any unrest. In Shanghai, certain activists have been prevented from leaving the city ahead of the Olympics, while in Beijing, activists, dissidents, and intellectuals have been encouraged to “travel outside Beijing” during the games. At the same time, China has been accused of exaggerating the terrorism threat, with experts and activists pointing to the lack of concrete evidence made public and warning that terrorism can be used as a guise to harass political activists, religious practitioners, and petitioners.
No Leave for Shandong Police
Official media reported that all annual leave has been cancelled for Shandong police from July 5 to September 25 in order to boost security during the Olympic Games.
Three Major Threats
On July 6, Tian Yixiang, head of the Beijing Olympic Games Security Protection Coordination Group, said that the three major threats to the Beijing Olympic Games were all domestic in origin and included Uyghur militants campaigning for independence, Tibetan independence groups, and Falun Gong members. Previously, Vice Minister of Public Security Meng Hongwei had said that the three main Olympics threats were international terrorists, Uyghur separatists, and “serious crimes.” In line with these threats, hotel operators in Beijing have reported being told to notify authorities when ethnic minorities such as Uyghurs or Tibetans check in and surveillance of these groups has increased in Shanghai as well.
Bus Explosions in Yunnan
On July 22, two bus explosions occurred in Kunming, Yunnan, 2,100 kilometers southwest of Beijing. Two people were killed and 14 were injured. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that no evidence has been found suggesting a link to Olympics, although a separatist group calling itself the Turkestan Islamic Party has claimed responsibility for the explosions and threatened to attack “critical points related to the Olympics.” Authorities have brushed off the claim, and rewards of up to 500,000 yuan (about US$73,161) are being offered to anyone who can provide information about terrorist plots. An official notice stated that the rewards were meant to “mobilize the enthusiasm of the masses in maintaining public security as well as eliminating threats to the Olympic Games.” There were reports of a “blast sound” from a Kunming bus on July 28, but official reports said the explosion was due to a tire blowing out.
Visa Restrictions Justified: Official
Responding to new visa restrictions introduced in April, Wei Wei, the Director of China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said that China’s visa policy was in line with international standards and a proper response to potential security threats to the Games. He insisted the measures were no stricter than measures adopted by previous host countries, yet many foreign residents and businesspeople complained of difficulties and inconveniences when they applied for visa renewals.
Local Officials Asked to Head Off Protests
The central government has ordered local officials to head off any protests that would tarnish the Olympics. Local governments have been told to go “all-out” to prevent any grievances from occurring, discourage petitioners from heading to Beijing, and not allow small gatherings to swell into large protests.
Provincial Heads Must Remain in China
Ming Pao reported that provincial heads have been ordered not to leave China during the Olympics. Central authorities issued a document in early summer stating that this move was to ensure that sudden outbreaks would be dealt with swiftly and accordingly during this sensitive period. Each county has been ordered to set up an “Anti-Terror Office,” which would be responsible for dealing with any unexpected outbursts.
Migrant Workers Told to Leave Beijing
In July, the Beijing Municipal Government suspended a job fair for migrant workers and notified the organizers that there would be no such fairs for two months. Migrant workers have been asked to leave the city between July 21 and September 20, affecting over one million workers.
“Civilized and Convenient” Manner for Security Checks
China’s top security official Zhou Yongkang has instructed police to carry out security checks in a “civilized and convenient” manner. In the build up to the Olympics, travelers have complained about being subjected to multiple checks.
Other Olympics News
Spending on Olympics: A Necessary Facelift?
The Wall Street Journal reports that an estimated total of US$42 billion has been spent on the Beijing Olympics, compared to the US$15 billion spent on the Athens Olympics. About 60% was spent on infrastructure and 25% on environmental efforts. Yet some have indicated that there are problems with a lack of transparency, as well as no opportunities for the public to participate in the budget decisions.
“1.5 Million Displaced for Olympics”
On July 16, the Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions, a non-governmental organization based in Geneva, issued a report stating that 1.5 million people have been displaced from their homes due to venue construction and beautification projects for the Beijing Olympics.
IOC Chief Advocates Quiet Diplomacy
IOC head Jacques Rogge says that the IOC has been able to persuade China to pass new laws on rights and environmental issues using “silent diplomacy.” Rogge has lauded China’s response to IOC concerns and believes that silent diplomacy is far more effective than haranguing China until demands are met. Rogge also rebuked politicians demanding a boycott of the Olympics when “[they are] not even considering for one second calling back [their] ambassador or ceasing trade and cultural exchanges [with China].”
China Dissidents Hope Beijing Olympics not Like Berlin Games
Chinese dissidents hope not only for a successful Olympics, but that hosting these games will lead to political reform as it did in Seoul (1988), rather than the propaganda-driven games in Berlin (1936). Dissident Wang Juntao believes that there are opposing views of reform within the government; while he was jailed, even his guards told him privately that they hoped China could one day redress the Tiananmen Square crackdown, he said.
Government Retains Lawyers to Prevent Being Sued
In the Keerqin District of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, there have been reports of government officials retaining lawyers in order to prohibit them from assisting local citizens in cases filed against officials and government agencies. According to China’s Department of Justice (司法局), an attorney who acts as legal consultant to the government may not assist in any cases filed against the government.
Protest at Three Gorges Dam
On July 22, Chinese authorities in Hubei Province dragged a local resident from the water after she jumped in a reservoir to protest against the evacuation of Gaoyang, the last town to be cleared to make way for the Three Gorges Dam project. The last remaining residents were deeply unhappy about relocating, complaining that they had no place to go and that compensation was inadequate. At least 1.4 million people have been dislocated by the dam so far, with another four million being “encouraged” to move by 2020, according to official figures.
Rubber Farmers Clash with Police
On July 19, 500 rubber farmers with knives, steel tubes, and bars clashed with Yunnan police when officials attempted to arrest five people involved in violent disputes between famers and a rubber factory, state media reported. Forty-one policemen and 13 farmers were injured, while two farmers were shot to death by police.
Police Detain 117 After Weng’an Riots
On July 19, police in Guizhou Province announced that 117 people have been detained for their involvement in riots in Weng’an County, where up to 30,000 people took to the streets on June 28 and set fire to official buildings. The riots were sparked by controversy surrounding a police investigation into the death of a young girl whose body was recovered in a river on June 22. State media blames incitement of the riots on gangsters and the spread of false rumors. On July 7, after conducting a third and final autopsy on the girl, officials reaffirmed the original verdict that the girl died by drowning, saying there was no evidence of sexual assault. Activists have been deterred from conducting private investigations.
Buddhist Academy Students Clash with Authorities
On July 18, according to a statement from the Tibetan government in exile, Tibetan monks from Zu Qing (竹慶) Temple in Garze, Tibetan Autonomous Region went to their local government office to voice complaints over the alleged beating of a monk by police. A confrontation ensued and officials responded with gun fire, injuring nine Tibetan monks. A few weeks before, the monk who was allegedly beaten had tried to stop police from hunting in sacred mountains worshipped by Tibetan people.
Riot over Motorcyclist Death
On July 17, more than 100 people attacked police officers during a riot over the death of a motorcyclist in Huizhou City, Guangdong Province. The controversy arose when the motorcyclist’s family said he was beaten to death by security guards, but local police claimed he died in a traffic accident. Rioters overturned a police wagon and raided a police station; seven people were taken into custody as a result.
Grieving Parents Harassed
On July 15, a confrontation broke out with police after 200 parents of children who died in collapsed schools during the Sichuan earthquake protested outside government offices in Mianzhu, Sichuan Province. This was one of a series of protests led by grieving parents, some of whom blame corruption and shoddy construction materials for the crumbling schools. Following the quake, many local governments promised to formally investigate the school collapses, but parents across Sichuan complain they have yet to receive any reports. Local officials were also offering parents about US$8,700 if they signed a contract agreeing not to raise the school collapses any further.
Land Rights Petitioners Attacked
On July 15, a thousand people surrounded the Wushan County government office in Sichuan in support of petitioners who had their wrists cut for petitioning the loss of their land due to the Three Gorges Dam project. Earlier that day, government officials rejected the requests of six Wushan petitioners and allegedly hired gangsters to attack them with razor blades.
Migrant Workers Riot
From July 10–12, migrant workers in Zhejiang Province rioted and burned police vehicles after a worker was allegedly beaten by police over an application for a temporary residence permit. According to a Hong Kong-based NGO, 300 anti-riot police were deployed to restore control. Government officials report 23 people were “dealt with according to the law” after authorities regained control.
Harassment and Other Unfavorable Treatment
On July 1, police from the Chongwen District Branch Office of the Public Security Bureau and the State Security Bureau in Beijing forced open the door of Beijing-based house church activist Hua Huiqi (华惠棋), threatened him, and beat his wife Zhou Jumei (周菊梅), his brother Hua Huilin (华惠林), and neighbor and activist Zhou Li (周莉), who tried to dial 100 to call the police. Hua Huiqi believed the harassment and beatings are a result of his religious activism.
Throughout late June and early July, there have been ongoing infringements on the rights of rights defense lawyers, including delaying law license renewals, limiting their ability to meet with their clients, and stopping a group of prominent lawyers from meeting with two visiting U.S. Congressmen. The children of writer and rights defense lawyer Guo Feixiong (郭飞雄) (also known as Yang Maodong (杨茂东)), were initially refused admission to public school; his daughter is now only permitted to attend an expensive private school. Other lawyers who have been harassed by authorities include Cheng Hai (程海), Guo Yan (郭艳), Jiang Tianyong (江天勇), Mo Hongluo (莫宏洛), Tang Jingling (唐荆陵), Teng Biao (滕彪), Xie Yanyi (谢燕益), and Zhang Jiankang (张鉴康).
Furthermore, authorities have cracked down on other rights activists, restricting their movement in preparation for the Olympics. Many activists and dissidents have been put under house arrest, questioned, told to leave Beijing during the Olympics, or even imprisoned.
On June 9, leading Shenzhen consumer rights activist Chen Shuwei (陈书伟) was beaten by seven or eight unidentified men for “asking too many questions.”
Yuan Weijing (袁伟静), wife of jailed “barefoot lawyer” Chen Guangcheng (陈光诚), composed an open letter to President Hu Jintao as the Olympic torch passed through Chen’s hometown of Linyi, Shandong on July 21. Yuan called on President Hu to remember the plight of her husband and lamented that she and her daughter remain under constant surveillance by a security detail that has increased to 40 men. Yuan has been under house arrest for the past three years and is prohibited from visiting her parents and son, who is living with her parents. Chen’s brother was also being watched by four unknown men.
On July 3, not only did authorities block access to the website “In the Hepatitis B Camp” (肝胆相照论坛) (http://bbs.hbvhbv.com), the world’s largest Chinese-language online forum offering counseling and support to Hepatitis B sufferers, but also harassed and interrogated public health activist Lu Jun (陆军), the moderator of the website upon his return home to China after a trip to Hong Kong and the United States.
Hubei activist Yao Lifa (姚立法) has been under twenty-four hour surveillance since July 28. He reportedly believes that authorities do not want him meeting with villagers around the country who have grievances.
Investigations into the schools that collapsed during the Sichuan earthquake has lead to the detention of many rights defenders. On June 9, university staff member Zeng Hongling (曾宏玲) was detained on suspicion of subversion after publishing essays on overseas Chinese websites that link the collapsed school buildings with corruption. In addition, Liu Shaokun (刘绍坤), a teacher of Guanghan Middle School, Deyang City, Sichuan Province, was detained on June 25 and sentenced to one year of Reeducation-Through-Labor for taking photos of collapsed school buildings and posting them online. In a media interview before his detention, he expressed his anger at “the shoddy tofu buildings.”
On June 25, the Yuhua branch office of the Changsha Public Security Bureau detained Changsha dissident Xie Changfa (谢长发) on grounds of “suspicion of subverting state power.” Authorities also detained Xie's younger brother, Xie Changzhen (谢长祯), a teacher surnamed Wu (吴), and three other persons. Wu and the other three persons were subsequently released. Xie Changzhen was not charged with a serious offense and was released on bail on July 17 to await trial. Xie Changfa currently remains in detention.
On June 28, Beijing State Security Police (北京国保警察) detained Datong railway workers’ rights activist Liu Jianjun (刘建军) while in Beijing. On July 4, the Datong State Security Police (山西大同国保支队警察) escorted Liu back to Datong, Shanxi Province, where he was criminally detained the next day on grounds of “suspicion of inciting subversion of state power.”
Imprisoned activist Ye Guozhu (叶国柱) was taken away from his prison on July 24—just two days before he was due to be released following four years in prison—and placed in criminal detention under suspicion of gathering a crowd to disturb public social order. The authorities refused to explain to Ye’s family how he could gather a crowd to disturb public social order while in prison.
Tianjin National Security Police (天津国保警察) detained Tianjin-based dissident Lü Honglai (吕洪来) while he was out visiting friends on July 9. On July 14, Lü's wife, Li Jiyan (李继妍), went to the Tianjin Municipal State Security Bureau (国保局) and was told that Lü was “under investigation by the relevant department.” Authorities are reportedly keeping Lü under house arrest for the duration of the Olympics. His present location remains unknown.
Shanghai-based rights lawyer Zheng Enchong (郑恩宠) was summoned by police and questioned for almost eight hours on July 20. Zheng believes he was interrogated due to the upcoming Olympics, some previously published articles, and interviews he had accepted with foreign journalists about his views on Tibet and Yang Jia, who stabbed nine policemen and a security guard (killing six) in Shanghai.
On the morning of July 21, police detained Hubei Internet dissident writer Du Daobin (杜导斌). Du’s wife, Xia Chunrong (夏春容), was asked to go home by her supervisor to let the police search their home. During the search, Xia was told by authorities that Du would be imprisoned for “violat[ing] the terms of his suspended sentence by writing approximately one hundred essays that distorted facts.” The police not only confiscated draft manuscripts, two computers, CDs, and other items, but also told her to change her number and not accept any interviews.
Huang Xiaomin (黄晓敏), rights defender and leading member of the Sichuan Pan-Blue Alliance (泛蓝联盟), was detained by state security forces on July 25 following his arrival in Shanghai to visit his daughter and sister. The officers detaining Huang and confiscated his cell phone and computer, as well as presents for his sister and daughter. Former reporter and Zhejiang Pan-Blue Alliance head Wei Zhenling (黄晓敏) was also detained by state security forces on July 25.
Three activists were detained by police while attempting to investigate the death of 17-year-old Li Shufen (李树芬) in Weng’an, Guizhou. The three managed to elude police surveillance and enter Weng’an County, but they were detained on July 8 and questioned for 10 hours.
On July 8, Yuan Xianchen (袁显臣) was arrested on the grounds of “inciting subversion to state power” for allegedly helping already jailed Yang Chunlin (杨春林) collect signatures for the open letter entitled, “We Want Human Rights, Not the Olympics.”
Huang Qi (黄琦), founder of tianwang64.com, was formally arrested on July 18 after having been detained for 38 days for “illegal possession of state secrets.” Huang’s wife and mother tried to visit Huang on July 25 to bring him medicine and submit a bail application. The police refused the visit, the application, and the medicine. Huang had been collecting information from grieving parents who lost children in the collapsed schools and hoped to expose official corruption behind the shoddy construction.
Housing Rights Defender Sentenced
RFA reported that Qingdao housing rights defender Yu Jianli (于建利) was sentenced to one year and two months on defamation charges on July 17. He was detained on July 27, 2007, when petitioning at a provincial government building. Yu’s lawyer Li Subin (李苏滨) alleged procedural irregularities with the investigation and trial process and argued that the conviction was trumped up. Yu has appealed and is awaiting results.
Conditions in Detention Facilities
Authorities at the Qiqihar Labor Camp allegedly tortured petitioner Liu Jie (刘杰) from May 17–22 by strapping her to a “tiger bench.” This happened after she complained that the labor camp required inmates to use substances in their work which poisoned them.
Jude Shao (邵裘德), a U.S. citizen arrested in 1998 in Shanghai on tax-evasion charges, was freed on parole on July 2. He had originally been sentenced to 16 years in prison. Shao is reportedly required to serve the remainder of his sentence in Shanghai, where he was born and has family. Shao’s friends and former classmates said he was sentenced because he refused to bribe government officials.
Hunan dissident Zhang Shanguang (张善光) was released on July 20 after completing a ten-year sentence. Zhang was convicted of “providing information to illegal foreign organizations.” Despite being exhausted from his imprisonment, Zhang told RFA that he wished to continue his rights defense work in accordance with his rights.
Beijing housing activist and former rights lawyer Ni Yulan’s (倪玉兰) trial on charges of “obstructing official business” was scheduled for August 4, just before the Olympics kicked off, but it was postponed until a later date. The court did not give any explanation for the change.
 James Reynolds, “Beijing ‘Failing Pollution Test,’” British Broadcasting Corporation, July 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7494656.stm.
 Austin Ramzy, “Beijing Orders Pollution to Vanish,” Time, July 14, 2008, http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1822476,00.html.
 Richard Spencer, “Olympics: Beijing’s Clean Air Claim Challenged by Scientist,” Telegraph, July 21, 2008, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/2309601/ Olympics-Beijingandrsquos-clean-air-claim-challenged-by-scientists.html.
 “China Unveils Emergency Pollution Plans for Games,” Reuters, July 30, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSPEK17203320080731; "Public Announcement of the Emergency Measures for Controlling Air Pollution in the Instance of Extremely Unfavorable Air Conditions During the Olympics and Special Olympics" [关于发布北京奥运会残奥会期间极端不利气象条件下空气污染控制应急措施的公告], issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing Municipal People's Government, Tianjin Municipal People's Government, and Hubei Provincial People's Government [环境保护部,北京市人民政府, 天津市人民政府, 河北省人民政府], promulgated and effective on July 31, 2008, http://www.sepa.gov.cn/info/bgw/bgg/200807/t20080730_126723.htm.
 Wang Ying, “Power Shortage Fear as Coal Stocks Fall,” Shanghai Daily, July 22, 2008, http://olympics.shanghaidaily.com/news_story.asp?ncId=1&id=66.
 Michael Lelyveld, “Olympics Sap China’s Power Supplies,” Radio Free Asia, July 21, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/english/energy_watch/China-energy-07212008133940.html.
 Ian Ransom, “China Olympic City Battles ‘Invading’ Algae,” Reuters, July 6, http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSPEK344769.
 “Olympic Sailors Find Added Adversary in Qingdao: Pollution,” Agence France-Presse, July 6, 2008, available at http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5i_N9vizI8lf8MdBXCEldiPR4JNVA.
 James Pomfret, “China Media Clamps Slammed a Month Before Olympics,” Reuters, July 7, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Olympics/idUSHKG1749720080707.
 Emma Graham-Harrison, “China Olympics Security Undermines Media Freedoms: Experts,” Reuters, July 14, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Olympics/idUSPEK2006220080714.
 Emma Graham-Harrison, “China Olympics Security Undermines Media Freedoms: Experts,” Reuters, July 14, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Olympics/idUSPEK2006220080714.
 “Gov’t Will Stop Illegal Broadcasts During Olympic Games,” China Daily, July 8, 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-07/08/content_8507959.htm.
 Al Guo, “BOCOG and CCTV Reaffirm Uncensored Coverage,” South China Morning Post, July 9, 2008.
 Jane Macartney, “Beijing Lets News in for the Olympic Games,” The Times Online UK, July 11, 2008, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article4312593.ece; “Beijing Has No Intention to Bar Apple Daily from Covering Olympics” [京无意阻《苹果》採访奥运], Ming Pao [明报], July 15, 2008.
 Jane Macartney, “Beijing Lets News in for the Olympic Games,” The Times Online UK, July 11, 2008, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article4312593.ece.
 Nick Mulvenney, “IOC Admits Internet Censorship Deal with China,” Reuters, July 31, 2008, http://uk.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUKPEK17034620080731.
 Paul Radford, “IOC Press Chief Says Media not Told of Censorship Plan,” Reuters, July 30, 2008, available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080731/wl_nm/olympics_censorship_dc_1.
 Paul Radford, “IOC ‘Surprised’ by Games Web Censorship,” Reuters, July 31, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSL131393420080731.
 He Huifeng, “Mainland Starts Latest Internet Crackdown,” South China Morning Post, July 31, 2008.
 “Over 300,000 Security Cameras on the Streets and in Taxis Watch over Beijing” [北京有30万个镜头及计程车视讯镜头作监控], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 31, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/news/china_surveillance-07312008101802.html.
 “Fortress Beijing: Security Steps for the Olympics,” Reuters, July 8, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Olympics/idUSSP8896720080708.
 “Dissidents and Intellectuals Told to Leave Beijing for ‘Travel’ during Olympics” [奥运安保要求异议知识分子离京旅游], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 31, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/security-07312008093751.html.
 Geoff Dyer, “China Accused of Inflating Terrorism Threat,” Financial Times, July 30, 2008, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a6837f82-5dce-11dd-8129-000077b07658.html.
 Ban Fan and Zhang Min, “‘Abuses’ under Population Policies,” Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 12, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/populationabuse-07112008131105.html.
 “Homegrown Threats Top Olympics Security Worries: Official,” Reuters, July 7, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Olympics/idUSPEK36987220080707.
 Mure Dickie, “‘Anti-China’ Groups Threaten Olympics,” Financial Times, July 4, 2008, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/22eb9a82-49f7-11dd-891a-000077b07658.html.
 Xin Yu [心语], “Hotels Ordered to Notify Authorities of Ethnic Minority Guests” [各地旅馆得通报疆藏等少数民族住客], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 30, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/aoyun-07302008083516.html; Xin Yu [心语], “Authorities Increase Inspection and Control of Uyghurs and Tibetans in Beijing and Shanghai” [奥运前夕京沪加强对维族藏族人的监控], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 27, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/ao-07272008172847.html.
 “China Says Deadly Bus Blasts, Olympics Not linked,” Agence-France-Presse (via Sino Daily), July 22, 2008, http://www.sinodaily.com/reports/China_says_deadly_bus_ blasts_Olympics_not_linked_999.html.
 Tania Branigan, "Olympics Threatened by Islamic Separatists," The Observer, July 27, 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/jul/27/olympicgames2008.terrorism.
 Li Xinran and Yang Lifei, “Big Rewards for Olympic Tip-offs,” Shanghai Daily, July 11, 2008, http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2008/200807/20080711/article_366460.htm.
 Yang Lifei, "Tire Blow Out Sparks Fear in Kunming," Shanghai Daily, July 29, 2008.
 “China Says Visa Policy Changes to Ensure Safe Olympics,” Xinhuanet, June 30, 2008, http://rss.xinhuanet.com/newsc/english/2008-06/30/content_8466316.htm.
 Ariana Eunjung Cha, “China Is Growing Unfriendly to Foreigners, Visitors Say,” The Washington Post, July 19, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/ article/2008/07/18/AR2008071803216.html.
 “China Acts to Preempt Unrest as Olympics Near,” Agence France-Presse, June 30, 2008, available at http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5h7Y78kvv8R3iSjmnPqo97eWOISdg.
 “Provincial Heads Forbidden from Leaving China on Foreign Visits during Olympics” [省部首脑奥运期间禁外访], Ming Pao [明报], July 4, 2008.
 Li Rongtian [李荣添], “Beijing Authorities Expel Petitioners and Migrant Workers Before Olympics” [北京在奥运前夕驱逐访民和民工], Radio Free Asia, July 24, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/news/olympics_beijing-07242008101529.html.
 Jason Subler and Emma Graham-Harrison, “China Urges ‘Civilized’ Security Checks at Games,” Reuters, July 14, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/olympicsNews/idUSPEK18343420080714.
 Geoffrey A. Flower and Stacy Meichtry, “China Counts The Cost of Hosting The Olympics,” The Wall Street Journal, July 16, 2008, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121614671139755287.html; Jane Cai, “‘Frugal Olympics’ Have Become Anything But,” South China Morning Post, July 9, 2008.
 Lisa Schlein, “Beijing Olympics Trigger Widespread Displacement,” Voice of America, July 16, 2008, http://www.voanews.com/english/2008-07-16-voa49.cfm.
 “Olympic Chief Says Committee Won China Rights Reforms,” Agence-France Presse (via Yahoo!), July 18, 2008, available at http://nz.news.yahoo.com/a/-/world/4799602/olympic-chief- says-committee-won-china-rights-reforms.
 Diane Falconer, “IOC’s Rogge Quiet on Human Rights for Reasons of State,” Reuters, July 26, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Olympics/idUSL632487320080726.
 Michael Perry, “China Dissidents Hope Olympics not Like Berlin Games,” Reuters, July 28, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Olympics/idUSSP27351320080728.
 Xie Chuanjiao, “Controversy over Retained Lawyers Report,” China Daily, July 29, 2008, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-07/29/content_6884995.htm; “IMAR Authorities Engage Lawyers to Prevent Masses from Appealing” [政府包起律師阻民告官 內蒙地方官陰招 百姓有苦難訴], Ming Pao [明报], July 28, 2008.
 “Final Protest as Village Cleared for China's Three Gorges Dam,” Agence-France Presse, July 24, 2008.
 “Rubber Plant Growers’ Unrest Under Investigation,” China Daily, July 21, 2008, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-07/21/content_6861860.htm; Xinhua, “Farmers Persuaded to Return Home after Unrest Ebbs,” China Daily, July 20, 2008, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-07/20/content_6861785.htm.
 Xinhua, “Guizhou Police Detain 117 for June Unrest,” China Daily, July 20, 2008, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-07/20/content_6861550.htm; “Guizhou Girl ‘Drowned,’ Officials Say,” Radio Free Asia, July 07, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/china-riots-07012008174632.html; Xinhua, “Gangs Crackdown After Weng'an Riot,” Shanghai Daily, July 3, 2008, http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2008/200807/20080703/article_365458.htm; Xinhua, “Guizhou Stresses Stability, Police Reopen Murder Probe,” China Daily, July 1, 2008, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-07/01/content_6810166.htm; Robert Saiget, “Riots in Southwest China over Girl's Death: Report,” Agence France-Presse, June 28, 2008, available at http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5i3_nQ1h8pvf8fNk0zgD9OxMp3x_A.
 “Students from a Ganzi Buddhist Academy Clash with Authorities and Get Shot” [甘孜佛学院学生与武警冲突被枪伤], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 21, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/fo-07212008124259.html.
 “Mystery Motorcycle Death Ends in Riot,” Xinhua, July 19, 2008, available at http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2008/200807/20080719/article_367416.htm.
 Edward Wong, “Grieving Chinese Parents Protest School Collapse,” International Herald Tribune, July 17, 2008, http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/07/17/asia/17china.php; Chris Buckley, “China Seeks to Quell Quake Parents’ Outrage,” Reuters, June 6 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/asiaCrisis/idUSPEK294669.
 “Mass Gathering in Support of Injured Petitioners Stops Chongqing Traffic” [巫山大接访移民受伤 千人聚集堵路声援], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 16, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/wushan-07162008113911.html.
 “Hundreds of Migrant Workers Riot in Eastern China, Attacking Police Station,” Associated Press, July 14, 2008, available at http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/07/14/asia/AS-China-Protest.php; Chris Buckley, “Migrant Workers Protest, Riot for 3 Days in E. China,” Reuters, July 14, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSPEK162637.
 “Olympic Security Net Closes Around Rights Activists,” Deutche Presse-Agentur, July 22, 2008, available at http://in.news.yahoo.com/43/20080722/377/tsp-olympic -security-net-closes-around-r_1.html.
 Zhang Min [张敏], “Olympic Torch to Go through Chen Guangcheng's Hometown - Increased Surveillance for Wife” [奥运火炬拟过临沂 监控袁伟静者增至四十多], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 9, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/linyi-07092008095411.html.
 Xin Yu [心语], “Hubei Rights Defender Yao Lifa Closely Watched” [湖北维权人士姚立法遭严密监控], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 30, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/yaolifa-07302008083820.html.
 Human Rights in China, “Rights Crackdown Intensifies a Month before the Games,” July 8, 2008, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/63047; Human Rights in China, “Family Visits Still Denied to Sichuan School Teacher Punished after Quake-Zone Visit,” July 29, 2008, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/66524.
 “Beijing Evictee Ye Guozhu Taken Away by Police Before Completion of Sentence” [北京拆迁户叶国柱在刑满出狱前被公安带走], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 24, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/news/petitioner_beijing-07242008110507.html; Human Rights in China, “Imprisoned Activist Ye Guozhu's Release Delayed on Eve of Olympic Games,” July 26, 2008, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/64121.
 Ping Riyao [冯日遥], “Guizhou Police Detain Activists Who Investigated Weng'an Teen's Death [贵州公安扣留李树芬死亡真相民间调查小组], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 8, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/news/dissident_detain-07082008112507.html.
 Xin Yu [心语], “Heilongjiang Rights Defender Yuan Xianchen Arrested” [参与杨春林联名抵制北京奥运鸡西维权人士袁显臣被逮捕], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 9, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/yuan-07092008094743.html.
 Human Rights in China, “Detained Rights Activist Huang Qi Formally Arrested,” July 18, 2008, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/63525; Human Rights in China, “Authorities Denied Bail and Medicines for Detained Activist Huang Qi,” July 28, 2008, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/64448.
 Feng Riyao [冯日遥], “Qingdao Evictees Representative Yu Jianli Sentenced to One Year and Two Months in Prison” [青岛拆迁户维权代表于建利被判刑], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 18, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/news/rights_demolishing-07182008142855.html.
 Fang Yuan [方媛], “Heilongjiang Petitioner Liu Jie Brutally Tortured Whilst at Reeducation Camp” [维权人士刘杰在劳教所被用酷刑], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 9, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/liujie-07092008094452.html.
 James T. Areddy, “China Releases U.S. Citizen in Human-Rights Case,” Wall Street Journal, July 4, 2008, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121505292167325601.html; Gao Shan [高山], “Chinese-Born American National Jude Shao Released on Parole on Wednesday” [美籍华人邵裘德周三获得假释], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 3, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/shaoqiude- 07032008170251.html?searchterm=None.
 Xin Yu [心语], “Scoop Interview with Dissentient Zhang Shanguang: First Talk with Press After 10 Years Completion of Sentence” [本台转访异议人士张善光 服刑10 年出狱首次接受媒体采访], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], July 21, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/zhangshanguang-07212008103506.html.
 “Activist's Trial Put off Ahead of Games,” Agence France-Presse, July 30, 2008, http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,24103549-23109,00.html.