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Timeline: Human Rights Defenders

April 1, 2009

December 4, 2008-March 31, 2009

December 4, 2008 Rights activists Chen Xi (陈西) and Shen Youlian (申有连) were detained by police in Guiyang, Guizhou. The two were organizers of the Guizhou Citizens’ Fourth Annual International Human Rights Symposium as well as commemorative events for the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Three other symposium organizers, Liao Shuangyuan (廖双元), Huang Yanming (黄燕明), and Du Heping (杜和平), had also “disappeared” before December 4, 2008. Chen, Shen, and Du were released on December 11, 2008.1
December 8 Beijing-based independent intellectuals Liu Xiaobo (刘晓波) and Zhang Zuhua
, both signatories to Charter 08, were subpoenaed by Beijing public security officers. Liu and Zhang’s homes were both searched, and police confiscated their computers, books, and personal belongings. Zhang was released after 12 hours of interrogation, but Liu remained in police custody and has not been released. Liu’s family was not given a reason for his detention. Liu’s wife was permitted to visit him on March 20, 2009.2
December 10 Shanghai lawyer and prominent activist Zheng Enchong (郑恩宠), signatory to Charter 08, was summoned by police and questioned at a station for four hours. Following the questioning, Zheng was placed under house arrest.3
December 10 Sun Yat-sen University professor and documentary filmmaker Ai Xiaoming (艾晓明), signatory to Charter 08, was detained by Guangzhou police. Ai’s home was also searched while she was in custody.4
December 12 Hangzhou, Zhejiang rights activist and Charter 08 signatory Zou Wei (邹巍) was taken by state security ofWcers to “drink tea.” Zou refused to answer the officers’ questions other than to conWrm that he had signed the document himself.5
December 14 Shanghai-based petitioner and Charter 08 signatory Chang Xiongfa (常雄发) was interrogated by police regarding his signing of the Charter and its drafters; his home was also searched at the time. Chang was again interrogated on December 16, 2008.6
January 12, 2009 Human rights activist and barefoot lawyer Yuan Xianchen (袁显臣)’s case was heard at Jixi Municipal Intermediate Court on charges of “inciting subversion of state power.” Yuan’s wife, sister, and people to whom he had given legal assistance were originally barred from the trial on grounds that it involved state secrets, but Yuan’s lawyers intervened and they were allowed to enter the courtroom. Yuan, who was detained on May 28, 2008, and formally arrested on June 30, 2008, assisted land rights activist Yang Chunlin (杨春林) in gathering petitioners for his open letter campaign, “We want human rights, not the Olympics”; however, the charges against Yuan were based on an article he wrote in 2005, taking interviews from foreign media, accepting money from activists and dissidents, and over 20 unpublished draft essays and articles obtained from Yuan’s home.7
January 12 Shanghai petitioner and rights defender Mao Hengfeng (毛恒凤) was detained for seven days for “disturbing public order” while protesting outside the annual Shanghai Municipal People’s Congress meeting. Mao was accompanied by her daughter Wu Juejin to the meeting site. Across from the meeting site, Mao shouted: “People’s deputies should represent the people; oppose torture; oppose persecution; demand human rights.” Several policemen surrounded Mao and Wu and took them into a police vehicle. She was released on January 19, 2009. Mao Hengfeng had been released from prison on November 26, 2008, after serving a two-and-a-half year sentence for “intentional damage of property” for breaking two table lamps and other objects while under “residential surveillance.”8
January 18 Hubei-based democracy activist Yao Lifa (姚立法) disappeared on his way to Wuhan to attend a reception at the U.S. Embassy in honor of the U.S. presidential inauguration on January 20. He was detained for three days and then released on January 21, a few hours after the reception had Wnished.9 Yao, a primary school teacher in Qianjiang, Hubei, was one of China’s first independent candidates in local elections and has competed in Qianjiang’s municipal elections since 1987. In 1999, he won a seat on the Fourth Qianjiang Municipal People’s Congress.10
February 4 Beijing-based rights defense lawyer Gao Zhisheng (高智晟) was reportedly forcibly taken away by over ten security police from his family home in Shaanxi. He has not been heard from since.11 Gao, a self-trained lawyer known for his work in defending dissidents, underground Christians, and other lawyers, received a suspended sentence of Wve years for “inciting subversion” in 2006. In 2007, he was detained for several weeks after issuing an open letter to the U.S. Congress denouncing the human rights situation in China.12
February 8 Beijing-based housing activist and house church member Shuang Shuying (双淑英) was released from Beijing Women’s Prison, where, at 77, she was the oldest inmate. Shuang was sentenced in 2007 to two years in prison for “intentional damage of public and private property” for striking an on-coming police car with a cane while protesting the detention of her son, house church pastor Hua Huiqi (华惠棋). The morning following her release, her husband and fellow activist Hua Zaichen (华再臣) passed away.13
February 9 Retired military surgeon and SARS whistleblower Dr. Jiang Yanyong (蒋彦永) wrote President Hu Jintao and the Politburo demanding that they “correct their mistakes” and issue him an apology for his detention and house arrest in 2004, which followed a letter he wrote to the National People’s Congress about his experience treating victims of the June Fourth Crackdown. Dr. Jiang also demanded that the international travel ban be lifted from him and his family.14
February 16 Officials from the Haidian District Judicial Bureau notified the Beijing Yitong Law Firm that it would be shut down for six months for, they claimed, allowing a lawyer to practice without a license. The lawyer in question, Li Subin (李苏滨), a prominent defense lawyer, was unable to renew his license in Henan after he won a suit against the local judicial bureau for overcharging lawyers’ registration fees; he joined Yitong as an administrator and lawyers’ assistant. In October 2008, Li and another prominent defense lawyer, Cheng Hai (程海), left Yitong under pressure after signing an appeal calling for direct elections in the Beijing Lawyers Association; five other lawyers at the firm had already left or been dismissed from Yitong after signing the appeal.15
February 20–22 Several rights defenders, including writer Yu Jie (余杰); activist Zeng Jinyan (曾金燕), wife of imprisoned HIV/AIDS activist Hu Jia (胡佳); legal scholar Zhang Zuhua (张祖桦); and activist Qi Zhiyong (齐志勇), whose legs were amputated after being shot during the June Fourth Crackdown, were detained, kept under house arrest, or otherwise monitored by authorities during the visit of U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in Beijing on February 21–22.16
February 22 Zhejiang-based writer Wu Gaoxing (吴高兴) was interrogated by public security police for “defaming the reputation of state organs” in response to three articles he had recently published online; in the end, he was told that he had to surrender the 1,200 yuan he earned for the articles and pay an additional Wne of 3,000 yuan. The officers searched Wu’s home and confiscated his computer. They then took him to the Linhai Public Security Bureau and interrogated him for eight hours.17
February 23 Zhong Ruihua (钟瑞华), a 62-year-old woman from Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), was tried. She was the Wrst to go to trial of a group of eleven from Liuzhou who tried to protest in Beijing during the Paralympics in September 2008. They had all traveled to Beijing to protest against property seizure and destruction and lack of compensation. Zhong and her daughter were detained in Beijing by officers from GZAR on September 10, 2008, and taken back to GZAR. According to family members, no one has been allowed to meet with Zhong since her detention.18
March 1 Sichuan-based rights activists Li Yu (李宇) and Xing Qingxian (幸清贤) were detained by Chengdu state security officers, who burst into Xing’s home, searched it, and conWscated Xing’s computer and several documents. Li was then taken back to Deyang, Sichuan, and released, but Xing remained in police custody as of late March. Xing, formerly an employee at the China Railway No. 2 Engineering Group, was Wred from his job after he protested for overtime pay.19
March 1–13 During the annual “Two Congresses” of the National People’s Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a number of rights defenders in China were put under tight surveillance. Additionally, petitioners who traveled to Beijing to address their representatives were detained and returned to their home provinces. Those under surveillance included: elderly petitioners Wang Xiuying (王秀英) and Wu Dianyuan (吴殿元), whose one-year sentence of Reeducation-Through-Labor for applying to protest during the Olympics was rescinded by authorities; Jia Jianying (贾建英), the wife of imprisoned China Democracy Party member He Depu (何德普); June Fourth dissident Jiang Qisheng (江棋生); house church activists Hua Huiqi (华惠棋) and Xu Yonghai (徐永海); and China Democracy Party founder Zha Jianguo (查建国).20
March 2 Beijing-based Wang Xiuzhen (王秀珍), a 64-year-old petitioner, was detained by police when she tried to leave her home and was forcibly taken to the Xinyuan Li Police Substation in Chaoyang District, Beijing. The substation director told Wang that she was not allowed to go out for the duration of the NPC and CPPCC sessions, and, when she protested, the director slapped her across the face. Wang was then punched and kicked by several police officers and lost consciousness. She was then rushed to a local hospital for emergency treatment. Wang was a victim of the Xinguoda investment scam in 1998, which defrauded workers of tens of millions of dollars, and she has been petitioning for an investigation ever since.21
March 3 On the day that the annual session of the CPPCC opened, Shanxi villagers Feng Jiusheng (冯九胜) and Chen Heying (陈荷英), organizers of an open letter and protest against local ofWcials who sold their fellow villagers’ land to developers, were detained by the Changzhi Municipal Public Security Bureau. They were then each sentenced to fifteen days of administrative detention.22
March 3 Zhou Li (周莉), a Beijing-based rights activist, was detained by officers from the Tianqiao Police Substation at 8:00 a.m. They confiscated Zhou’s mobile phone and then took her to the outskirts of Beijing, returning her to Beijing at 8:00 p.m. that evening.23
March 3 The hearing to shut down the Beijing Yitong Law Firm was held at Beijing Haidian District People’s Government Building.24
March 3–15 Guo Yongfeng (郭永丰), Shenzhen-based activist and organizer of the China Politics Monitoring Committee, was taken away by three Shenzhen policemen who broke into his home in Shenzhen at about 9:00 a.m. on March 3. Guo was detained at Nanshan District Detention Center until March 13 at around 7:00 p.m., after the NPC and CPPCC sessions were over. He was then taken to a suburban motel in Shenzhen and kept there for another two days.25
March 4 and 5 Shanghai rights defense lawyer Zheng Enchong (郑恩宠) was summoned to the Shanghai Zhabei District Public Bureau and kept there for ten hours on March 4. He was again detained on March 5. Zheng was scheduled to speak at a teleconference regarding Shanghai residents forcibly evicted from their homes.26
March 4 Human rights activist and barefoot lawyer Yuan Xianchen (袁显臣) was sentenced to four years’ imprisonment and five years’ deprivation of political rights by the Jixi Municipal Intermediate Court on charges of “inciting subversion of state power.”27
March 5 On the day that the NPC opened, prominent petitioner Zhang Jinfeng (张金凤) was detained at a peaceful rally of several hundred petitioners in Jinan, Shandong. Several other participants were detained, and all but Zhang were released. On March 17, Zhang was sentenced to one year and nine months of Reeducation-Through-Labor. The rally was in support of the Chinese League of Victims (中国冤民大同盟), an organization of over 80,000 Chinese petitioners, who held the first meeting of representatives in Hong Kong, where it is registered, the same day.28
March 5 Guizhou-based petitioner Ding Fayou (丁发有) was detained by a group of people including one known Guizhou state security policeman. On March 9, Ding’s family was alerted by a janitor at a juvenile detention center in Liupanshui, Guizhou, that Ding was detained there and covered in scars. Ding and his wife, fellow petitioner Chen Hong (陈红), had been under watch since February 7, 2009, and forbidden to petition. Ding managed to slip past his guards in late February and went to Beijing intending to petition the Ministry of Public Security. Ding and Chen have petitioned the shooting death of Chen’s brother by a policeman since December 2006. In August 2007, Ding was sentenced to one year of Reeducation-Through-Labor, which was dropped after he served four months.29
March 5–17 A number of Shanghai petitioners were detained when they went to Beijing to apply for protest or petition. They were taken back to Shanghai to be put under custody either in the suburban motels of Shanghai or in the detention center for Wve to ten days on the charge of “disturbing the social order” (扰乱社会秩序). The petitioners were Zhang Cuiping (张翠平), Zhu Libin (朱黎斌), Ma Yalian (马亚莲), Han Zhongming (韩中明), Sun Jianmin (孙建敏), Li Huifang (李慧芳), Li Huiqin (李慧琴), and Gui Liping (桂丽萍). During detention at the Yanping Motel in Shanghai, Gui Liping was beaten.30
March 7 Guizhou dissident Chen Xi (陈西) was detained by the local police prior to meeting with a reporter from the Japanese paper Daily Yomiuri. He was released on March 8.31
March 10 He Weifang (贺卫方), outspoken Peking University law professor and signer of Charter 08, was transferred to Shihezi University in Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. He, a prominent voice for legal reform and an independent judiciary, was not given a reason for his transfer, but was told that he should “take good care of his position” there. In 2008, he was offered a position at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, but the university later rescinded the offer without explanation.32
March 11 Rights defense lawyer Gao Zhisheng’s (高智晟) wife Geng He (耿和) and children arrived in the U.S. after fleeing China in January and escaping into Thailand. Gao’s whereabouts remain unknown after he was taken by state security police on February 4, 2009.33
March 12 Beijing intellectuals Yang Zili (杨子立) and Zhang Honghai (张宏海) were released from prison after completing their eight-year terms; they are now under two years’ deprivation of political rights. The two were members of the New Youth Study Group, wherein they, along with Xu Wei (徐伟) and Jin Haike (靳海科), both of whom remain in prison, met to discuss domestic issues. The four members were convicted of “subversion of state power” in May 2003.34
March 12 Detained writer and intellectual Liu Xiaobo (刘晓波) and the other original signers of Charter 08 were awarded the Homo Homini Award at the human rights Wlm festival “One World” in Prague, Czech Republic. As Liu could not attend the ceremony, three of the original signers, philosopher Xu Youyu (徐友渔), intellectual Cui Weiping (崔卫平), and rights defense lawyer Mo Shaoping (莫少平), accepted the award on Liu’s behalf.35
March 16 Yao Fuxin (姚福信), a long-time labor activist, was released from Lingyuan No. 2 Prison, Liaoning, after completing his seven-year term on conviction of “subversion of state power.” In March 2002, Yao was detained after speaking at a two-day long peaceful demonstration involving at least 5,000 workers from six factories to demand back wages and pension payments.36
March 17 Beijing Haidian District Bureau of Justice delivered the administrative punishment decision to the Beijing Yitong Law Firm, ordering the firm to shut down for six months and all lawyers in the firm to hand in their licenses.37
March 28 Sichuan-based writer and activist Tan Zuoren (谭作人) was detained by police on charges of “suspicion of subversion of state power.” Tan was investigating the students who were victims of the May 2008 Sichuan earthquake and the sub-standard construction of the collapsed schools. In February 2009, he wrote a proposal, “5.12 Student Archive,” which called on volunteers to travel to Sichuan to document the cases.38
March 30 It was made public that Xiao Yixiong (肖义雄), Li Hao (李浩), and Li Changjie (李昌杰), three petitioners in Yanjin County, Yunnan, were sentenced to terms of six months to two years for “gathering a crowd to disrupt social order.” According to Legal Daily, since 2006, the three had led groups of laid-off workers in petitioning for reinstatement in their jobs.39
March 30 Thousands gathered in Nanchong, Sichuan to protest the brutal tactics of the city’s urban management officials in clearing vendors off the street. Riot police helped officers break up the crowd. A fight broke out and the riot police beat up and injured one student.40
March 31 Jiang Qisheng (江棋生), vice-president of the Independent Chinese PEN Center, was detained by 15 public security officers for planning to write an article commemorating the 20th anniversary of June Fourth. He was released later that day. The officers searched his home and confiscated his computers, bank cards, books, and documents. Jiang previously was imprisoned for over one year in 1989 for his involvement in the June Fourth movement and again for four years in 1999 for writing an open letter calling for commemoration of June Fourth.41


1. Human Rights in China (HRIC), “Two Guizhou Rights Activists Detained,” December 5, 2008,; China Human Rights Defenders (CHRD), “Guizhou Human Rights Activists Released and Returned Home” [贵州人权活动人士获释回家], December 11, 2008, ^

2. HRIC, “Independent Scholars Detained: Start of 2009 Crackdown?,” December 9, 2008,; Ji Lisi [姬励思], “Liu Xiaobo huozhun zaidu yu jiaren jianmian” [刘晓波获准再度与家人见面], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], March 23, 2009, ^

3. Chloe Lai and the Associated Press, “Police Detain More Scholars and Activists,” South China Morning Post, December 12, 2008. ^

4. Chloe Lai and the Associated Press, “Police Detain More Scholars and Activists,” South China Morning Post, December 12, 2008. ^

5. Xin Yu [心语], “Canyu lianshu ‘08 Xianzhang’ de renshi jixu zao dangju jinyibu daya” [参与联署「零八宪章」的人士继续遭当局进一步打压], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], December 14, 2008, ^

6. Malcolm Moore, “China Launches Major Crackdown on Dissidents,” Telegraph, December 17, 2008, ^

7. Yan Xiu [严修], Yuan Xianchen an kaiting shenli [袁显臣案开庭审理], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], January 13, 2009, ^

8. HRIC, “Petitioner Mao Hengfeng Has Been Detained after November Release from Prison,” January 13, 2009, ^

9. Yang Jiadai [杨家岱], “Zhuming weiquan renshi Yao Lifa zao dangju bangjia, ruanjin san tian hou huoshi” [著名维权人士姚立法遭当局绑架、软禁三天后获释], Radio Free Asia, January 21, 2009, ^

10. “Minzhu zhengzhi Yao Lifa ji qi zhuisuizhe [民主政治姚立法及其追随者], Southern Weekly [南方周末], January 9, 2004, ^

11. HRIC, “Torture Account by Missing Rights Defense Lawyer Gao Zhisheng,” February 8, 2009, ^

12. Zhang Min [张敏], “Gao Zhisheng lüshi 4 ri bei jingfang cong Shaanxi laojia daizou xialuo buming” [高智晟律师4日被警方从陕西老家带走下落不明], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], February 5, 2009,; “Rights Groups: China Rights Lawyer Released,” Associated Press, February 3, 2009,,,-8339879,00.html. ^

13. HRIC, “Elderly Activist Shuang Shuying Released; Reports Abuses in Prison,” February 13, 2009, ^

14.Ding Xiao [丁小], “Jiang Yanyong jiefa wunian qian zaoyu; chongshen liu-si shangshu wuguo yaoqiu daoqian” [蒋彦永揭发五年前遭遇重申六四上书无过要求道歉], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], March 13, 2009,; Jiang Yanyong [蒋彦永], “Jiang Yanyong yisheng weiquan zhixin Hu Jintao (quanwen ji fujian)” [蒋彦永医生维权致信胡锦涛(全文及附件)], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], March 13, 2009,;  “SARS Hero in China Asks Party to Apologize for Arresting Him,” AsiaNews, March 13, 2009,; Emma Graham-Harrison, “China’s SARS Hero Demands Apology for Detention,” Reuters, March 12, 2009, ^

15. HRIC, “Beijing Law Firm Faces Six-Month Shutdown for Attorneys’ Support of Direct Bar Election,” February 19, 2008, ^

16. Christopher Bodeen, “Dissidents Held during Clinton Beijing Visit,” Associated Press, February 21, 2009, ^

17. HRIC, “Dissident Writer Interrogated for Publishing Critical Articles,” February 23, 2009, ^

18. Edward Wong, “After 5 Months, China to Try Would-Be Protester,” New York Times, February 21, 2009,;  Edward Wong, “Would-Be Protesters Find the Olympics Failed to Expand Free Speech in Beijing,” New York Times, September 11, 2008,;  Gu Qing’er [古清兒], “Guangxi fangmin shenqing Jing canaohui qijian youxing shiwei” [廣西訪民申請京殘奧會期間遊行示威], Epoch Times [大紀元], September 9, 2008, ^

19. “Sichuan weiquan renshi Xing Qingxian bei zhua” [四川维权人士幸清贤被抓], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], March 1, 2009;  China Human Rights Defenders, “Sichuan Activist Detained for Reporting on Protests and Clashes,” March 3, 2009,;  CHRD, Zhongguo weiquan dongtai [中国维权动态], 89 (February 23–March 1, 2009), ^

20. HRIC, “Chinese Authorities Tighten Grip on Rights Defenders during NPC and CPPCC Sessions,” March 5, 2009, ^

21. HRIC, “Chinese Authorities Tighten Grip on Rights Defenders during NPC and CPPCC Sessions,” March 5, 2009, ^

22. HRIC, “Chinese Authorities Tighten Grip on Rights Defenders during NPC and CPPCC Sessions,” March 5, 2009, ^

23. HRIC, “Chinese Authorities Tighten Grip on Rights Defenders during NPC and CPPCC Sessions,” March 5, 2009, ^

24. Luo Jieqi and Li Jingsong [罗洁琪及李劲松], “Yitongsuo tingye chufa zhengyi / Li Jingsong de tingzheng fayan” [忆通所停业处罚争议\李劲松的听证发言], ^

25. Guo Yongfeng [郭永丰], “Zhonggong lianghui ba wo cao jin le heiyu,” [中共两会把我操进了黑狱], March 16, 2009, ^

26. China Human Rights Lawyers Concern Group [中国维权律师关注组], “Guanzhu Shanghai weiquan lüshi Zheng Enchong bei wuli chuanhuan” [关注上海维权律师郑恩宠被无理传唤], March 5, 2009, ^

27. CHRD, “Yuan Xianchen bei panchu youqi tuxing 4 nian, boduo zhengzhi quanli 5 nian” [袁显臣被判处有期徒刑4年,剥夺政治权利5年], March 5, 2009, ^

28. HRIC, “Shandong Petitioner Sentenced to Reeducation-Through-Labor,” March 31, 2009, ^

29. HRIC, “Guizhou Petitioner Ding Fayou Detained,” March 9, 2009, ^

30. HRIC interviews. ^

31. Xin Yu [心语], [陈西境外记者采访前遭拘留郭永丰两会期间失踪], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], March 9, 2009, ^

32. Jian Guangzhou [简光洲], “Beida jiaoshou He Weifang jin fu Xinjiang Shihezi Daxue zhijiao” [北大教授贺卫方今赴新疆石河子大学支教], Oriental Morning Post [东方早报], March 11, 2009,;  Henry Sanderson, “Peking Uni Transfers Outspoken Prof to West China,” Associated Press, March 13, 2009,; Bi Zimo [毕子默], “He Weifang zai qianshu ‘08 Xianzhang’ hou bei paiwang Xinjiang Zhijiao” [贺卫方在签署《08宪章》后被派往新疆支教], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], March 13, 2009,; Peter Foster, “Leading Dissident ‘Exiled’ to Chinese Northwest,” Telegraph, March 11, 2009, ^

33. “Chinese Dissident’s Family Defects,” Radio Free Asia, March 12, 2009, ^

34. HRIC, “Beijing Intellectuals Yang Zili and Zhang Honghai Released after Eight Years in Prison,” March 12, 2008, ^

35. “Chinese Dissident Receives Czech Prize,” Czech News Agency, March 12, 2009,; Michael Allen, “China: Democracy’s ‘Don Quixotes’ Face Despair – and Hope, Says Havel,” Democracy Digest, March 13, 2009,; Ivan Zhai, “Dissidents Honoured with Rights Award,” South China Morning Post, March 13, 2009. ^

36. HRIC, “Labor Leader Yao Fuxin Is Released after Completing Seven-Year Term” March 16, 2009, ^

37. HRIC, “Beijing Law Firm Yitong Is Shut Down for Six Months; Staff Lawyers Ordered to Turn in Licenses,” March 18, 2009, ^

38. Lucy Hornby, “China Detains Man Compiling List of Quake Victims,” Reuters, April 1, 2009,; Xin Yu [心语], “Sichuan weiquan renshi canyu dizhen diaocha gongzuo zao juliu” [四川维权人士参与地震调查工作遭拘留], Radio Free Asia [自由亚洲电台], April 1, 2009, ^

39. “Yunnan Yanjin xian san ren 'shangfang' raoluan shehui zhixu bei panxing” [云南盐津县三人“上访” 扰乱社会秩序被判刑], Legal Daily [法制日报], March 30, 2009, ^

40. Jane Chen, “Street Protest Blocks City Traffic,” Shanghai Daily, April 1, 2009. ^

41. Vivian Wu, “Dissident Detained over Tiananmen Article,” South China Morning Post, April 1, 2009. ^