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December 2007

December 31, 2007

The information contained in this summary is based on information collected by HRIC in December and is not intended as a complete list. Rather, it should be viewed as a representation of larger trends of dissent and repression in China.

Media Censorship

Petitions and Protests

Human Rights Defenders

Labor



Media Censorship

Two Personal Blogs Shut Down
In December, the personal blogs of two independent writers Zan Aizong (昝爱宗) and the Shanghai-based Di Minglei (翟明磊) were both shut down. Zan said his blog host site Xinlang did not give any notice or explanation for the closure. It was also reported that Di has had repeated technical difficulties in uploading content to his blog Yibao.[1]

Government Bans Coverage of Human Rights Awards
Radio Free Asia (RFA) reported on December 3 that the Central Publicity Department had ordered Chinese media outlets not to publicize the French Human Rights Award and the award ceremony for the Nobel Peace Prize in Norway. Chinese rights defense lawyers Mo Shaoping (莫少平), Li Jingsong (李劲松), and Teng Biao (滕彪) received the 2007 French Human Rights Award, but this news was not covered by Chinese media.[2]

Boxun Journalist Charged
It was reported on December 14 that journalist Sun Lin (孙林), also known under the pen name Jie Mu (孑木), has been charged with “illegal possession of weapons” and “gathering a crowd to disturb social order.” Sun denied both charges during a meeting with his lawyer Mo Shaoping (莫少平), who reported that Sun’s wife He Fang (何方), photographer Zheng Huajun (郑华军), and Guan Jinlong (管金龙) have also been charged. Sun believes the authorities brought these charges in retaliation for his writings for an overseas-based website.[3]

New Regulations Tighten Control of Online Videos
The Regulations on Online Visual and Audio Program Services was passed on December 20, 2007, and will take effect on January 31, 2008. The regulations require website operators that host Internet users’ audio and visual programs to apply for a permit or report their operations to the authorities for posting online.[4] Internet dissident writer Deng Yongliang (邓永亮) believes that the regulations serve to tighten political dissent ahead of the Beijing Olympics.[5]

Guangdong's New Regulations Strengthen Censorship
Guangdong Province passed the Regulations on Security Protection of Computer Information Systems on December 20, 2007. The regulations, which take effect on April 1, 2008, allow state security and public security authorities at or above the prefecture level to shut down computer servers and the Internet, or stop the retrieval of back-up data for 24 hours, in the case of a serious public emergency that affects state security and public stability. Rights defenders have criticized the regulations for being a tool to control news and limit the effectiveness of the rights defense movement.[6]



Petitions and Protests

Villagers Petition Over Land Dispute
On December 3, more than 200 individuals from Maosandou Village in Zhejiang Province protested at the Cixi City government building against an illegal land seizure. More than 300 armed policemen in riot gear were also present, subsequently beating and detaining six villagers, including rights defender and villager representative Sun Enwei (孙恩伟). Sun remains under detention, while the others were released.[7]

Thugs Kill Farmer Over Land Compensation Dispute
On December 5, three thugs reportedly slashed Sichuan farmer Peng Shijiang (彭世江) to death and injured others over a land grab dispute. Peng had protested the inadequate compensation of his land. Peng’s brother called on authorities to punish the assailants, but believed the assailants and the local government had acted in collusion.[8]

Crowd Angry Over Authorities’ Beating of Girl
On December 7, Guilin urban management authorities verbally abused and beat a 16-year-old delivery girl after she refused to pay a 50 yuan fine for illegally parking her bicycle by a store. The incident caused a furious uproar among passersby. Over a thousand people eventually encircled the officials’ vehicle for over two hours before the crowd disbanded.[9]

Petitioner Released Pending Trial
Gong Haoming (龚浩明) was released on December 8 from the Huangpu Sub-bureau of Shanghai Public Security Bureau, on the guarantee of his wife, Li Ping, pending trial for one year. Gong helped to organize an open letter entitled, “We Want Human Rights, Not the Olympics” in May 2007. His release was reportedly due the fact that there is currently insufficient evidence to arrest him on the charge of “leaking state secrets.” During this period, investigation on Gong’s case will continue. Gong was detained and his home ransacked on November 8, 2007.[10]

Petitioners Abandoned in Snow and Cold
On December 10, ten unidentified men reportedly took Gu Rongsheng (谷容剩) and three other Wenzhou petitioners away from a Beijing police station in a car and drove them away from the capital. After a four-hour drive, they were forced to get out of the vehicle in the snowy wilderness. Gu said some of the unidentified men were “petitioner retrievers” from her home province Wenzhou. One of Gu’s fellow petitioners was a 73-year-old woman.[11]

Authorities Beat Man to Death and Censor Discussion
On December 14, Changsha City Urban Management Authorities in Hunan Province reportedly choked Tian Keqiu (田科秋) to death after Tian saw an episode of street violence and challenged the authorities. Tian’s death led hundreds to protest and was also widely discussed on the Internet. Authorities later censored these discussion sites.[12]

Two Representatives of Petitioning Teachers Detained
On December 14, Gong Guangzao (龚光早) and Zhang Kaifa (张开发), representatives of 50 petitioning teachers, were detained by the police in Hubei Province for planning to petition in Beijing. The teachers have been petitioning since 2002 because local authorities allegedly had converted their status from private to public teachers without adequate compensation and benefits.[13]

Beijing Police Turn Petitioners over to Local Officials for Money
Petitioner Chen Lijian (陈礼建) told RFA on December 19 that some Beijing municipal police substations turn over petitioners they arrest to local authorities from the petitioners’ hometown for a 500 yuan financial reward per petitioner. According to Chen, local authorities from 70 to 80 counties outside Beijing have already made this arrangement with Beijing’s Fuyou Street Police Substation. Another petitioner, Wang Guilan (王桂兰), who launched an open letter calling for better treatment of petitioners, briefly disappeared and was believed to have been “retrieved” on December 18 after she also told the Tianwang Human Rights Center about this practice by some Beijing police.[14]



Human Rights Defenders

Harassment and Other Unfavorable Treatment
On December 2, it was reported that dissident-in-exile Wei Quanbao (魏泉宝) was prevented from returning to China for his mother’s funeral. The Chinese Consulate-General in New York refused to issue Wei a passport. Wei was exiled to the U.S. in 1994. He re-entered China in 1998, but was captured and sentenced to three years’ Reeducation-Through-Labor (RTL).[15]

It was reported on December 4 that Shenzhen-based labor rights defender Huang Qingnan (黄庆南) was assaulted by two thugs outside a store on November 20 and received severe cuts to his leg. Huang runs the Dagong Zhe Zhongxin (Workers’ Center), an organization which provides legal advice to workers on obtaining back wages. Other Shenzhen labor activists Li Jinxin (李金薪) and Duan Haiyu (段海宇) have also been reportedly beaten.[16]

Guo Quan (郭泉), an associate professor at Nanjing Normal University, was reportedly demoted to a documentalist on December 6 for violating the Constitution and the Teachers’ Law, and for publishing an article on and accepting interviews from “overseas reactionary websites.” Guo has recently written four open letters to the Chinese leadership, calling for democratic governance based on multi-party elections that serves the interests of the people.[17]

On December 7, police again submitted land rights defender Yang Chunlin’s (杨春林) case to the local procuratorate in Jiamusi City, Heilongjiang Province. The procuratorate has to decide whether to prosecute Yang for “inciting subversion.” Yang was arrested in July and reportedly tortured for his involvement in the “We want Human Rights, not the Olympics” petition, signed by farmers protesting illegal confiscation of their land.[18]

On December 9, a group of unidentified men beat labor rights activist Xu Guangfu (徐光福) with steel hammers in Sichuan Province. Xu suffered blows to the head, a broken knee cap, and broken leg bones. During October’s 17th Party Congress, Xu and six other people, representing over 1,000 factory workers protesting corruption and the lack of reform transparency, were intercepted and detained by Sichuan authorities on their way to petition in Beijing.[19]

On December 9, Master Shengguan (圣观法师), a Buddhist monk and former political activist also known as Xu Zhiqiang (徐志强), was barred from traveling to attend a Human Rights Day conference in Guizhou. Four state security personnel prevented Master Shengguan from boarding his flight. After they interrogated him for approximately three hours at the airport’s police station, the officers took him to a hostel in Shenzhen.[20]

RFA reported on December 13 that Henan authorities have blocked AIDS activist Li Xige (李喜阁) and her husband Sun Jianfeng (孙建峰) from speaking at a UN-sponsored Anti-Discrimination Training Seminar in Beijing.[21] Authorities reportedly told Li she could not go to Beijing because she was on bail pending trial.[22] Sun made it to the seminar in Beijing, but was barred from participation on site by the director of the Henan Department on Women’s and Children’s Rights, Zhao Jie (赵洁).[23] In a similar development, another AIDS activist, Wang Xiaoqiao (王小巧), was arrested in Zhumadian City, Henan Province, on December 7 for extortion and blackmail.[24] Authorities also prevented other rights defense activists, including Wang Fengshan (王凤山), Chen Xi (陈西), and Xie Changfa (谢长发), from attending the conference, which was held under intense supervision by public security officials.[25]

On December 13, police from Quanzhou County and national security personnel from the Public Security Bureau in Guilin, Guanxi Province, searched the home of dissident writer Wang Dejia (王德佳), also known as Jing Chu (荆楚), and took away his computer, books, and articles. Police detained Wang under the suspicion of “libel or slander,” but later placed him under criminal detention for “inciting subversion.” Wang’s wife alleged that his detention is related to his writings critical of the government, and may be retaliation for Wang’s October meeting with human rights officials of the U.S. Embassy in China.[26]

RFA reported on December 17 that policeman Liu Zhengtian (刘正天) from Huangshi City, Hubei Province, has been harassed after blowing the whistle on how local authorities profit from the city’s illegal forced evictions of residents from their homes. Liu and his family were forcefully evicted in July. His parents-in-law were beaten during the eviction, and Liu was held in a guest house for three days. Liu later detailed to the courts how local authorities illegally profit from evictions, but has since been followed, harassed, and warned by various authorities not to petition and engage in rights defense activities.[27]

On December 18 in Guangdong Province, national security personnel from Dongwan City detained labor rights activist Xiao Qingshan (肖青山) for 11 hours in a guest house and warned him not to speak to foreign journalists. They also pressed Xiao to provide details of his interviews on corruption and to give information on his foreign media contacts.[28]

Shanghai authorities detained dissident writer Li Jianhong (李剑虹), also known as Xiao Qiao (小乔), in a guest house from December 19 to 22 to prevent her from going to Beijing to accept an award from the Independent Chinese Pen Center.[29] Other members of the Center, including Liu Xiaobo (刘晓波) and Jiang Qisheng (江棋生), were also placed under house arrest so they could not attend. Shenzhen police barred Zhao Degong (赵达功) from leaving for Beijing, and Liao Yiwu (廖亦武) was forcibly sent back to Chengdu after he had arrived in Beijing.[30]

On December 24, unidentified thugs beat up Sun Haiyan (孙海燕), the daughter of environmentalist Sun Xiaodi (孙小弟), on her way home from church on Christmas Eve. She suffered temporary loss of hearing. The father and daughter, originally from Gansu, are in Beijing so Sun Xiaodi can petition and have access to proper medical treatment. Rights activist Liu Feiyue (刘飞跃) believes Sun Haiyan’s beating is related to Beijing police’s current crackdown against petitioners and dissidents ahead of the 2008 Olympic Games.[31]

RFA reported on December 26 that petitioner Liu Jie (刘杰), who was sentenced to 1.5 years’ RTL soon after she and others launched an open letter calling for better treatment for petitioners, has almost completely lost her eyesight. Liu’s son said his mother still has to work 14 hours a day, seven days a week, despite her vision problems. Authorities have yet to decide on Liu’s application, filed last month, to receive medical treatment outside the RTL camp in Qiqihar.[32]

Beijing police harassed and intimidated rights defender Li Jinping (李金平) on December 28, when he was on his way to check on fellow rights defender Hu Jia (see information on his case developments below). Changying Township police took Li into custody around 9 a.m., and at the same time dispatched police to Li’s home, warning his family to move within three days or be forcibly evicted. Li’s family has been harassed since January 2005, and Changying township authorities issued an eviction notice to the family on November 15, 2007, and the Chaoyang District issued December 5. According to Li, he will go to Tiananmen Square and set himself on fire if he is forced to move.[33]

Detention
Prominent HIV/AIDS activist and rights defender Hu Jia (胡佳) was taken away by the police on December 27 and has been reportedly placed under criminal detention at the Beijing Municipal Detention Center on suspicion of “inciting subversion.” Police had allegedly told Hu's family that they are investigating him for articles he had posted online, including some that call for a boycott of the Beijing Olympics. Authorities had also disconnected his family's telephone, mobile, and cable lines, as well as seizing a computer and documents from his residence. Hu's wife Zeng Jinyan (曾金燕), also a rights defense activist, remains under house arrest. The couple received a 2007 press freedom award from Reporters Without Borders on December 5.[34]

On December 12, about 70,000 farmers from Weinan, Da Li, and Tongguan counties in Shaanxi Province who were affected by the Sanmen Gorge Dam announced they were reclaiming their land rights because local authorities had illegally seized their land. Authorities had placed two of the farmers’ resettlement representatives, Chen Sizhong (陈思忠) and Xi Xinji (郗新继), under administrative detention for ten days on December 4, but continued to detain Chen and Xi on the criminal charge of “inciting subversion” after their release date. It was further reported that Zhang Sanmin (张三民), another representative, was detained on the same charge on December 15.[35]

Prison Conditions
Zhang Qing (张青), wife of jailed human rights defender Guo Feixiong (郭飞雄), was allowed to see Guo on December 12. Zhang reported that due to the torture Guo suffered, he now has deteriorating eyesight and extreme pain in his hip and hands. She also reported that Guo’s health appeared much worse than the last time she saw him, and that he was emaciated because he has been on hunger strike since December 13.[36]

It was reported on December 13 that two imprisoned dissidents Zhang Jianhong (張建紅), also known as Li Hong (力虹), and Peng Ming (彭明) are suffering from deteriorating health in prison. Internet writer Zhang Jianhong was convicted and sentenced to six years’ imprisonment on charges of “inciting subversion” in March, and has since experienced extreme muscle deterioration. Democracy activist Peng, who fled to the U.S. in 2000, was sent back to prison in China from Myanmar in 2004. He is reportedly suffering from kidney stones and heart disease and has not received adequate medical treatment.[37]

RFA reported on December 18 that 63-year-old writer and artist Yan Zhengxue (严正学), imprisoned on charges of “subversion” for his rights defense activities, was severely beaten in the head by psychiatric prisoners wielding stools. Yan’s wife Huang Heqing (黄河清) reported that Yan was not imprisoned with psychiatric patients when she visited him in September. Huang called on authorities to provide Yan with proper medical treatment and to grant him medical parole.[38]

Trial Developments
RFA reported on December 5 that Wusimanyiming, a Uyghur Christian, was sentenced to two years of RTL for “disclosing state secrets” on November 27. Wusimanyiming worked at a U.S. company in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) from 1998 to 2004. In October 2004, he was placed under residential surveillance for allegedly assisting foreigners in illegal activities. Last month, the company was forced to shut down for suspected “religious infiltration,” and the company’s boss was ordered to exit the country.[39]

RFA reported on December 8 that rights defender Chen Shuqing’s (陈树庆) appeal was rejected on October 29 by the Zhejiang Higher People’s Court in a closed trial, which upheld his original sentence of four years’ imprisonment. Chen was convicted on August 14 on charges of “inciting subversion.”[40]



Labor

Companies Circumvent Labor Law
In December, many companies and bureaus throughout China have reportedly been firing and rehiring employees under new contracts before the new Labor Contract Law comes into effect in January 2008. Under the new law, employers must sign open-ended contracts with employees that have worked continuously at a company for over ten years. The Sichuan Liangshanzhou Post Office, Transpo Electronics, Huawei Technologies, LG Electronics (China), and Wal-Mart have all been accused of cutting or firing staff before the 2008 deadline in order to circumvent the new law.[41]

Government Report Details Marginalization of Migrant Workers
A mid-December report by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) warned that rural migrant workers face increasing marginalization in their access to cultural life and entertainment, because of their long working hours and low wages. The report surveyed more than 8,000 workers from rural areas, and found that 27 percent of employers provided no cultural, recreational, or entertainment facilities. The report calls on the government to increase migrant workers’ access to culture by publicly providing these services.[42]

100 Million Yuan Back Pay Due to Yunnan Migrant Workers
It was reported on December 1 that authorities in Yunnan Province have recently found that as much as 100 million yuan are due in back pay to more than 40,000 migrant workers in the province. Construction workers are the most vulnerable because real estate developers often delay paying construction fees.[43]

Thugs Smash Guangdong Labor Rights Law Firm
On December 13 in Dongwan City in Guangdong Province, five thugs smashed and destroyed all the computers, telephones, tables, and other office items at the Dongwan Qingzheng Law Consulting Firm, which is involved in labor right defense work. The five men initially claimed to be migrant workers seeking legal advice about a labor dispute. Once inside, they proceeded to destroy the office, and threatened the safety of the firm’s labor rights defender Li Mingtao (李明涛) and his family.[44]

Thugs Beat up Employees of Qingdao Labor Rights Center
On December 25 in Qingdao, three unidentified thugs beat up employees at a labor rights center, Xin Shimin Zhi Jia (Home for New Urban Residents). Labor activist Chen Mingyu (陈明钰) founded the organization in 2006 to help migrant workers from rural areas adjust to their new urban environment. The center engages in labor rights defense and provides free legal awareness workshops to migrant workers.[45]

Major labor accidents

In December, labor accidents left a recorded 142 dead, 26 injured, and 83 missing.

Date Location Industry Disaster Casualties
12/2 Zhenxiong, Yunnan Province Shizishan Coal Mine Explosion[46] 18 dead, 43 missing
12/3 Hequ, Shanxi Province Xinwang Coal Mine Carbon monoxide leak[47] 7 dead
12/3 Jinchang Gouliang Township, Aohan Banner, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) Raoyang Fireworks Co. Ltd. Explosion[48] 1 dead, 8 injured, 1 missing
12/3 Gushanzi Township, Xinglong County, Hebei Province Xiaojun Mining Pit Roof collapse[49] 11 missing
12/5 Shanxi Province Xinyao Coal Mine Gas blast[50] 105 dead, 18 injured
12/6 Yuxian County, Hebei Province Heishigou Coal Mining Co. Ltd. Cave-in[51] 6 dead, 2 missing
12/11 Hancheng City, Shaanxi Province Xinglong Coal Mine Gas blast[52] 5 missing
12/12 Shangrao County, Jiangxi Province Qunfa Coal Mine Flood[53] 3 missing
12/24 Araxan League, IMAR Tuyagou Colliery, Taixi Coal Group Co. Ltd. Mud avalanche 4 dead
12/27 Nanjiao District, Datong City, Shanxi Province Mawushan Coal Mine Flood[54] All rescued
12/29 Mudanjiang City, Heilongjiang Province Shunfa Coal Mine Explosion[55] 1 dead, 18 missing

Punished

On December 24, a Wanrong County court announced that four safety officials were sentenced in connection with covering up a labor accident that occurred on June 24, 2007. Li Jiankang, former head of the safety supervision team at Yuanzigou Coal Mine in Hejin, Shanxi Province, was sentenced to six years for helping mine managers cover up the accident. The other members of the safety team were Yang Yulong, Mao Junqiang, and Wei Peiqin, who received five, four, and three and a half years respectively.[56]

Several officials are being investigated over their roles in the coal mine blast that killed 105 workers at the Xinyao Coal Mine on December 5 in Shanxi Province. Eleven officials from the local safety and land resources bureau are charged with dereliction of duty and taking bribes from the coal mine. Officials have been accused of accepting bribes ranging from 4,000 to 40,000 yuan to ignore safety violations in the coal mine. The explosion occurred while 128 miners were working in the shaft, which is over double the number permitted for one shift by the provincial coal mine authority. The owner of the mine, Wang Donghai, and the legal representative, Wang Hongliang, both went into hiding after the accident, but were caught by mid-December. Police have detained 35 people in connection with this disaster. Additionally, Li Tiantai, the mayor of Linfen, has been removed from his post, and was also expelled from the city's standing committee of the Communist Party.[57]


//




SOURCES

[1] Shen Hua, “Two Dissident Writers' Blogs Recently Shut Down” [中国自由作家个人博客接连被封闭], Voice of America, December 18, 2007, http://www.voanews.com/chinese/w2007-12-18-voa30.cfm.

[2] Luo Peiqiong, “Central Publicity Department Orders News Blockage on Nobel Peace Prize and French Human Rights Award” [中宣部下令封锁法国人权奖和诺贝尔和平奖的消息], Radio Free Asia, December 3, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/03/china_media_freedom/; and French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, “Award of the French Republic’s Human Rights Prize,” December 10, 2007, http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/france-priorities_1/democracy-human-rights_ 1101/events_2128/french-republic-human-rights-prize_5937/award-of-the- french-republic-human-rights-prize-10.12.07_10442.html.

[3] Ding Xiao, “Nanjing Police Send Boxun Reporter's Case to Procuratorate; Detained Reporter Denies Charges” [博讯记者案移交检察院 孑木会见律师称遭构陷], Radio Free Asia, December 14, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/14/Jiemu/.

[4] “New Regulations Require Internet Users to Seek Approval for Posting Audio and Visual Programmes Online” [私人短片网上禁播], Ming Pao, December 31, 2007.

[5] An Pei, “Chinese Authorities to Tightly Control Online Video Programs” [中国将严格控制网上视频节目], Radio Free Asia, December 31, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/31/wang/.

[6] Li Jianjun, “Guangdong's New Regulations Strengthen Internet Censorship” [广东通过法例加强控制互联网], Radio Free Asia, December 21, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/21/china_internet/.

[7] Li Jingwen, “Zhejiang Petitioner Detained After Clash with Police over Land Dispute”[浙江慈溪上访农民代表被刑事拘留], Radio Free Asia, December 18, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/17/china_rights_rural/.

[8] Xin Yu, “Thugs Kill Chengdu Farmer in Land Grab Dispute” [成都征地杀死农民事件], Radio Free Asia, December 6, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/06/zhengdi/.

[9] Han Qing, “Urban Management Personnel Surrounded by Outraged Crowd for Beating 16-Year-Old Girl” [桂林少女遭城管殴打 引千人围观公愤不平], Radio Free Asia, December 10, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/10/guilin/.

[10] Human Rights in China, “Case Update: Petitioner Gong Haoming Released Pending Investigation and Trial,” December 10, 2007, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/45790.

[11] Feng Riyao, “Zhejiang ‘Retrievers’ Leave 70-Year-Old Petitioners in Wilderness” [温州访民被截访人员遗弃荒野], Radio Free Asia, December 12, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/12/china_petition/.

[12] Ding Xiao, “Hunan Urban Management Authorities Beat Man to Death; Internet Discussion Censored” [长沙城管打人致死数百人聚集谴责 当局压制舆论家属求助无门], Radio Free Asia, December 17, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/17/changsha/.

[13] Gao Shan, “Hubei Teachers Detained After Petitioning” [湖北再次抓捕上访民办教师], Radio Free Asia, December 18, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/18/minban/.

[14] Luo Peiqiong, “Beijing Police Turn Petitioners Over to Local Officials For Money” [王桂兰揭发公安倒卖访民], Radio Free Asia, December 19, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/19/china_petitioner/.

[15] “In Brief: China Bars Dissident-in-Exile from Returning for Mother's Funeral” [简要新闻:流亡异议人士魏泉宝申请回国奔丧被拒], Radio Free Asia, December 2, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/xinwen/2007/12/02/xinwen/#8.

[16] Yan Ming, “Hong Kong NGOs Raise Funds for Labor Activist Attacked in Shenzhen” [深圳维权人士被砍伤 香港团体募款援助], Radio Free Asia, December 4, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/04/huang/.

[17] Ding Xiao, “Associate Professor Demoted After Publishing Open Letters Urging Political Reforms” [大学副教授郭泉遭撤销教务 发表公开信违宪违法涉密?], Radio Free Asia, December 7, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/07/guo/.

[18] Fang Yuan, “Heilongjiang Police Send Yang Chunlin's Case to Procuratorate Again” [黑龙江更多农民要罢官分地], Radio Free Asia, December 7, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/07/heilongjiang/.

[19] Ding Xiao, “Sichuan Rights Defender Beaten by Thugs After Reporting Corruption” [四川上千职工举报改制黑幕 维权代表遭政府扣押暴徒殴打], Radio Free Asia, December 11, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/11/505/.

[20] Human Rights in China, “Case Update: Buddhist Monk Shengguan Prevented From Attending Human Rights Conference,” December 10, 2007, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/45802.

[21] Bi Zimo, “Authorities Block Li Xige and Husband from Attending UN AIDS Conference” [当局阻扰李喜阁和丈夫出席联合国艾滋会议], Radio Free Asia, December 13, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/13/china_aids/.

[22] Yan Ming, “AIDS Activist Barred from Training Session in Beijing; Woman Arrested After Petitioning for Husband's Infection Through Blood Transfusion” [李喜阁进京参加艾滋病培训受阻 艾滋病人家属王小巧被批捕], Radio Free Asia, December 12, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/12/AZT/.

[23] Bi Zimo, “Authorities Block Li Xige and Husband from Attending UN AIDS Conference” [当局阻扰李喜阁和丈夫出席联合国艾滋会议], Radio Free Asia, December 13, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/13/china_aids/.

[24] Yan Ming, “AIDS Activist Barred from Training Session in Beijing; Woman Arrested After Petitioning for Husband's Infection Through Blood Transfusion” [李喜阁进京参加艾滋病培训受阻 艾滋病人家属王小巧被批捕], Radio Free Asia, December 12, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/12/AZT/.

[25] Ji Lisi, “Guizhou Human Rights Conference Closely Monitored; Participants Harassed” [贵州维权人士举办人权研讨会遭当局多方骚扰], Radio Free Asia, December 11, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/11/china_rights_assault/.

[26] Xin Yu, “Guangxi Dissident Writer Placed Under Criminal Detention for ‘Inciting Subversion’” [异议作家荆楚突遭警方传唤后被刑事拘留], Radio Free Asia, December 14, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/14/jinchu/.

[27] Ding Xiao, “Hubei Police Officer Reveals Corrupt Relations Between Local Eviction Authorities and Police” [湖北民警指证当局拆迁牟利内幕 贪腐食物链派出所每月收两万], Radio Free Asia, December 17, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/17/huangshi/.

[28] Feng Yueyao, “Labor Activist Interrogated by State Security Personnel for Nearly 11 Hours” [广东维权人士肖青山被国保人员禁锢审问], Radio Free Asia, December 18, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/18/China_Dissident/.

[29] He Shan, “Shanghai Police Detain Dissident Writer Xiao Qiao for 4 Days” [异见作家小乔被当局拘禁数日], Radio Free Asia, December 26, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/26/china_dissident_release/.

[30] Li Jianjun, “Beijing Police Interfere with Chinese PEN’s Meeting” [公安高调阻扰独立中文笔会成员聚会], Radio Free Asia, December 24, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/24/china_dissident/?simple=1/.

[31] Shi Shan, “Thugs Beat Sun Xiaodi's Daughter on Christmas Eve” [孙小弟女儿平安夜遭殴打], Radio Free Asia, December 25, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/25/sunxiaodi/.

[32] Ding Xiao, “Whereabouts of Arrested Petitioning Activist Unknown; Liu Jie Not Given Treatment for Serious Eye Problem” [万人上书王桂兰被捕失踪 近失明刘杰劳教继续不予治疗], Radio Free Asia, December 26, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/26/wangguilan/.

[33] Human Rights in China, “News Advisory: Beijing Police Harass Housing Activist Li Jinping,” December 28, 2007, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/46188.

[34] Human Rights in China, “HRIC Statement: Protest the Detention of Hu Jia,” December 28, 2007, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/46164. See also Ji Lisi, “Hu Jia Placed Under Criminal Detention on Suspicion of Inciting Subversion” [胡佳涉嫌煽动颠覆国家政权罪被刑事拘留], Radio Free Asia, December 31, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/31/china_rights_detain/; Yang Jiadai, “Prominent Rights Defender Hu Jia Arrested for "Inciting Subversion" [著名维权人士胡佳以“颠覆国家政权”罪被捕], Radio Free Asia, December 31, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/30/hu_jia/; and Shen Hua, “Reporters Without Borders Issues Special Award to Zeng Jinyan and Hu Jia” [胡佳、曾金燕获无国界记者组织特别奖], Radio Free Asia, December 5, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/05/hujia/.

[35] Luo Peiqiong, “Rights Defense Farmers from Sanmen Gorge Arrested Again” [再有三门峡库区维权农民被逮捕], Radio Free Asia, December 17, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/17/china_rights_land/; Yan Xiu, “Three Shaanxi Farmers' Representatives Placed Under Criminal Detention” [陕西三门峡库区农民代表被刑事拘留], Radio Free Asia, December 17, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/17/nong/; and Zhang Liming, “Families Barred from Visiting Detained Sanmen Gorge Farmers on State Security Grounds” [三门峡失地农民代表被关押半月不准家人探视], Radio Free Asia, December 28, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/28/china_rights_rural/.

[36] Human Rights in China, “HRIC Statement: HRIC Condemns Abuse and Torture of Chinese Legal Advisor,” December 31, 2007, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/46316; Zhang Min, “Jailed Guo Feixiong Tells Wife He Is Maimed by Torture” [张青见郭飞雄指酷刑致伤残 律师说刑讯下审判肯定不公正], Radio Free Asia, December 12, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/12/guofeixiong/.

[37] Ji Lisi, “The Health of Imprisoned Dissidents Li Hong and Peng Ming Continues to Deteriorate” [力虹和彭明在獄中健康持續惡化], Radio Free Asia, December 13, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2007/12/13/china_dissident_jail/index.html?simple=1.

[38] Fang Yuan, “Dissident Yan Zhengxue Beaten in Prison” [严正学在狱中被打 生命受到威胁], Radio Free Asia, December 18, 2007.

[39] Yang Jiadai, “Xinjiang Uyghur Christian Sentenced to 2 Years' RTL on State Secrets Charges” [新疆维族基督徒被以泄露国家机密罪判劳教两年], Radio Free Asia, December 5, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/05/xj/. Please note that the two “charges” quoted in the article of assisting foreigners in illegal activities and suspected religious infiltration are neither formally defined as crimes under the various judicial interpretations on the names of crimes related to the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, nor found in any administrative law in China.

[40] “In Brief: Chen Shuqing's Appeal Rejected on October 29” [简要新闻:陈树庆二审上诉案被判维持原判], Radio Free Asia, December 8, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/xinwen/2007/12/08/xinwen/#2.

[41] Fang Yuan, “Sichuan Post Office Evades New Labor Law Provisions for Long-Term Employees by Requiring Them to Resign and Sign New Contract” [四川邮政局非法解聘大量员工], Radio Free Asia, December 14, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/14/post/; “Fired Workers in Talks Over Compensation,” Shanghai Daily, December 11, 2007, http://www.china.org.cn/english/China/235129.htm; “Workers Protest over Job Losses Before New Law,” Shanghai Daily, December 10, 2007, http://www.china.org.cn/english/China/234966.htm; and Candy Zeng, “Job Protection Scares China’s Workers,” Asia Times Online, November 29, 2007, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China_Business/IK29Cb01.html.

[42] Han Qing, “Report Says Migrants Face Marginalization” [中国农民工文化生活贫乏 面临边缘化危机], Radio Free Asia, December 18, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/18/nong/.

[43] Shen Hua, “Back Pay for Yunnan Migrant Workers Reaches 100 Million Yuan” [云南拖欠农民工工资一亿元], Radio Free Asia, December 01, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/01/yunnan/.

[44] Xin Yu, “Thugs Damage Labor Rights Consultative Center in Guangdong” [东莞劳工维权谘询机构遭到破坏], Radio Free Asia, December 14, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/14/laogong/.

[45] Gao Shan, “Unidentified Thugs Attack Employees of Qingdao's Labor Organization” [青岛一劳工组织遭受暴徒袭击], Radio Free Asia, December 27, 2007, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2007/12/27/laogong/.

[46] “China coal mine blast kills 18, with 43 missing,” Reuters, December 2, 2007, http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSPEK36265520071203.

[47] “Carbon monoxide leak kills 7 miners in Shanxi,” Xinhua News Agency, December 4, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90882/6314744.html.

[48] “Fireworks plant blast kills 1, injures 8,” Xinhua News Agency, December 4, 2007, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-12/04/content_6298011.htm.

[49] “Iron pit roof collapse traps 11 miners in N China,” Xinhua News Agency, December 6, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90882/6316233.html.

[50] “Bosses detained as China mine blast death toll rises,” Reuters, December 7, 2007, http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSPEK93712.

[51] “Search continues at north China mine cave-in that killed six,” Xinhua News Agency, December 6, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90882/6316424.html.

[52] “Rescuers struggle to save 5 miners trapped in NW China,” People’s Daily, December 11, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6318991.html.

[53] “At least four miners trapped in flooded coal mine in E China,” People’s Daily, December 12, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6319861.html.

[54] “Shanxi safety officials say 45 safe after coal mine flood,” People’s Daily, December 28, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/6329476.html.

[55] “Coal mine blast kills 1, traps 18 in NE China,” People’s Daily, December 30, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6330246.html.

[56] “4 officials jailed in connection with N China coal mine flood that killed 9,” People’s Daily, December 25, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90882/6326835.html.

[57] “11 officials under investigation over N. China mine blast that killed 105,” People’s Daily, December 21, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6325269.html; “Coal mine owner detained for gas blast that killed 105,” People’s Daily, December 16, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6321626.html; “Mayor deposed following deadly colliery gas blast in N China,” People’s Daily, December 19, 2007, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6323859.html.