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January 2008

January 31, 2008

The information contained in this summary is based on information collected by HRIC in January and is not intended as a complete list. Rather, it should be viewed as a representation of larger trends of dissent and repression in China.

Media Censorship

Petitions and Protests

Human Rights Defenders

Labor



Media Censorship

Report: China Closed Websites for 17th Party Congress
In its recently published 2007 annual report, Reporters Without Borders stated that China jailed 33 journalists and 50 cyber-dissidents in 2007, making it the world’s largest prison for journalists over the past four years. Furthermore, over 2,600 websites, blogs, and forums were closed before and during the 17th Communist Party Congress in October.[1]

6-4 Tianwang.com Hacked
The 6-4 Tianwang.com website has received ongoing attacks by hackers since December 28, 2007, and is now inaccessible worldwide. Personal computers of its China- and Denmark-based volunteers have also been hacked. Huang Qi, the founder of the website, believes that these attacks are a result of official discontent with the website's ongoing reporting on crackdowns against petitioners.[2]

Local Government Proudly Reports Work on Media Censorship
On January 3, the Publicity Department of Xiangshui County, Jiangsu Province, praised its own work on media censorship concerning a deadly explosion that happened on November 27, 2007. The report says that local taxi drivers and hostel managers were required to report journalists to Xiangshui authorities. Journalists were not allowed to conduct interviews or take pictures at the disaster scene. Reportedly as a result, 21 media organizations, including China Central Television (CCTV) and Xinhua News Agency, and 69 journalists were prevented from “spreading rumors” and “making fake reports.”[3]

Website Administrator Asked to Admit Psychiatric Problems
On January 7, the Zhonghua Shenzheng (Chinese Upholding Justice) website was allegedly shut down by the Ministry of Public Security’s Internet Supervision Bureau. This reportedly occurred because Shandong-based website administrator Sun Qiang (孙强) refused to remove a report that condemned the Shanghai Police. The report in question, written by former Shanghai police officer Zhang Baoliang (张宝亮), reportedly exposes the misuse of power and abuse of the law by the Shanghai authorities.[4]

Controls Tightened on Video-Sharing Websites
The State Administration of Radio, Film and Television and the Ministry of Information Industry publicized a new set of regulations over video-sharing websites in early January. Effective January 31, the regulations require all video-sharing websites to avoid politically sensitive issues, pornography, gambling, and violence. Furthermore, all online video outlets must obtain a government-issued permit. These new regulations do not apply to international sites such as YouTube, which are already subject to other regulatory mechanisms.[5]

Apple Banned by State Administration
The State Administration of Radio, Film and Television has revoked the distribution rights for the movie Apple due to its sexually explicit scenes. Fang Li, the movie’s producer, and his studio, Beijing Laurel Films, have also been barred from China’s film industry for two years. The movie, released overseas as Lost in Beijing, narrates the story of a migrant worker working in Beijing who is raped by her employer.[6]

Provincial Officials Tighten Controls on Online Services
It was reported on January 28 that Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Gansu Province are requiring online forums, chat rooms, and other similar services to report their operations. All these online services must have operators, who have to submit their personal information and be available by phone 24 hours a day. This new policy will enforce the central decision to crack down on online pornography.[7]



Petitions and Protests

Couple Mistreated for Petitioning Daughter's Sudden Death
It was reported on January 3, 2008, that Sichuan-based Wen Liumei (文六妹) and her husband were allegedly detained and beaten for petitioning in Beijing concerning the sudden death of their daughter Li Juan (李娟), who passed away in March 2006. The Sichuan authorities reportedly said Li died from drowning, but the couple believes that she was actually murdered.[8]

Beijing Starts to Send Petitioners Home
It was reported on January 4 that Beijing authorities have started to send petitioners en masse back to their hometowns. Heilongjiang petitioner Han Yihuai (韩已怀) said dozens of other Heilongjiang petitioners, including his sister Han Fuying (韩福英), had been sentenced to Reeducation-Through-Labor (RTL) in recent months. Han believes it is due to the upcoming Olympic Games.[9]

Man Beaten to Death in Tiananmen Protest
On January 7, during a confrontation between thousands of protesters and 50 urban inspectors, Wei Wenhua (魏文华), a 41-year-old construction company executive, was beaten to death by police as he tried to record the demonstration on his mobile phone. Wei was beaten by uniformed members of the Tiananmen urban administration bureau and was dead on arrival at the hospital. The following day, residents protested in front of city hall, demanding redress for Wei’s death. The authorities have since investigated over 100 individuals and have detained four people over the suspected beating death. More than 100 urban administration officials from across the country have condemned the attack, saying that the “brutal enforcement of law trampled the law and violated people’s human rights.”[10]

Violence Used Against Land Grab Victims
On the morning of January 11, Chengdu authorities reportedly dispatched 600 police officers and paramilitary police officers to forcibly evict residents in Taiping Village. A villager told RFA that the authorities used violence against evictees, including dragging a 70-year-old woman and taking two villagers away. An urban management officer of the Wuhou District told RFA that the authorities had gone through the necessary legal procedures, and houses were demolished only because they were illegally constructed.[11]

Seventy unidentified young people reportedly used large knives and clubs to attack Hubei villagers who resisted what they considered an under-compensated eviction on January 12. According to hospitalized villager Lu Yishan (鲁一山), one of his fellow villagers was stabbed and also hospitalized. Some police officers came to the scene, reportedly one hour after villagers called the police.[12]

Shanghai Residents Protest Train Line Extension
On January 12 and 13, about 500 Shanghai residents defied bans on public demonstrations and congregated at a public building in Minghan District to protest the proposed expansion of the city’s maglev train line. Affected apartment owners are concerned about possible health risks and radiation effects from the expansion of the electromagnetic train line. Most of the protesters were educated urbanites who organized themselves through mobile phone texting. In response, the government issued a statement on January 14 asserting that they would conduct further research into the issue.[13]

Hong Kong Demonstrators Protest Beijing’s Postponement of Universal Suffrage
On January 13, 22,000 demonstrators in Hong Kong protested at government headquarters in response to China’s decision last month to delay the introduction of full democracy within the Special Administrative Region. While democracy activists within the city had hoped for direct elections by 2012, Beijing ruled that direct election of the chief executive would not be possible before 2017 at the earliest.[14]

Student Protester Beaten Unconscious
On January 14, security guards reportedly beat a student protester unconscious when she protested at the Heze City Government office in Shandong Province. She and other students staged a protest because their school allegedly lied about the legitimacy of their diploma. A classmate who tried to stop the beating was also beaten and both were hospitalized.[15]

Tiananmen Petitioners Detained
On January 14, over 450 petitioners gathered in Tiananmen Square. Since it was Indian Prime Minister Singh’s second day in Beijing, security at the Square was tighter than usual. Around 100 petitioners were detained, and their current whereabouts are unknown. Most of the petitioners were from Heilongjiang, and had come to Beijing to seek help after their homes had been demolished to make way for new property developments.[16]

Beijing Detention Center for Petitioners
It was reported on January 15 that the authorities are building a detention center in Tongzhou, Beijing. An anonymous petitioner said this detention center will be able to accommodate 70,000 petitioners.[17]

Petitioners Tortured in Secret Jail
It was reported in January that petitioners were tortured in a secret jail in Beijing during last October’s 17th Party Congress. The Siping, Jilin Province government office in Beijing operates the detention center, where petitioners Ren Zhimei (任治美) and Zou Guifen (邹桂芬) were reportedly tortured. Liaoning petitioner Tong Xiying (佟喜英) told RFA that petitioners were beaten when they could not recite “petitioning principles” created by authorities.[18] Hubei petitioner Zheng Dajing (郑大靖) also reported being beaten in a detention center after he was "retrieved" in Beijing in September 2007.[19]

Fujian Woman Petitioning for 17 Years, Arrested 61 Times
Fujian woman Wei Xiangping (魏香平), now 42, was reportedly sent to a psychiatric hospital ten years ago for her petitioning activities, and has recently finished another two year sentence after Fujian authorities “retrieved” her from Beijing. She has been beaten many times and as a result has lost most of the vision in her left eye.[20] Wei’s latest arrest reportedly happened on January 23, 2008, when she petitioned in Tiananmen Square.[21]

Tianjin Residents Protest in Beijing over Illegal Property Seizures
Around 50 demonstrators gathered outside the Construction Ministry in central Beijing on January 24 to protest over what they said were illegal property seizures by the government, who sold the acquired land to developers and investors. The protesters further stated that the compensation packages they received from the government were unfair and did not provide enough buy new homes. Police and security guards tried to prevent journalists from entering the vicinity and interviewing the protesters.[22]

Two Thousand Workers Protest Outstanding Payments
On January 25, over 2,000 employees of Hubei’s Jin Mengde Textiles Factory in Hubei’s Yunmeng County blocked the main entrance to the factory to protest outstanding wage payments. Since changing its financial policy in 2003, the company has not returned settlement payments or loans that it demanded from its workers. By mid-January, when the company still did not take action, employees decided to protest on a federal highway and are preparing to continue to Wuhan.[23]

Petitioners Urge China to Ratify ICCPR
Over 14,000 individuals have signed a petition urging the Cabinet to ratify the UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) prior to the 2008 Olympics, as of the end of January. The petition, which was initiated by a group of lawyers and human rights activists, also pressed for an independent judiciary, the protection of lawyers’ safety and freedom, the abolishment of re-education through labor, and the abolishment of the death penalty. China signed the ICCPR in 1998, but has not yet ratified the Covenant.[24]



Human Rights Defenders

Harassment and Other Unfavorable Treatment
Prominent HIV/AIDS activist Hu Jia (胡佳) has been detained by police since December 27, 2007. His lawyer, Li Fangping, has not been allowed to meet with Hu because the case is said to involve state secrets, and he does not know how Hu is being treated in prison. His application to be released on bail was rejected, as the authorities said his case was still being investigated. At the end of January, Hu was formally arrested and charged with “inciting subversion of state power.” There have been numerous petitions calling for his release, and the U.S. and EU governments have expressed concern over his arrest.[25]

Hu Jia’s wife and fellow human rights defender Zeng Jinyan, who was placed under house arrest last month, has been prevented from contacting her lawyer, Li Jinsong. Li, who attempted to visit Zeng on January 11, was detained by police at his hotel in Beijing. Zeng, who writes a popular human rights blog, has been prevented from using the telephone or Internet.[26]

On January 9, Shandong authorities prevented a German TV crew from interviewing Yuan Weijing (袁伟静), wife of imprisoned legal advisor Chen Guangcheng (陈光诚). On January 8, the Public Security Bureau (PSB) of Yinan County, Shandong Province, reportedly called Yuan's brother-in-law, Chen Guangfu (陈光福), warning him that the German crew would not be able to interview Yuan even if they entered her village. As a result the TV crew cancelled the interview the following morning.[27] Again on January 24, a German TV crew went to Shandong but local authorities blocked, threatened, and attacked them when they were about 20 meters away from Yuan’s home. Yuan Weijing has not been allowed to visit Chen Guangcheng in prison since September 2007.[28]

On January 17, Shandong legal advisor Li Xiangyang (李向阳) was allegedly handcuffed and seriously beaten for four hours by local judge Li Jingfu and court police officers. The local judge from the Longjiaquan Court in Yishui County, Shandong Province, reportedly beat Li Xiangyang because his legal representation in several cases has challenged the judge’s verdicts.[29]

On January 23, Shandong rights defender Xu Yongchun (徐永春) was beaten by four unidentified thugs. She was on her way home after a meeting requested by a township official when the beating occurred. Xu, in her 60s, suffered a bone fracture. She suspected the beating was in retaliation for her petitioning activities.[30]

Beijing authorities reportedly demolished the apartment of rights defender Li Jinping (李金平) on January 24. Li, his mother, and siblings were allegedly beaten in the process. All property was taken away. The Li family is now separately staying in their friend’s homes. Li Jinping had kept a memorial room for former Chinese leader Zhao Ziyang in the apartment.[31]

On the evening of January 23, rights defender Xu Yongchun (徐永春) was attacked by four unidentified thugs while on the street. She was transported to the Fushan Hospital, where she is being treated. Because the hospital is government-run, Xu did not accuse officials of involvement in the attack, saying instead that she fell. Xu has campaigned and petitioned on behalf of farmers from Yantai, Shandong Province, who have been forcibly relocated.[32]

Detention
On January 7, democracy activist Li Qing (李清) returned to China from Australia and was immediately placed under house arrest. After arriving in Beijing and clearing customs, Li was taken by Public Security police and has since been under house arrest. Li, an Australian citizen, has written online about the Chinese government and started a campaign for fellow activist Hu Jia’s release.[33]

Trial Developments
On January 17, land activist Yu Changwu was sentenced to two years in a labor camp on charges of endangering state security by talking to foreign journalists. Prior to his trial, Yu had been detained for a month. After the closed trial, Yu’s family members stated that they could not afford to hire a lawyer for the case. Yu had led a campaign to recover and privatize seized farmland within Heilongjiang Province.[34] The land dispute involves over 40,000 peasants whose land had been appropriated by the government over a 15-year period for an agricultural project. Yu’s family stated that, if Yu’s sentence is connected with his discussions with foreign journalists, as they believe, it would contradict China’s commitment in the lead up to the Olympic Games of allowing foreign journalists to conduct their interviews freely.[35]

On January 22, writer Lü Gengsong went on trial at Hangzhou Intermediate Court on the charge of “inciting subversion of state power.” His trial lasted three hours, and a verdict is expected in a month. Lü has written on the Internet about local corruption cases and possible collusion among city officials and business people. More than 1,100 rights defenders, writers, scholars, and lawyers from both China and abroad have signed a petition calling for his release. Lü’s wife, Wang Xue, has been prevented by the police from petitioning in Beijing on her husband’s behalf.[36]

Shandong soldier-turned-cadre representative Qiao Yanbing (乔延兵) was sentenced to four years and six months’ imprisonment for practicing Falun Gong, a representative who had close ties with Qiao’s family told RFA on January 23, 2008. Qiao had allegedly been placed under house arrest since June 2007 for demanding better welfare for soldier-turned-cadres.[37]

After completing his three-year sentence for “provoking an incident, thereby causing a serious disturbance,” Shanghai petitioner and rights defender Xu Zhengqing has been released from Shanghai’s Tilanqiao Prison. Since returning home, groups of petitioners have come to visit Xu, although plainclothes officers are stationed outside his home.[38]

On January 30, rights defender Hu Jia’s (胡佳) family received official notification of Hu’s formal arrest on the charge of “inciting subversion of state power.” [39] Hu's wife Zeng Jinyan (曾金燕), also a rights defense activist, and their new born baby remain under house arrest. The police threatened to arrest Zeng when she refused to let police officers enter her home on January 20.[40]

Prison Conditions
On January 21, Meizhou Prison authorities reportedly told rights defender Guo Feixiong’s (郭飞雄) wife Zhang Qing (张青) that Guo had “violated prison regulations,” so outsiders are not allowed to visit him, communicate with him, or send him anything for three months. The prison authorities have declined to tell Zhang and RFA what exact regulations Guo violated.[41]

It was reported on January 30 that jailed rights defender Guo Qizhen's (郭起真) femur is deteriorating and he may be paralyzed. Guo’s wife Zhao Changqin (赵长芹) said Guo, sentenced to four years’ imprisonment on charges of “inciting subversion of state power,” was beaten several times after he was arrested in May 2006. This exacerbated his femur injury. The Hebei No.4 Prison has allegedly refused to provide medical treatment for Guo.[42]

Release
Gansu democracy activist Yue Tianxiang (岳天祥) was released from jail on January 8, 2008. He was sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment in 1999 on subversion, after leading a labor protest against corruption of the transport agency’s management. Yue was released in January after his sentence had been reduced by a year.[43]

On January 9, 2008, Beijing rights defender Ye Guoqiang (叶国强) was released on bail pending further investigation. Ye had been criminally detained on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power” after he launched a protest in September 2007 demanding that the CPC and the government increase their support for people with disabilities.[44]

Chongqing Pan-Blue Alliance member Hu Jing (胡敬) was released from a psychiatric hospital around January 10, 2008, according to Sichuan democracy activist Deng Huanwu (邓焕武). Hu was allegedly sent to a psychiatric hospital in Chongqing and forced to take medication after he tried to burn a CPC flag in Tiananmen Square in 2005. A medical examination reportedly suggested Hu has never had any psychiatric conditions.[45]

Guangxi-based dissident writer Wang Dejia (王德佳) (whose pen name is Jing Chu (荆楚)) was released on bail pending further investigation on January 12, 2008. He was detained on December 13, 2007, on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power.” The condition for his release is reportedly that he will not write articles that “attack the party and state leaders” or “incite subversion of state power,” and that he will not write political commentaries.[46]

Protestant house church leader Ma Chao (马朝) was released in mid-January, 2008 after the Hubei Provincial Administrative Committee for Reeducation-Through-Labor overruled a lower administrative committee’s decision to give him a 1.5 year sentence on charges of “organizing or using feudalistic superstitions to undermine implementation of the law.” The provincial authorities reportedly found unclear facts and insufficient evidence for his sentence.[47]

Other
As Ching Cheong spent his 1,000th day in prison on January 17, Ching’s wife, Mary Lau, and his family are drafting a letter asking authorities in Guangzhou to consider an application for parole. Their previous application for medical parole was denied by the authorities. Ching, who is serving a five year sentence for spying for Taiwan, was convicted following a one day, closed-door trial.[48]



Labor

State Administration of Work Safety Releases Labor Accident Figures
The State Administration of Work Safety announced that 98,340 people died in over 500,000 work accidents over the course of 2007, which is a 12.9 percent decrease from the previous year’s figures. Within the mining industry specifically, the number of accidents fell by 19.7 and the deaths fell 20.6 percent to 3,770 individuals in 2007.[49]

Companies Circumvent Labor Law
Companies throughout China fired and rehired employees under new contracts in late 2007, before the new Labor Contract Law was to come into effect on January 1, 2008. Under the new law, employers must sign open-ended contracts with employees that have worked continuously at a company for over ten years. The Wenshang County Post Office in Shandong Province, an unspecified hospital in Hainan Province, and the Anhui TV Station have all been accused of firing staff before the 2008 deadline in order to circumvent the new law.[50]

Work Safety Ministry to Investigate Olympic Death Allegations
The State Administration of Work Safety is to investigate claims made in a Sunday Times (London) report that officials paid large sums of money to silence the families of at least ten workers who died during the construction of the National Stadium, the main venue for the 2008 Olympics. The Times based their report on eyewitness statements.[51]

Disputes
Sixty hotel workers reportedly protested at the Xinhui Labor Bureau, Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province, over the authorities’ inaction in dealing with their back pay claim on January 14. After the workers refused to leave, 200 police officers came to the scene and allegedly used violence to disperse the protesters.[52]

Major labor accidents
In January, labor accidents left at least 101 dead and 37 injured.

Date Location Industry Disaster Casualties
1/9 Sanbing, Anhui Province Fireworks Explosion[53] 3 dead, 2 injured
1/9 Chongqing, Sichuan Province Tesla Chemical Plant Gas leak[54] 5 dead, 13 injured
1/15 Wuyi, Zhejiang Province Boyang Chemical Company Chemical explosion[55] 4 dead
1/18 Chongqing, Sichuan Province Gaoqiao Coal Mine Gas explosion[56] 13 dead
1/20 Duanguzhuang, Hebei Province Fireworks Explosion[57] 6 dead, 1 injured
1/20 Linfen, Shanxi Province Weijialing Coal Mine Gas blast[58] 20 dead
1/20 Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province Hardware polishing Building collapse[59] 7 dead, 12 injured
1/20 Linfen, Shanxi Province Weijialing Coal Mine Explosion[60] 25 dead
1/25 Anqiu, Shandong Province China Railway 16th Group Train crash[61] 18 dead, 9 injured

Punished

One hundred and eighty-three individuals have been punished for the deaths of 189 workers in five major accidents that occurred between 2005 and 2007. Seventy-eight will be prosecuted, while the other 105 received disciplinary punishments that include dismissals and demotions. Zhang Xiaodong, the deputy general manager of the Pudeng Coal Mine in Linfen, Shanxi Province, received life imprisonment, the most severe sentence. Officials vowed to continue serious investigation into labor accidents and blamed illegal production, lack of effective safety supervision, and government corruption for the accidents.[62]

Nineteen coal mine managers and eight others, including local government officials, were tried on January 11 over the December explosion at the Xinyao Coal Mine that killed 105 miners and injured another 18. The managers were charged with illegal mining, illegal trade of dynamite, tax evasion, and cover-up. The government officials have been charged with dereliction of duty and harboring suspects.[63]

//




SOURCES

[1] “17大前2600多网站博客遭关闭,” Radio Free Asia, January 2, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/02/blog.

[2] Luo Peiqiong, “6-4 Tianwang.com and Taiwan Websites Receive Ongoing Hacks” [天网及台湾网站连番被攻击], Radio Free Asia, January 4, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/04/china_internet.

[3] Wen Jian, “Xiangshui County Government, Jiangsu Province, Proudly Reports Work on Media Censorship” [‘响水经验’:防堵记者、控制舆论], Radio Free Asia, January 3, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/03/jizhe.

[4] Ding Xiao, “Website Administrator Asked to Admit Psychiatric Problems to Avoid Dismissal over Article on Shanghai Corruption” [拒撤揭黑文章网站被关 单位逼孔强认疯免责], Radio Free Asia, January 8, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/08/gong.

[5] Richard Spencer, “China clamps down on video-sharing websites,” The Telegraph, January 7, 2008, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/01/04/wyoutube104.xml.

[6] Josephine Lau, “China Bans Movie 'Apple' After Showing in Berlin Without Permit,” Bloomberg, January 4, 2008, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601080&sid=adVieLH9sag4.

[7] Zhang Dongfeng, “‘Real Name Registration’ Required for Online Forum Operators in Gansu and Ningxia” [甘肃宁夏推行版主实名制], Nanfang City News, January 28, 2008, http://www.nanfangdaily.com.cn/southnews/djjz/200801280554.asp.

[8] Xin Yu, “Sichuan Petitioners Detained and Beaten for Demanding Justice for Daughter's Sudden Death” [访民之女突然死去 寻找死因却遭拘留殴打], Radio Free Asia, January 3, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/03/nanchong.

[9] Zhang Liming, “Beijing Authorities Start to Send Petitioners En Masse Back to Their Hometowns” [北京开始大规模遣送访民], Radio Free Asia, January 4, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/04/china_petition_beijing.

[10] Audra Ang, “4 Detained After Chinese Villagers Protest in Wake of Beating Death by Officials,” Associated Press, January 10, 2008, http://sg.news.yahoo.com/ap/20080109/tap-as-gen- china-protest-death-3rd-ld-wr-bb10fb8.html; “Officials condemn fatal beating,” Shanghai Daily, January 22, 2008, http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2008/200801/20080122/article_346177.htm.

[11] Feng Riyao, “Chengdu Dispatches 600 Police Officers and Paramilitary Police Officers for Forced Evictions” [成都出动六百名公安武警继续强拆民房], Radio Free Asia, January 11, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/11/china_demolition_clash.

[12] Shi Shan, “Four Villagers Hurt in Violent Hubei Land Grab” [湖北潜江征地发生血案四村民受伤], Radio Free Asia, January 13, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/13/hu.

[13] “Protest Against Maglev Train in Shanghai Forces Government Acknowledgement,” Associated Press, January 14, 2008, http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/01/14/news/China-Shanghai-Protest.php.

[14] Stephanie Wong, “Thousands turn out for Hong Kong pro-democracy protest,” Agence French-Press, January 13, 2008, http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080113/ts_afp/hongkongchinapoliticsprotest.

[15] Fang Yuan, “Hundreds of Shandong Students Protest, Two Beaten” [山东菏泽几百名学生市政府请愿两人被打], Radio Free Asia, January 14, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/14/heze.

[16] “天安门广场一百多名访民被押走,” Radio Free Asia, January 15, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/15/fangmin/.

[17] Yan Ming, “One Hundred People Taken Away While Petitioning in Tiananmen Square” [天安门广场一百多名访民被押走], Radio Free Asia, January 15, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/15/fangmin.

[18] Fang Yuan, “Secret Jail for Detaining Petitioners Revealed in Beijing” [访民在驻京办黑监狱受虐待令人发指], Radio Free Asia, January 22, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/22/fangmin.

[19] Xin Yu, “Hubei Petitioner Beaten in Secret Detention Center” [湖北访民郑大靖遭截访后被私自关押并殴打], Radio Free Asia, January 3, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/03/zheng/.

[20] Feng Riyao, “Fujian Woman Has Been Petitioning for 17 Years, Arrested 60 Times” [福建女子魏香平上访17年被拘60次], Radio Free Asia, January 11, 1008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/11/china_petition_abuse; Feng Riyao, “Released Fujian Petitioner Intercepted in Beijing” [刚刚出狱的福建访民魏香平在北京再次被截访], Radio Free Asia, January 23, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/23/china_petition_detain.

[21] Feng Riyao, “Released Fujian Petitioner Intercepted in Beijing” [刚刚出狱的福建访民魏香平在北京再次被截访], Radio Free Asia, January 23, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/23/china_petition_detain.

[22] Henry Sanderson, “ Dozens Hold Land Protest in Beijing,” Associated Press, January 24, 2008, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080124/ap_on_re_as/china_land_protest;_ylt=Ahlg0ItcMz.

[23] “湖北两千多纺织工人上访请愿要求偿还拖欠款项,” Radio Free Asia, January 25, 2008
http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/25/hubei/.

[24] Chris Buckley and Benjamin Kang, “China Urged to Ratify U.N. Rights Covenant,” The Guardian, January 31, 2008, http://sport.guardian.co.uk/breakingnews/feedstory/0,,-7270677,00.html.

[25] Anita Chang, “Lawyer: Detained Chinese Activist Can’t Get Legal Help Because Case Involves State Secrets,” China Post, January 7, 2008, http://www.chinapost.com.tw/headlines/2008/01/07/51566/Lawyer:-Detained.htm; Chris Buckley, “China dissident Hu Jia formally charged,” The Guardian, February 1, 2008, http://sport.guardian.co.uk/breakingnews/feedstory/0,,-7273295,00.html; “美国和欧盟关注胡佳被捕事件,” Radio Free Asia, January 15, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/15/us_china_humanrights/.

[26] “Lawyers Barred From Meeting Chinese Activist Held Under House Arrest,” Associated Press, January 11, 2008, http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D8U3DJF80&show_article=1.

[27] Zhang Min, “German TV Station Prevented from Interviewing Yuan Weijing; Chen Guangcheng's Family Threatened” [独家报道:德国记者欲访袁伟静未成行 陈光诚家人遭围困威胁恐吓], Radio Free Asia, January 9, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/09/yuan/.

[28] Ji Lisi, “Authorities Beat German Journalist Attempting to Interview Yuan Weijing” [狱中陈光诚吁请关注维权者 律师评陈家人和记者采访无自由], Radio Free Asia, January 24, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/24/chenguangcheng.

[29] Fang Yuan, “Shandong Rights Defender Li Xiangyang Beaten Up by Court Officials” [山东维权人士李向阳被法官毒打四小时], Radio Free Asia, January 18, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/18/lixiangyang.

[30] Li Rongtian, “Yantai Rights Defender Xu Yongchun Beaten” [烟台维权代表徐永春被官员约见后遭暴徒殴打], Radio Free Asia, January 24, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/24/china_rights_assault.

[31] Gao Shan, “Li Jinping’s Apartment Forcibly Demolished, Memorial Room for Zhao Ziyang Destroyed” [北京李金平家遭暴力强拆 赵紫阳先生灵堂被毁], Radio Free Asia, January 25, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/25/li_jinping.

[32] “烟台农民维权代表徐永春突遭暴徒袭击受伤住院,” Radio Free Asia, January 25, 2008 http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/25/xu/.

[33] “澳洲籍民运人士李清回国被国安监视,” Radio Free Asia, January 14, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/14/china_dissident_entry/.

[34] Josephine Ma, “Peasant Leader Given Two Years in Labour Camp,” South China Morning Post, January 18, 2008.

[35] John Garnaut, “Prison for Activist Who Talked to Journalists,” Sydney Morning Herald, January 19, 2008, http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/prison-for-activist- who-talked-to-journalists/2008/01/18/1200620211171.html.

[36] Benjamin Kang, “Trial of Dissident Chinese Writer Lu Gengsong Opens as Curbs Tighten on Dissent,” Christian Science Monitor, January 23, 2008, http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0123/p04s01-woap.htm.

[37] Yan Ming, “Shandong Soldier-Turned-Cadre Representative Sentenced to Four Years And Six Months” [山东烟台军转干部维权代表乔延兵被判刑四年半], Radio Free Asia, January 23, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/23/qiao_yanbing.

[38] “Case Update: Shanghai Petitioner Xu Zhengqing Released from Prison,” Human Rights in China, January 29, 2008, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/47237.

[39] Human Rights in China, “Press Statement: HRIC Condemns the Formal Arrest of Hu Jia, Human Rights in China, February 1, 2008, http://www.hrichina.org/public/contents/47275.

[40] Ding Xiao, “Under House Arrest, Police Threaten Zeng Jinyan with Arrest” [曾金燕反抗软禁遭警告抓捕 警称善待胡佳有待证实], Radio Free Asia, January 22, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/22/hujia.

[41] Ji Lisi, “Guo Feixiong Punished for ‘Violating Prison Regulations’” [狱方指郭飞雄违反监规实施严管三个月], Radio Free Asia, January 23, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/23/china_rights_guofeixiong.

[42] Han Qing, “Jailed Rights Defender Guo Qizhen's Femur Deteriorates” [维权人士郭起真在狱中健康恶化 大腿股坏死], Radio Free Asia, January 30, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/30/guo.

[43] “Gansu Democracy Activist Yue Tianxiang Released from Jail” [简要新闻∶甘肃天水民运人士岳天祥刑满出狱], Radio Free Asia, January 12, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/xinwen/2008/01/12/xiwen.

[44] Ji Lisi, “Lü Gengsong and Zhang Zilin to Await Trial at Month's End; Ye Guoqiang Released on Bail” [吕耿松张子霖被控煽动颠覆案月底开审], Radio Free Asia, January 14, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/14/china_dissident_trail/.

[45] Shi Shan, “Chongqing Rights Defender Hu Jing Released form Psychiatric Hospital” [重庆维权人士胡敬被从精神病院释放], Radio Free Asia, January 24, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/24/chongqing.

[46] “Guangxi-based Dissident Writer Jing Chu Released on Bail Pending Further Investigation” [简要新闻: 广西异议作家荆楚被取保候审释放], Radio Free Asia, January 12, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/xinwen/2008/01/12/xiwen.

[47] Feng Riyao, “House Church Leader Liu Fenggang Still Under Detention” [刘凤钢被公安拘捕关押六日仍未获释], Radio Free Asia, January 21, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/21/China_Religion.

[48] “Family of reporter jailed in China seeks his parole,” Agence French-Presse, January 17, 2008, http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080117/wl_asia_afp/ singaporehongkongchinajusticemedia_080117062454.

[49] “China’s Work Accidents Fall in 2007 But Still Claim Almost 100,000 Lives,” Xinhua News Agency, January 2, 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/02/content_7354552.htm.

[50] Xin Yu, “Shandong Post Office Dismisses Long-Serving Employees Before New Labor Contract Law Takes Effect” [蓄意规避劳动合同法 山东省汶上县邮政局解骋职工], Radio Free Asia, January 2, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/02/lao; “Haikou Hospital Sacks Hundreds of Cleaners Before Law Contract Law Becomes Effective” [劳动合同法实施前夕 海口一医院终止聘用上百清洁工], Nanhai.com (via Xinhuanet), January 3, 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2008-01/03/content_7358051.htm; Fang Yuan, “Anhui TV Station Dismisses Employees En Masse” [安徽电视台大批裁员], Radio Free Asia, January 10, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/shenrubaodao/2008/01/10/an.

[51] “China to probe alleged cover-up of worker deaths at Olympic site,” Associated Press, January 22, 2008, http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080122/wl_asia_afp/ oly2008chnconstructionprobe_080122072237.

[52] Ji Lisi, “Guangdong Police Beat and Detain Hotel Workers for Protesting Labor Authorities' Inaction over Back Pay Claim” [江门酒店员工追讨欠薪遭警方殴打拘留], Radio Free Asia, January 16, 2008, http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/xinwen/2008/01/16/china_labor_wage.

[53] “Three Die in Fireworks Blast in E China Town,” Xinhua Net, January 9, 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/09/content_7392822.htm.

[54] “重庆:硫化氢泄漏致5死13伤 出事的化工厂人员已全部疏散,” Nanfang Daily, January 10, 2008, http://www.nanfangdaily.com.cn/southnews/jwxy/200801100829.asp.

[55] “East China Chemical Explosion Kills Four,” Xinhua Net, January 16, 1008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/16/content_7428251.htm.

[56] “Latest China Coal Mine Accident Kills 13,” Reuters, January 18, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSPEK21973.

[57] “9 Killed in Illegal Firework Workshop Explosion in N China,” Xinhua Net, January 20, 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/20/content_7459061.htm.

[58] “Twenty Miners in Closed Coal Mine Killed After a Gas Explosion” [冒雪下井 20矿工枉死], Ming Pao, January 22, 2008.

[59] “Seven Killed in E China Workshop Collapse,” Xinhua Net, January 21, 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/21/content_7460125.htm.

[60] “25 Confirmed Dead in N China Coal Mine Blast,” Xinhua Net, January 30, 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/30/content_7528096.htm.

[61] “18 Killed in China Train Accident,” Associated Press, January 25, 2008, http://biz.yahoo.com/ap/080125/china_railway_deaths.html?.v=1.

[62] “China punished 183 people responsible five fatal accidents claiming 189 lives,” People’s Daily Online, January 22, 2008, http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6343172.html.

[63] “Nineteen stand trial over N. China mine blast that killed 105,” Xinhua Net, January 11, 2008, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/11/content_7407547.htm.