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张千帆:律师与宪政

June 26, 2017

任何国家的宪政都离不开律师,中国当然也不例外。如果从1908年的《钦定宪法大纲》算起,那么到今年中国宪政恰好走过了一百个年头。这个百年对中国来说真是风风雨雨、磕磕碰碰,换了许多部宪法,但是宪政却仍不尽如人意。之所以一直有宪法而无宪政,重要原因就在于缺乏律师的充分参与。

综观世界各国,哪里有宪政,哪里就有律师。典型如美国,那里的律师不仅可以手捧宪法吃饭,而且这碗饭吃得还很好,因为宪法诉讼对于法律人来说是一件名利双收的事情。在其它国家,宪法律师的地位或许没有那么崇高,但也大差不离,至少不会落得在法院大门外流浪的境地。当然,宪法律师的存在只是宪政的必要条件,而未必是充分条件;在有些国家,即便律师可以在法庭上拿宪法说事儿,宪政也可能出于种种原因而落实得不好。但是反过来,如果没有“宪法律师”这个职业(哪怕只是“兼职”的),那么这个国家的宪政就凶多吉少了。除非它有大不列颠那样深厚的民间宪政传统,律师参与的缺失简单意味着宪政的缺位。事实上,处于例外行列的无非也就是英国、荷兰几个屈指可数的国家,连以色列这个“不成文宪法”国家都有宪法诉讼。朝鲜、古巴以及正在改变但还不到位的越南等国则没有实质性的律师参与,其宪政状况也可想而知。

之所以没有律师就没有宪政,其实道理很简单。你能想象民法可以没有民法律师就能得到实施吗?刑法是否能没有律师而得到实施呢?如果一般的法没有律师就得不到实施,也就是说有法律而无法治,那么宪法为什么会例外呢?没有律师,宪法也同样得不到实施。既然在法庭上没有效力,宪法规定得再好也是一纸空文。由于宪法说了不算,政府官员当然视之为可有可无,宪政也就没指望了。因此,就和法治一样,宪政也只有通过律师才能实现。

由此可见,中国百年宪政的状况之所以不乐观,很大程度是因为没有律师的参与。当然,我没有丝毫怪罪中国律师的意思。中国律师显然不是不想参与国家宪政建设,而是我们目前的制度没有给他们这个机会。事实上,一百年来,我们制定了那么多部宪法,至今还没有哪部宪法规定任何形式的宪法诉讼。既然法院不能受理宪法诉讼(即便是齐玉苓案也只是间接被最高法院“批复”了一下,因而也称不上“宪法诉讼第一案”),律师当然无法通过宪法来推动宪政。

不过我要说的是,既然中国律师已经为中国的法治和人权进步做了许多事情,不妨将宪政作为下一个考虑对象。毕竟,权利不是从天上掉下来的,而是律师抗争的结果。宪法诉讼首先是一种权利——不仅是宪法权利受到侵犯的当事人的权利,而且也是律师的权利。

转自:作者同名微信公众号

——转自新公民运动(2017-07-22)

 

中国人权双周刊》第212期,2017年6月23日—7月6日

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