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Resource List: The 1989 Democracy Movement

May 29, 2008

The following is a list of resources related to the 1989 Democracy Movement in China. This list includes NGO and news websites as well as selected multimedia materials and books on June Fourth. Please note that English titles for books with official title translations have been included; otherwise, the pinyin and characters are provided.

Websites

BBC: Witnessing Tiananmen
English
This website provides a compilation of interviews by the BBC from 2004, the 15th anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Democracy Movement. The interviews include eyewitness accounts of bystanders, protesters, and student leaders. The website also offers links to background on and analysis of the 1989 Democracy Movement.

Boxun: Tiananmen Feature [博讯:六四图片资料]
English
A section of Boxun.com, this website is affiliated with Falun Gong and is dedicated to articles and essays related to the 1989 Democracy Movement.

China News Digest: Virtual Museum of China ’89
English
China News Digest (CND) is a U.S.-based non-governmental organization operated by volunteers with a mandate to provide free, timely, and impartial news on China. The virtual museum has a collection of writings and audio-visual materials on the 1989 Democracy Movement. CND also operates related websites devoted to June Fourth.

China News Digest: Victims of Tiananmen Massacre [六四屠杀受难者网页]
English and Chinese
This website includes photographs of victims of the Tiananmen Square violence and provides a detailed account of the events that took place.

China News Digest: June Fourth 1989 Diary
English
This website provides a thorough day-by-day account of the Tiananmen Square protest. Excerpts from the diary of a Tsinghua University student who was at the protests are included, providing an insider’s view of the events that took place. Some entries are in Chinese as well as English.

CNN: Tiananmen Remembered 
English
This website was established in 2001 by CNN to revisit the 1989 Democracy Movement. It provides accounts of the event, information on party leaders involved, interviews with those who have written extensively on the topic, and multimedia resources.

Epoch Times: June Fourth Essays [大纪元:六四征文]
Chinese
Epoch Times, a news service of Falun Gong, posts a collection of essays solicited by the June Fourth Memorial Global Coalition, in which writers describe their experiences and views on the events of June Fourth.

Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China [香港市民支援爱国民主运动联合]
English and Chinese
The Hong Kong Alliance is a nongovernmental organization that has organized large-scale commemorative activities related to June Fourth over the past 19 years. The website contains information about ongoing and upcoming campaigns in Hong Kong and around the world pertaining to democracy and the rights defense movement in China.

National Security Archive: Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History
English
Part of the National Security Archive, an independent non-governmental research institute and library, this site includes detailed and previously classified U.S. government accounts of June Fourth, such as situation reports from the U.S. Embassy in Beijing as well as many of the Secretary of State’s “Morning Summaries” from June 1989. The documents also cover student demonstrations in late 1985 and 1986, the period leading up to the use of force by the People’s Liberation Army, and post-crackdown assessments of the events and their significance. The documents were obtained through the U.S. Freedom of Information Act.

Radio Free Asia: 18th Anniversary of June Fourth [自由亚洲电台:纪念八九“六四”18周年专集]
Chinese
Run by Radio Free Asia, this website provides audio materials, pictures, poems, and essays compiled to mark the 18th anniversary of June Fourth. The materials were gathered from individuals who participated in the events of 1989.

Support Democracy in China & Christus Rex et Redemptor Mundi: Tiananmen April–June 1989
English
This website, assembled by Support Democracy in China, a volunteer community organization based in Silicon Valley, and Christus Rex, a non-profit organization, provides a series of photo galleries documenting the Democracy Movement and the consequent crackdown in Tiananmen Square. The photos are divided into five different stages: The Quest for Freedom, the Confrontation, the Repression, the Massacre, and the Worldwide Protest.

Tiananmen Mothers Campaign [天安门母亲运动]
Chinese
The Tiananmen Mothers Campaign website, run by a solidarity group in Hong Kong supporting the Tiananmen Mothers, contains an online petition calling for justice, a list of the victims, testimonials, news about the Tiananmen Mothers, and other advocacy issues. Some items have English translation.

HRIC Resources

Human Rights in China [中国人权]
English and Chinese
Founded by Chinese students and scholars in March 1989,Human Rights in China (HRIC) is an international, Chinese, non-governmental organization with a mission to promote international human rights and advance the institutional protection  of these rights in the People’s Republic of China. In addition to these websites regarding the 1989 Democracy Movement, HRIC has a number of other websites and online publications related to the crackdown, including:

Fill the Square: Support the Tiananmen Mothers [网上献花,支持“天安门母亲”]
English and Chinese
Fill the Square is an online campaign supporting the Tiananmen Mothers group. Visitors to this website may become virtual volunteers, sign an electronic petition, and place and view “bouquets” on a virtual Tiananmen Square.

Selected Maps of the Locations of June Fourth Victims’ Deaths, compiled by the Tiananmen Mothers [部分“六四”死难者罹难地点] (2008)
English and Chinese
This is a selection of maps compiled by the Tiananmen Mothers that identifies the locations of hospitals and the locations of victims’ deaths during the 1989 crackdown. The maps are also available on the Tiananmen Mothers' new website, launched in 2008.

June Fourth Podcast Series
English and Chinese
In order to preserve a historical record and support Chinese efforts promoting greater democracy and openness, the June Fourth Podcast Series contains a set of interviews with student leaders, protesters, journalists, activists, family members, and other parties connected with the Beijing protests. The interviews, which are in Chinese, are available to download inMP3 format.

“Tiananmen: The Once and Future China.” China Rights Forum, 2004, no. 2.
English
This CRF issue on the 15th anniversary of the suppression of the 1989 Democracy Movement in Beijing contains articles and poems commemorating the events, as well as reflections on and explorations of mechanisms to claim social justice contributed by scholars and Tiananmen witnesses.

“Searching for Social Justice.” China Rights Forum, 2005, no. 4.
English
This CRF issue focuses on the Chinese government’s accountability in addressing massive human rights violations of the past, from the Anti-Rightist Movement and the Cultural Revolution to June Fourth.

Multimedia Resources

The Gate of Heavenly Peace [天安门]
English and Chinese
The Gate of Heavenly Peace, a documentary produced by Richard Gordon and Carma Hinton, details the protest movement leading up to the crackdown. This related website provides information about the film, as well as background information on the June Fourth Tiananmen Square crackdown, including a chronology leading up to the events of that day, and links to related published works.

The Tank Man
English
Frontline, a program of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), released The Tank Man in 2006. This documentary investigates the story of the man who stood in front of People’s Liberation Army tanks and made international headlines. The documentary also provides an overview of the Beijing protests and the violent crackdown. The website provides additional information regarding the Democracy Movement, including a timeline of events during 1989.

Tiananmen Square Massacre April–June 1989
Chinese
This 46-minute video is an extensive collection of footage from the events of April-June 1989. Clips include footage of the protests leading up to the crackdown, domestic media coverage, Zhao Ziyang’s speech to the students, and troops marching into Beijing towards Tiananmen Square and firing on protesters.

Tiananmen Survivors Recall Massacre
English
This video, produced by New York-based New Tang Dynasty Television, tells the stories of Yu Dongyue, Lu Decheng, and Yu Zhijian, who threw paint-filled eggs at the portrait of Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square on May 23, 1989. It outlines their role in the protests and their perspective on the events.

Books

17 Exiled June Fourth Students [六四流亡学生17人]. Huigu yu fansi [回顾与反思]. Germany: Deguo Laiyin Bihui, Deguo Yachen Bajiu Xueshe, 1993 [德国:德国莱茵笔会、德国亚琛八九学社, 1993].
Chinese
This book reconstructs the events of the spring of 1989 as told by 17 leaders of the student movement, who later went into exile abroad. It is derived from the proceedings of an eight-day conference held in Paris in June 1991.

64 Hong Kong Journalists [六十四名香港记者]. Renmin buhui wangji: Bajiu minyun shilu (zengdingban) [人民不会忘记:八九民运实录(增订版)]. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Journalist Association, 1989 [香港:香港记者协会, 1989].
Chinese
This book collects the reflections of 64 Hong Kong journalists who witnessed the events of 1989.

Bao, Zunxin [包遵信]. Liusi de neiqing: Weiwancheng de niepan [六四的内情:未完成的涅磐]. Taipei: Strom & Stress Publishing Company, 1997 [台北:风云时代出版股份有限公司, 1997].
Chinese
As a historian and public intellectual, Bao Zunxin had widespread influence on the democracy movement in China in the years leading up to 1989. In this book, he recalls the events of 1989.

Beijing City Communist Youth League, ed. [共青团北京市委编]. 70 tian dashi ji: Hu Yaobang bingshi dao Zhao Ziyang jiezhi [70天大事记——胡耀邦病逝到赵紫阳解职]. Beijing: Beijing Chuban She, 1990 [北京:北京出版社, 1990].
Chinese
This book provides an official account of the changing situation of the Democracy Movement in Tiananmen Square and the government’s reactions. The book covers the events from April 15 to June 22, 1989, in chronological order.

Black, George, and Robin Munro. Black Hands of Beijing: Lives of Defiance in China’s Democracy Movement. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993.
English
Following the Tiananmen Square massacre, Chinese authorities targeted numerous individuals who were deemed to have manipulated the masses into the Democracy Movement. This book tells the stories of Wang Juntao, Chen Ziming, and Han Dongfang, who were treated as scapegoats and subsequently sent to prison as a result of their involvement in the Democracy Movement.

Brook, Timothy. Quelling the People: The Military Suppression of the Beijing Democracy Movement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992; revised edition, Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1998.
English
Drawing upon eyewitness reports, government documents, hospital records, and student accounts, this book provides a reconstruction of the events leading up to the crackdown.

Calhoun, Craig. Neither Gods nor Emperors: Students and the Struggle for Democracy in China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
English
This analysis of the 1980s student movement in China outlines the rationale behind the Democracy Move Democracy Movement and examines its suppression following the events of 1989. Calhoun also provides a perspective on the continuing legacy of the 1989 Democracy Movement in China.

Chen, Xiaoya [陈小雅]. Tiananmen zhibian: Bajiu minyun shi [天安门之变:八九民运史]. Taipei: Strom & Stress Publishing Company, 1996 [台北:风云时代出版股份有限公司, 1996].
Chinese
Chen Xiaoya, a Beijing-based historian, relates a personal history of the 1989 Democracy Movement. The book attempts to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of the intellectuals who participated in the events.

Chinese University of Hong Kong Students’ Union, ed. [香港中文大学学生会编]. Beijing jixing: Bajiu Zhongguo minyun ziliaoce [北京纪行:八九中国民运资料册]. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong Students’ Union, 1991 [香港:香港中文大学学生会, 1991].
Chinese
This book compiles documents and records pertaining to the events of the 1989 Democracy Movement. Sixteen of the articles included in the book were written by students who were in Beijing and Shanghai and had first-hand knowledge of the events.

Ding, Zilin [丁子霖]. Liusi shounanzhe mingce [六四受难者名册]. Hong Kong: 1990s Magazine Press, 1994 [香港:九十年代杂志社, 1994].
Chinese
After losing her 17-year-old son Jiang Jielian on the streets of Beijing in the Tiananmen crackdown, Ding Zilin, founder of the Tiananmen Mothers, compiled this book that lists the dead and wounded from the events of June Fourth.

Ding, Zilin [丁子霖]. In Search of the Victims of June Fourth [寻访六四受难者]. Hong Kong: Kaifang Zazhi She, 2005 [香港: 开放杂志社, 2005].
Chinese
This book contains 50 stories based on the testimonies of the families of June Fourth victims, as well as a list of 186 individuals who died or were wounded during the events of Tiananmen Square in 1989.

Feng, Congde [封从德]. Tiananmen zhi zheng: Liusi de guanjian neiqing [天安门之争:六四的关键内情]. Ontario: Mirror Books, 1998 [安大略省:明镜出版社,1998].
Chinese
This book provides a series of articles dealing with the controversies that surround the documentary, The Gate of Heavenly Peace. Feng also reveals some of the important internal dynamics within the student movement.

Han, Minzhu, and Sheng Hua. Cries for Democracy: Writings and Speeches from the 1989 Chinese Democracy Movement. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
English
This book offers a vast collection of translated materials regarding the 1989 Democracy Movement, such as speeches, flyers, “big character” posters, poems, government documents, transcriptions of tapes, and articles from non-official newspapers. All the documents are linked with commentary seeking to place them in the context of Chinese social and political life.

Harrison, Frank, and Yu Mok Chiu. Voices from Tiananmen Square: Beijing Spring and the Democracy Movement. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1990.
English
One of the first books written after the Tiananmen Square Massacre, Voices from Tiananmen Square provides a summary of the events that took place. The book provides translated documents and interviews, including interviews with major student leaders. The book also details the formation and operation of the Beijing Autonomous Workers’ Federation, the first independent labor union since 1949, which was formed in the midst of the protests.

Hu, Ping [胡平]. Zhongguo minyun fansi [中国民运反思]. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1992 [香港:牛津大学出版社, 1992].
Chinese
This book is a compilation of Hu’s influential reflections on the 1989 Democracy Movement.

Human Rights in China. Children of the Dragon: The Story of Tiananmen Square. New York: Collier Books, 1990.
English
This is a series of accounts from eyewitnesses involved in the Beijing protests. With material from April 15 to June 4, 1989, it includes photographs and a variety of documents providing personal accounts of the events that took place. These accounts also explore the divisions between student leaders.

Human Rights in China [中国人权]. June Fourth Massacre: Testimonials of the Wounded and the Families of the Dead [见证屠杀,寻求正义——六四伤残者和死难者家属证词]. New York: Human Rights in China, June 1999 [纽约:中国人权, 1999年6月].
English and Chinese
Published on the tenth anniversary of the violent crackdown on the peaceful protest movement in Beijing, this bilingual book documents testimonies from witnesses and the family members of those killed in the events. The book includes a list of 155 victims killed and wounded. Sections of this book are also available online in English: testimonies, list of known victims.

Jiang, Peikun, and Ding Zilin [蒋培坤, 丁子霖]. Shengzhe yu sizhe: Weile Zhongguo de mingtian [生者与死者:为了中国的明天]. Hong Kong: Human Rights in China, 2000 [香港: 中国人权, 2000].
Chinese
This book compiles the authors’ writings from 1994 to 2000, including articles and open letters. Jiang and Ding are members of the Tiananmen Mothers.

Jieyan yi ri [戒严一日]. Beijing: Jiefangjun Wenyi Chuban She, 1989 [北京:解放军文艺出版社, 1989].
Chinese
This book records the actions of the military unit that was delegated the responsibility of enforcing martial law (jieyan budui) in Beijing. Shortly after publication, the government took the work off the shelves, claiming it divulged “secrets,” and released an edited version. This is the original version of the book.

Journalists at the China Times [中国时报报系记者群]. Beijing xuesheng yundong 50 ri [北京学生运动50日]. Taipei: China Times Publishing Co., 1989 [台北:时报出版公司, 1989].
Chinese
Written by Taiwanese journalists at the China Times, this book compiles their accounts of the events of 1989.

Kwan, Michael David. Broken Portraits: Personal Encounters with Chinese Students. San Francisco: China Books & Periodicals, 1990.
English
The personal account of a teacher, Kwan, who goes back to China in order to teach as a college professor. Written in a journalistic style, Kwan’s story is based on his experiences, including those with students, and documents the changing viewpoint of Chinese students searching for reform and democracy in the 1980s.

Li, Lu. Moving the Mountain: My Life in China from the Cultural Revolution to Tiananmen Square. London: Macmillan, 1990.
English
This memoir from Li, a student leader during the protests in Tiananmen Square, provides personal insights into the events of 1989 and a perspective on the rationale of some of the students.

Li, Marjorie H. Culture and Politics in China: An Anatomy of Tiananmen Square. Edited by Peter Li. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers, 2007.
English
This recent book explores the events and trends that led to the Beijing protests and June Fourth. It includes eyewitness accounts of student leaders, speeches of Communist Party leaders, and writings of young intellectuals.

Lin, Nan. The Struggle for Tiananmen: Anatomy of the 1989 Mass Movement. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1992.
English
A dissection of the events of 1989, Lin’s book examines the background of the movement, its origins, and the reasons for its development. The 1989 Democracy Movement itself is also analyzed, from the initial protests to martial law, party struggles, and the end result.

Liu, Binyan, Xu Gang, and Ruan Ming. Tell the World: What Happened in China and Why. New York: Pantheon, 1989.
English
The three authors, former members of the Communist Party who joined the protests in Beijing, give a series of eyewitness accounts of the spring of 1989. The book also provides a detailed look into the workings of the Communist Party’s inner circle in the lead-up to the massacre.

Liu, Xiaobo [刘晓波]. Mori xingcunzhe de dubai: Guanyu wo he “liusi” [末日幸存者的独白: 关于我和「六四」]. Taipei: Shibao Wenhua, 1992 [台北:时报 文化, 1992].
Chinese
Written by prominent Beijing intellectual Liu Xiaobo, this book recalls his repentance in prison and reflects on his involvement with the Democracy Movement. The book is notable for Liu’s analysis of his innermost thoughts and feelings.

Lu, Chaoqi [陆超棋]. Liusi neibu riji [六四内部日记]. Hong Kong: Excellent Culture Press, 2006 [香港:卓越文化出版社, 2006].
Chinese
This book by former assistant editor of the People’s Daily, Lu Chaoqi, gives an insider’s look into the events of the spring of 1989, particularly how the press and the People’s Daily covered the events. The book also describes the political pressure journalists faced during that period.

Lum, Thomas. Problems of Democratization in China. New York: Routledge, 2000.
English
This study examines the competing theories as to why countries become democratic, and analyzes why China has failed to do so. It argues that China will never become democratic due to the Communist Party’s fear that it will lose control and subsequently collapse. The Tiananmen Square crackdown is provided as a case study to illustrate these views.

Mingpao Journalists [明报记者]. Beigaolian de sishi ri [北高联的四十日]. Hong Kong: Mingpao Books, 1989 [香港:明报出版社, 1989].
Chinese
This book provides reflections of Hong Kong journalists on the events of 1989.

Perry, Elizabeth, and Jeffrey Wasserstrom, eds. Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Boulder: Westview Press, 1994.
English
China’s recent history is presented here in a series of essays on popular protests. The book attempts to provide a greater context for the 1989 protests and the effect they had on China by linking cultural movements and the push for democratic change in 1989.

Saich, Tony, ed. Chinese People’s Movement: Perspectives on Spring 1989. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1992.
English
This collection of articles on the Democracy Movement provides context for the events of 1989. The impetus for reform and development and the demand for change are widely analyzed. Additionally, the disorganized and often spontaneous nature of the protests is investigated.

Schell, Orville. Mandate of Heaven: A New Generation of Entrepreneurs, Dissidents, Bohemians, and Technocrats Lays Claim to China’s Future. Markham: Simon and Schuster, 1994.
English
Mandate of Heaven examines the new social and cultural forces that emerged in themid-1990s in the wake of June Fourth. It investigates how these forces have been influenced by the June Fourth events, and how the counterculture that emerged has been trying to test the Communist Party.

Spence, Jonathan. The Search for Modern China. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.
English
Spence’s highly regarded book gives a comprehensive history of China from the Ming Dynasty to 1999. It goes into the 1989 Democracy Movement and the subsequent crackdowns, including the widespread arrests, detentions, and executions of those involved.

Su, Xiaokang. A Memoir of Misfortune. New York: Knopf, 2001.
English
This is a personal account by Su, a prominent journalist, who was forced to flee China after being put on its most wanted list following June Fourth. It details his life in exile and the struggles he has faced, including a devastating car accident in 1993 which left his wife paralyzed.

Tong, Shen, and Marianne Yen. Almost a Revolution: The Story of a Chinese Student’s Journey from Boyhood to Leadership in Tiananmen. London: Harper Perennial Library, reissued 1998.
English
In the first half of this book, Shen Tong, a student leader in China’s 1989 Democracy Movement, tells of his experiences as a leader of the “Dialogue Movement” and his transformation during his time at Beijing University. The second half of the book provides a day-by-day account of the Democracy Movement and the ultimately bloody events in Beijing in June 1989.

United Daily News Group Editor’s Department, ed. [联合报编辑部编]. Tiananmen 1989 [天安门一九八九]. Taipei: Linking Books, 1989 [台北:联经出版事业公司, 1989].
Chinese
This book about the events of Spring 1989, written by journalists at the United DailyNews Group from Taiwan, was particularly influential due to its rich detail. It was one of the earliest accounts to be published.

Unger, Jonathan, ed. The Pro-Democracy Protests in China: Reports from the Provinces. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., and Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1991.
English
This book is a collection of papers by Western China experts who personally observed the events of 1989 in various cities around China. It provides a glimpse into the widespread nature of the spring 1989 protests, rather than focusing only on the events in Beijing.

Wang, Chaohua, ed. One China, Many Paths. New York: Verso, 2003.
English
This book is a collection of essays by leading Chinese intellectuals seeking to assess what lies ahead for China in the future. They draw upon their own experiences, including those of student leaders directly involved in the 1989 Democracy Movement.

Wong, Jan. Red China Blues: My Long March from Mao to Now. New York: Doubleday, 1997.
English
Canadian journalist Jan Wong describes her experiences during the Cultural Revolution as a Chinese-Canadian studying at Peking University. She describes her abandonment of Maoism in reaction to Chinese rule during the period and provides a detailed personal account of the Tiananmen crackdown.

Yang, Jisheng [杨继绳]. Zhongguo gaige niandai de zhengzhi douzheng [中国改革年代的政治斗争]. Hong Kong: Excellent Culture Press, 2004 [香港:香港卓越文化出版社, 2004].
Chinese
This book by veteran journalist Yang Jisheng details some of the behind-the-scenes political fights between different factions in the top leadership in the early years of “reform and opening.” It includes an exclusive interview with former Prime Minister Zhao Ziyang discussing the events that led up to June Fourth and some of the divergent views among the top leaders.

Yazhou Zhoukan [亚洲周刊]. Jingtiandongdi de yibai tian [惊天动地的一百天]. Hong Kong: Yazhou Zhoukan, 1989 [香港:亚洲周刊, 1989].
Chinese
This book is a collection of accounts and pictures from Hong Kong journalists and photojournalists who witnessed the events at Tiananmen Square.

Zhang, Boli. Escape from China: The Long Journey from Tiananmen to Freedom. Mississauga: Atria Books, 2002.
English
Zhang Boli was a prominent student leader during the 1989 Democracy Movement, and as a result ended up on China’s most-wanted list. This book is a first-hand account of his escape from China, including his time spent in hiding in Northern China and Russia. It includes tales of the people he met along the way who sheltered him and eased the way toward his escape to the United States two years later.

Zhang, Liang, comp. The Tiananmen Papers: The Chinese Leadership’s Decision to Use Force Against their Own People—In their Own Words. Edited by Andrew J. Nathan and Perry Link. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.
English
The Tiananmen Papers is a massive collection of internal Chinese government and Communist Party documents relating to the 1989 Democracy Movement and crackdown. It offers insight into the Party leaders’ determination to end the demonstrations at any cost.

Zhang, Liang [张良]. June Fourth—The True Story [中国「六四」真相]. Hong Kong: Mirror Books, 2001 [香港:明镜出版社, 2001].
Chinese
This is the Chinese edition of The Tiananmen Papers.

Zhao, Dingxin. The Power of Tiananmen: State-Society Relations and the 1989 Beijing Student Movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
English
In this book, Zhao, an associate professor at the University of Chicago, explores in depth the 1989 student protests. In addition to grassroots stories and interviews with students, Zhao analyzes the parallel changes in China’s state and social relations during the 1980s as a backdrop to the protests.

Zheng, Yi [郑义]. Lishi de yi bufen [历史的一部分]. Taipei: Wanxiang Books, 1993 [台北:万象图书,1993].
Chinese
Author Zheng Yi offers a personal account of the events of 1989 as a high-profile participant in those events.

Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guojia Jiaowei Sixiang Zhengzhi Gongzuosi, ed. [中华人民共和国国家教委思想政治工作司编]. Jingxindongpo de wushiliu tian:Yijiubajiu nian siyue shiwu ri zhi liuyue jiu ri meiri jishi (Xianggang zhuxi ben) [惊心动魄的五十六天:一九八九年四月十五日至六月九日每日纪实(香港注释本)]. Hong Kong: Tiananmen minzhu daxue haiwai fuxiao jihua Xianggang choubei chu, 1990 [香港:天安门民主大学海外复校计划香港筹备处, 1990].
Chinese
This book, published by the Education Department of the PRC government, contains many of the documents produced by the 1989 Democracy Movement, and records a vast quantity of information related to the situation in Beijing and other areas throughout China. The Hong Kong annotated version provides analysis of what might be considered pro-government bias in official documents and other inaccuracies.

Zong, Fengming [宗凤鸣]. Zhao Ziyang: Captive Conversations [赵紫阳:软禁中的谈话]. Hong Kong: Kaifang Chuban She, 2007 [香港:开放出版社, 2007].
Chinese
This book provides former Prime Minister Zhao Ziyang’s account of the events that led to the military crackdown in Tiananmen Square. Compiled by longtime friend Zong Fengming, the book relates a series of discussions between Zong and Zhao. After the Tiananmen crackdown, Zhao was put under house arrest, effectively sealing him off from the outside world. Posing as Zhao’s tai chi teacher, Zong was able to conduct a series of meandering discussions with Zhao from 1991 to 2004, right before Zhao’s death. Zong and Zhao discuss Chinese political reform, Marxist theory, current politics, and the actions and events that resulted in the use of force by the military in 1989.

Please note that English titles for books with official title translations have been included; otherwise, the pinyin and characters are provided.

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