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中國人權白皮書《香港未來 言棄尚早——論〈香港國安法〉的實施》

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2020年10月16日

目錄

執行概要

1. 引言

2. 《香港國安法》迄今為止的實施情況

  • 儘管基本權利的和平行使遭受打擊,但民眾仍然堅持不懈
  • 該法在香港建立了一個中央政府對國家安全進行直接和間接監督、監視和控制的架構,並造成了管轄權之間的拉鋸

3. 實施上的挑戰:權利絕非小事

  • 以國際人權框架為中心
  • 《香港國安法》與國際人權——紙面上和實踐中
  • 當前在結構上、政策上和與權利有關的執行問題

4. 改進空間和建議:「讓飛機平穩著陸」

  • 對各利益攸關方作進一步交涉的建議
  • 結論:當前局勢的風險

附件

A. 中國人權最新《中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法》雙語注釋表(重點提出了翻譯問題和修改建議)

B. 香港國家安全機構及主要任命人員的背景

  1. 維護國家安全委員會
  2. 中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署
  3. 香港警務處維護國家安全部門
  4. 專門的國家安全犯罪案件檢控部門

C. 相關資源

  1. 主要政府文件
  2. 香港大律師公會聲明
  3. 國際人權專家的聲明
  4. 說明和時間表
  5. 書籍和書籍章節
  6. 網站和博客

 

執行概要


2020年6月30日,全國人民代表大會常務委員會一致通過了涵蓋面甚廣的《中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法》(簡稱「香港國安法」)。這是一個史無前例地倉促、隱秘和完全缺乏公眾諮詢的立法過程。《香港國安法》禁止分裂國家、顛覆國家政權、實施恐怖活動和勾結外國勢力,並新設立了一套實際全部由中央人民政府控制的實施機構。

猶如一個沒有徹底檢查燃油或完成其他必要準備就起飛的飛行員,中央人民政府將其感到的攸關存亡的國家安全威脅列為優先事項,卻有可能無法解決該法所造成的不可避免的複雜的法律、結構和治理性的挑戰。

這些直接和嚴重的影響正在香港被廣泛而深刻地體現出來,其中最明顯的是在公共領域和教育領域的審查和自我審查(一位知名香港法律學者表示:「軟性洗腦會影響這整個一代的人」),還有港府緊緊跟著中央人民政府腳本的言辭。

但我們認為,對香港未來言棄為時尚早。

面對《香港國安法》可能造成的侵蝕權利的駭人行徑和香港特區政府在政治上背棄人民的作為,能夠起到抵禦作用的有:香港司法和法律系統固有的制度性和規範性的保障,以及國際人權機制提供的保障,包括條約、盟約、宣言、指導方針、建議和原則。許多聯合國獨立人權專家在他們發佈的指導方針和發給北京政府的信函中援引了這些保障措施,提醒其有義務尊重和保障香港人民的權利。

事實上,《香港國安法》本身也要求香港特別行政區「尊重和保障人權」,包括「根據《基本法》……和《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》、《經濟、社會及文化權利國際公約》適用於香港的規定(第4條),以及有關法治的規定(第5條)。

為解決這些拉鋸關係和確保實施《香港國安法》不會不當地限制或損害受香港特別行政區、國家和國際法保護的權利,國際人權標準和規範需要成為根本,無論是進行監督、評估影響、制定有效保障措施、為所需的立法改革獻計獻策,還是確保民間社會安全和有利的環境。

除了通過公開聲明、國家立法和為那些必須或選擇離開香港的人士設立安全港和提供其他選擇來應對《香港國安法》造成的人權問題,國際社會還必須要制定具體措施支持香港社會的各類群體,特別是在嚴重受限的大環境下掙扎的年輕人。在他們繼續為塑造香港的未來奮鬥之時,他們需要國際社會的聲援和具體的、精神上的支持。

建議摘要

給中央和香港特別行政區政府的建議

  • 發佈一個經過糾正的和具有法律權威的《香港國安法》的英文翻譯文本
  • 通過具體步驟加強與聯合國人權機制的合作
    • 向人權事務高級專員和特別程序發出長期有效的訪問邀請。
    • 採取具體步驟來落實聯合國條約機構和專家提出但尚未被執行的建議,包括聯合國兒童權利委員會的建議,即香港政府對有關的當地法律進行改革,並將刑事責任的最低年齡提高至國際可接受的水平。
  • 舉行包容各方的公眾諮詢,並將意見匯入到香港特區對人權事務委員會《問題清單》的答覆中
    人權事務委員會特別指出了與國家安全、反煽動和反恐法律有關的問題,並要求澄清緊急狀態和國家安全、反煽動和反恐的法律,包括有關以下方面的信息:
    • 《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》與2020年6月30日通過的《香港國安法》之間的關係;
    • 為確保《香港國安法》的適用和執行不違反《公約》規定而採取或計劃採取的措施;
    • 為執行《香港國安法》第56條和第57條所計劃採取的程序和立法措施;
    • 《香港國安法》的適用範圍,包括其域外適用範圍;
    • 《香港國安法》第29條規定的「勾結外國或者境外勢力危害國家安全罪」一語的含義;
    • 《香港國安法》賦予香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會和中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署的權力和豁免,以及監管這些機構的問責機制;以及
    • 根據《香港國安法》對中國香港的法律作出了或計劃作出哪些修訂。
  • 接受聯合國專家提供的技術援助,包括國家安全、刑事和反恐立法方面的援助
  • 中華人民共和國應批准《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》

給立法者、法院和政策制定者的建議

  • 善用模糊用語這把雙刃劍

雖然《香港國安法》中含糊的規定存在任意行使酌處權和限制權利的風險,但也應將其視為定義、澄清和界定不同行為者行使酌處權和決策的機會。人權事務委員會在其《問題清單》中提出的具體問題為法律改革和修正工作提供了建設性的明確議程,也為當前的學術研究和分析劃清了重點,以為這些立法工作獻計獻策。

 

1. 引言


在中國全國人民代表大會(簡稱「全國人大」)於2020年5月28日發佈的《決定》授權之下[1],全國人大常務委員會起草了涵蓋面甚廣的《中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法》(簡稱「《香港國安法》」),並於2020年6月30日一致通過[2]。這是一部在「前所未有的隱秘和倉促[3]」之下通過的,沒有任何透明度和公眾諮詢的法律。《香港國安法》禁止分裂國家、顛覆國家政權、實施恐怖活動和勾結外國勢力[4],並新設立了一套實際全部由中央人民政府控制的實施機構。

當晚11時,香港特別行政區(簡稱「香港特區」)政府將此頗具爭議的法律刊憲發佈,香港市民這才首次看到該法的文本。《香港國安法》在國際社會廣泛的譴責聲浪中出臺,香港人更是擔心它會違背 「一國兩制」的原則及香港憲制性文件《基本法》所規定的 「高度自治」。或許最重要的是,中國在國際法和條約下有義務保護的香港人的基本權利和自由,以及香港的法治恐將不保。

儘管該法的涵蓋範圍甚廣,並在目前帶來了即時和廣泛的影響,但我們認為,對於侵害基本權利、削弱香港的自主權和機構獨立性的行為,我們仍然有建設性的反擊空間。本法律摘要的目的是:

  • 對《香港國安法》頒佈以來的實施情況進行回顧;
  • 對該法設立的主要機構進行概述,並突出指出相關的治理和問責問題;
  • 對國際人權框架進行概述,並將其作為監督、評估和促進中央和香港特區政府遵守情況的根本;以及
  • 為各利益攸關方的進一步參與提出具體建議。

我們還在附件一中提供了一份最新的《香港國安法》雙語注釋表(原版已於7月5日發佈)。雖然新華社在2020年7月1日發佈了一個英文版本,且香港特區政府隨後在7月3日將其刊憲發佈,但這一所謂的「官方」英文譯本並不具法律權威性。這一缺失對不懂中文或無法熟讀中文的律師、法官、記者和香港居民,以及可能受到《香港國安法》影響的外國人士、組織和其他中國境外人士來說,從根本上阻礙了他們對該法的實質性理解。

在更新後的注釋表中,我們對照中文原文對現有的英文譯文進行了審校,指出了錯誤和遺漏,並加入了我們認為更準確的譯文更正建議。我們希望這一新版注釋能成為任何想要或需要仔細和準確閱讀《香港國安法》的英文讀者的實用工具,也歡迎您提出意見和建議。(請您將意見發至 communications@hrichina.org並在主題欄注明「NSL translation」)。

 

2. 《香港國安法》迄今為止的實施情況


儘管香港人的多項權利不斷遭到侵害,且《香港國安法》蘊含著複雜的結構性和概念性的拉鋸和衝突,但宣告香港和法治「死亡」的結論仍然為時過早。不僅香港司法和法律體系中的固有制度和規範保障仍然存在,香港人在重重困難面前更是一如既往地堅韌不拔。此外,中央政府和香港特區政府仍有義務確保國際人權標準在行文上和實踐中得到有效和有意義的實施,被授權履行《香港國安法》主要職責的主要行為者也不例外。伴隨2019冠狀病毒病大流行疫情的全球性影響,《香港國安法》還改變了地緣政治格局,增強了通過集體行動應對國際法保護下的權利和自由所受威脅的政治意願。

值得注意的是,正如中央人民政府和香港特區政府當局多次指出的,《香港國安法》還明確規定香港特區要「尊重和保障人權」,包括 「香港特別行政區居民根據香港特別行政區基本法和《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》、《經濟、社會與文化權利的國際公約》適用於香港的有關規定享有的包括言論、新聞、出版的自由,結社、集會、遊行、示威的自由在內的權利和自由」(第4條),並堅持法治原則(第5條)。《香港人權法案條例》(《香港法例》第383章[5])將《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》納入香港本地法律[6]

儘管基本權利的和平行使遭受打擊,但民眾仍然堅持不懈

《香港國安法》在6月30日一經通過,其主要打擊目標立即明確。翌日7月1日,警方以新冠大流行危害公眾健康為由,自1997年以來首次禁止了香港當日一年一度的民主大遊行。警方向數千名不顧禁令上街的民眾舉起了新增的警告「紫旗」,旗幟上寫道:

這是警方發出的警告。你們現在展示旗幟或橫額/叫喊口號/或其他行為,有分裂國家和顛覆國家政權等意圖,有可能構成《港區國安法》的罪行,你們可能會被拘捕及刑事檢控[7]

當天被警方逮捕的370人中,有10人因展示或持有帶有政治口號的標語或其他物品而涉嫌分裂國家,依據《香港國安法》被捕[8]。 在噤若寒蟬的大環境之下,任何有悖於官方論調的言論或意見現在都有可能遭到刑事檢控,或最起碼受到威脅、騷擾和警告[9]。 然而,中央人民政府和香港特區政府當局一再堅稱,《香港國安法》針對的「僅僅是少數人」。暫且不論侵害權利的客觀事實與受害人數多少無關,《香港國安法》目前的主要影響並非刑事檢控,而是當局以刑事制裁和行動為威脅,用該法律在香港乃至海外造成的自我審查和恐懼之風。

自7月以來,中央和香港特區政府以駭人的速度著手削減或取締使香港成為法治自由社會的諸多權利和制度保障。這些舉措時常以採取衛生措施防範2019冠狀病毒病的必要性為由,以發佈公告為主要形式。當局已經實行的舉措有:

  • 禁唱香港抗議歌曲《願榮光歸香港》;
  • 將立法會選舉延後一年;
  • 打壓獨立媒體,包括逮捕媒體大亨兼民主人士黎智英,以及收窄對「傳媒代表」的定義[10]和到場報道政府新聞發佈會的條件[11]
  • 從公共圖書館撤走書籍,特別是民主派人士的書籍[12];以及
  • 指責教師對不斷增多的被禁敏感話題處理 「不當」,包括六四、2019年的社會抗議活動、地方主義和自決等。

上述當局的持續行動直接影響了多項權利的和平行使,包括言論自由、和平集會的權利、參與權、獲取信息權,以及媒體的獨立性和學術自由。至於香港政府以公共衛生風險為由,未向民間社會諮詢便將立法會選舉推遲長達一年之久的決定,香港大律師公會對此舉在法律和證據上的依據提出嚴重懷疑。其在聲明中強調:「國際人權專家多次警告,政府不得以2019冠狀病毒病為藉口打壓人權[13]。」許智峰(立法會議員)[14]、黃之鋒、周庭等民主派人士還表示遭到了不明身份的人士和車輛跟蹤。

然而,儘管面臨如此限制和恐嚇,香港人繼續高唱《願榮光歸香港》,近期集會同樣歌聲依舊[15]。民主派議員就其是否在政府延長的立法會任期中繼續任職進行了公眾諮詢[16]。在警方拒絕發放遊行許可後,仍有數百人在10月1日中國國慶當日集會,而就在一天前,中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區聯絡辦公室(簡稱「香港中聯辦」)主任駱惠甯警告說,愛國不是一種選擇,而是一種義務[17]

至於大眾普遍擔心的中央人民政府當局行使管轄權的問題,自《香港國安法》生效以來,第一批在境外被拘留人員的起訴依據並非該法本身,而是內地的刑事罪名。8月23日,中國當局在中國海域扣留了12名企圖乘快艇逃往臺灣的香港人(年齡在16歲至33歲之間)[18],將他們拘留一個多月後,在9月30日才正式逮捕:其中10人涉嫌偷越邊境,2人涉嫌幫助他人逃港[19]。中國當局並未援引《香港國安法》第55條的管轄權,這或許反映出中國當局認識到這種管轄權將不可避免地在法律、程序和機制上帶來複雜的問題,而他們尚未做好應對的準備。

該法在香港建立了一個中央政府對國家安全進行直接和間接監督、監視和控制的架構,並造成了管轄權之間的拉鋸

除了對基本權利和自由的公然侵害外,中央還通過《香港國安法》建立了國家安全架構,將香港人置身於全面的社會控制之下。該法在香港新設立了四個政府機構以及相應的監督和問責架構,使中央人民政府能直接或間接地控制香港的所有國家安全事務,不論是政策、調查,還是起訴和審判。這些機構的工作層層保密,從制定香港的國家安全政策到情報收集,再到案件調查和起訴都有涉及。

機構、職能及架構概覽

這四個機構是(這四個機構任命人員的背景概況請見附件A):

  • 維護國家安全委員會(簡稱香港國安委)(第12-15條、第43條)

香港國安委主要「負責香港特別行政區維護國家安全事務」(第12條),本質上是中央在香港設立的國家安全事務行政和政策分部。委員會由香港行政長官林鄭月娥擔任主席,成員包括香港特區政府的高層官員(第13條)。其國家安全事務顧問「由中央人民政府指派」(第15條),現由中央駐港高官香港中聯辦主任駱惠甯擔任。

  • 中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署(簡稱「駐港國安公署」)(第48-60條)

駐港國安公署人員全部由中央派出(第48條第2段),經費由中央財政保障(第51條),是實地工作職責最為廣泛的機構,具體領域包括:

  • 行動和協調:收集情報和辦理案件(第49條),協調香港所有國家安全機構的行動和信息共享(第53條第2段)
  • 監督:與香港國安委共同監督香港的國家安全工作(第53條第1段)
  • 政策:為重大戰略和政策提供意見(第49條第1款)
  • 與中央主要駐港代表機構的合作:與香港中聯辦、外交部駐港特派員公署、解放軍駐港部隊進行合作(第52條)

駐港國安公署、外交部駐港特派員公署和香港特別行政區政府這三個機關有權「採取必要措施」對香港的外國政府使團、國際非政府組織、外國非政府組織和新聞機構加強管理(第54條)。

駐港國安公署最具爭議的職能或許要數它在三種情況下對案件行使管轄權的權力:「涉及外國或者境外勢力介入的複雜情況」、香港特區政府無力執行《香港國安法》的「嚴重情況」和「國家安全面臨重大現實威脅的情況」(第55條)。

在駐港國安公署對案件行使管轄權時,訴訟事項適用中國刑事訴訟法和其他相關國家法律,由最高人民檢察院指定的檢察機關進行檢控,由最高人民法院指定的法院進行審判(第56條)。

  • 香港警務處維護國家安全處(簡稱「香港警務處國安處」)(第16、17條)

香港警務處國安處由香港警務處人員領導和任職,既負責執行以刑事調查為中心的有關國家安全的執法任務,還負責情報收集和「反干預調查」(第17條)。它的職責包括執行香港國安委「交辦」的任務(第17條第5款)並接受其監督(第43條第2段)。該處的負責人由行政長官在徵求駐港國安公署的「意見」後任命(第16條第2段)。

《香港國安法》還授權香港警務處國安處從香港以外「聘請合格的專門人員和技術人員」提供協助(第16條第3段),從而為中國特工履行執法職責提供了空間。

  • 專門的國家安全犯罪案件檢控科(簡稱「專門檢控科」)(第18條)

專門檢控科「負責危害國家安全犯罪案件的檢控工作和其他相關法律事務」,其檢控官由律政司長在「征得香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會同意」後任命。該科負責人由行政長官在徵求駐港國安公署的「意見」後任命。

領導、監督和問責架構中的問題

由中央領導的機關對香港所有國家安全事務的直接和間接控制,破壞了香港受憲法保障的「高度自治」

  • 香港國安委和駐港國安公署作為香港最高的兩個國家安全機構,共同監督、指導和支持香港所有的國家安全工作,直接對中央負責:
  • 香港國安委「接受中央人民政府的監督和問責」(第12條)。
  • 駐港國安公署人員「接受國家監察機關的監督」(第50條)。
  • 由於《香港國安法》規定行政長官在委任香港警務處國安處和專門檢控科的負責人之前,必須先徵求駐港國安公署的意見,因此後者具有影響這兩個機構的權力。
  • 由於香港警務處國安處須執行香港國安委指派的工作並接受其監督,因此該處真正的上級是香港國安委,而非香港警務處。

《香港國安法》將香港國安委和駐港國安公署淩駕於香港法律之上引發的相關問題

駐港國安公署人員全部由內地派往香港,有權按照中國內地的司法體系對待辦案件行使管轄權。由於條款語意不明且相互矛盾,《香港國安法》的多項規定也引發了對這些新設機構及其人員是否接受香港法律或司法管轄的擔憂。第50條規定,駐港國安公署人員要接受國家監察機關的監督,「除須遵守全國性法律外,還應當遵守香港特別行政區法律」。(強調為作者添加。)

然而,《香港國安法》還規定:「駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署……的行為,不受香港特別行政區管轄」(第60條第1段);駐港國安公署證件的持有人及其使用的物品「在執行職務時不受香港特別行政區執法人員檢查、搜查和扣押」(第60條第2段)。可是「在執行職務時」的具體界定是什麼?如果駐港國安公署證件和物品(包括使用的車輛)的持有人不受檢查、搜查和扣押,那麼有什麼保障措施能確保該署如第50條所規定的那樣「不得侵害任何個人或組織的合法權益」呢?

此外,香港國安委的工作還不受香港特區任何「機構、組織和個人」的干涉,也不予公開披露,其決定「不受司法覆核」(第14條第2段)。有什麼保障措施能確保香港國安委的工作不違反《基本法》和其他香港特區法律?雖然香港國安委在嚴格意義上是由香港特區政府成立,但它也直接受到中央人民政府的監督和問責(第12條)。《基本法》第22條禁止中央人民政府各部門干涉香港特區事務,並規定中央人民政府各部門設立的辦事機構「均須遵守香港特別行政區的法律」[20]。是否可以說,駐港國安公署在事實上是中央人民政府的一個「部門」,因此其人員必須遵守香港法律呢?

 

3.  實施上的挑戰:權利絕非小事


以國際人權框架為中心

正如我們在上文介紹《香港國安法》所設立的實施機構時所強調的,該法本身在一個將一黨制國家的統治地位憲法化的列寧主義法律制度[21],與具有成熟的普通法法理和獨立司法機構的香港法律制度之間形成了不可避免的拉鋸。該法對國家安全罪的定義模糊且過於寬泛,對域外管轄權的規定廣泛,對該法的適當適用及其與香港特區和全國的其他法律及相關國際法的關係缺乏明確界定,從而加劇了這些結構和意識形態上的拉鋸。

猶如一個沒有徹底檢查燃油或完成其他必要準備就起飛的飛行員,中央人民政府將其感到的攸關存亡的國家安全威脅列為優先事項,卻有可能無法解決該法所造成的不可避免的複雜的法律、結構和治理性的挑戰。為解決這些拉鋸關係和確保實施《香港國安法》不會不當地限制或損害受香港特別行政區、國家和國際法保護的權利,國際人權標準和規範需要成為根本,無論是進行監督、評估影響、制定有效保障措施、為所需的立法改革獻計獻策,還是確保民間社會安全和有利的環境[22]

人權標準和規範在由條約、公約、宣言、準則、建議和原則組成的國際人權文書中有所規定。這套成熟且不斷發展的標準和規範由各國、民間社會,以及聯合國獨立專家和人權機制適用,以監督、評估和促進各國政府的遵守情況。核心文件包括《世界人權宣言》[23]、《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》[24]和《經濟、社會、文化權利國際公約》[25]。國際人權原則還明確指出,「自由、開放、安全和有保障的互聯網」及其提供的信息獲取渠道,對於「個人作出知情的決定和動員人們呼籲正義、平等、問責和更好地尊重人權」至關重要[26]。(強調為作者添加。)《維也納宣言和行動綱領》[27]重申,權利是「普遍的」(強調為作者添加),「民主、發展和尊重人權和基本自由是相互依存、相輔相成的」。

在世界與上世紀以來最嚴重的全球大流行疫情抗爭之際,國際專家和聯合國人權機構[28]特別強調,尊重人權,包括經濟、社會和文化權利以及公民和政治權利等各個範疇的人權,是公共衛生應對措施取得成果和從大流行疫情中復蘇的根本。聯合國大會強調:「各國需確保在抗擊疫情期間所有人權都得到尊重、保護、實現,並確保各國應對冠狀病毒病大流行的措施尊重並充分遵守國際法規定的義務,包括國際人道主義法和國際人權法規定的義務,同時強調所有人權都是普遍、不可分割、相互關聯、相互依存、相輔相成的。[29]

聯合國人權事務高級專員米歇爾·巴切萊特近期也警告:「在2019冠狀病毒病疫情下,一場快速發展的全球健康危機與世界各地許多更為緩慢卻更根深蒂固的政治、社會和經濟危機發生了碰撞。這些多重的潛在裂痕使我們在病毒面前更加脆弱,也為其危害創造了切入口,這主要是將民眾聲音排除在外的政治進程以及人權保護方面的缺口造成的[30]」(強調為作者添加。)

《香港國安法》與國際人權——紙面上和實踐中

《香港國安法》有兩條有關權利的關鍵條款[31],將其納入國家法律具有重要的現實意義。

第4條:
「香港特別行政區維護國家安全應當尊重和保障人權,依法保護香港特別行政區居民根據香港特別行政區基本法和《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》、《經濟、社會與文化權利的國際公約》適用於香港的有關規定享有的包括言論、新聞、出版的自由,結社、集會、遊行、示威的自由在內的權利和自由。」

第5條:
「防範、制止和懲治危害國家安全犯罪,應當堅持法治原則。法律規定為犯罪行為的,依照法律定罪處刑;法律沒有規定為犯罪行為的,不得定罪處刑。」

「任何人未經司法機關判罪之前均假定無罪。保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和其他訴訟參與人依法享有的辯護權和其他訴訟權利。任何人已經司法程序被最終確定有罪或者宣告無罪的,不得就同一行為再予審判或者懲罰。」 (強調為作者添加。)

從字面上解讀,這兩項條款都納入了國際標準並提及了受保護的權利,其中還包括國際上關於可允許的權利限制的標準。《世界人權宣言》第29條規定,對這些權利和自由的任何限制「只受法律所確定的限制,確定此種限制的唯一目的在於保證對旁人的權利和自由給予應有的承認和尊重,並在一個民主的社會中適應道德、公共秩序和普遍福利的正當需要」 [32]。(強調為作者添加。)

然而,國際人權條約規定的國家義務包括採取立法或其他措施以實現被承認的權利,包括獲得有效救濟的權利,以及由主管司法、行政或立法當局裁決的權利[33]。因此,為了遵守國際標準和義務,中央和香港特區政府不僅要確保在紙面上保護權利,還要採取有效措施尊重和保護這些權利保障。《香港國安法》在行文上和實際實施中都必須符合適用的國際標準,包括合法、必要和相稱的原則——這些原則確立了對權利的任何合理限制的可許性以及香港特區的國際義務。任何安全法的規定還必須遵守有關國家安全立法的國際標準和規範,包括《約翰內斯堡關於國家安全、言論自由和獲取信息自由原則》[34]

但是,面對當地和國際上對於《香港國安法》對香港權利和法治影響的批評,中央政府和香港特區當局一貫以「每個國家都有國家安全法」反駁,並指責批評者採用雙重標準、將人權政治化以及干涉內政[35]。這些論斷呼應了中央政府行使其話語權,在國際上提出的官方敘事——從大處看,這是一種挑戰普世價值和原則,以將國家問責邊緣化的做法[36]

此外,當局以《香港國安法》第4條為依據,宣稱人權確有受到尊重和保護,並援引第5條作為將會堅持法治的保證。這種單純引用法律條文卻不提出更具體的實施措施的做法,不僅將紙上的正式法律與實際的實施進展混為一談,也沒有對該法的實質性條款及其實施是否實際符合國際人權標準,以及中央和香港特區政府在國家、地方和國際法下的義務作出有意義的回應。

香港特區《基本法》[37]和《香港人權法案條例》(《香港法例》第383章)[38]將《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》適用於香港的條款納入了本地法律。中華人民共和國在1998年10月5日簽署了《公約》,而至今仍未批准(儘管中國一再表示有意批准)[39]。但根據國際法,中國有義務不採取任何有違《公約》目的和宗旨的行動[40]。 然而,將《公約》納入《香港安全法》這部國家法律(適用於香港特區)的第4條,意味著被指定根據內地刑事訴訟法處理第55條所規定案件的內地檢察官和法官也需要適用《公約》的標準。這也給香港成熟的普通法體系和權利法理將扮演何種角色留下了未知的可能。

雖然這在法理上帶來了複雜的挑戰,但將《公約》納入《香港國安法》可能是一個潛在的重要機會,可以擴大對內地法官和檢察官的國際人權法培訓,以促進該法的有效實施,使其符合國際標準以及中央和香港特區政府的義務。

當前在結構上、政策上和與權利有關的執行問題

七位聯合國特別程序任務執行人明確認可了《香港國安法》積極納入《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》和《經濟、社會、文化權利國際公約》一舉。在近期致中國的一份法律函件中,他們還概述了對該法具體條款的關切,突出指出了模糊和過於寬泛的條款,以及其新設立的安全機構缺乏透明度和問責制的問題。他們促請中央政府審議並重新考慮《香港國安法》,以確保中國遵守《世界人權宣言》、《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》、1984年《中英聯合聲明》及《基本法》中有關香港的國際人權義務[41]

正如國際人權標準所確立和聯合國專家所強調的,應對包括恐怖威脅[42]在內的國家安全風險的最有效方法是解決根源問題,以及充分尊重和保護人權。聯合國人權事務委員會在定期審議香港特區政府履行《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》義務的情況時,不斷對其在確保真正的普選參與公共事務的權利,以及參選權方面缺乏有意義的進展提出關切[43]

在《香港國安法》通過之前,香港政府在2019年提出了一部引渡法案[44]。該法案會將香港人暴露於缺乏獨立司法機構和健全正當程序保護的大陸法律制度,引發了大規模的社會抗議[45]。政府拒絕解決這些擔憂的頑固態度和香港警察隨後的行動,使抗議訴求從最初的撤回引渡法案,擴大到包括民主改革和對警方過度使用武力的問責[46]。香港社會各界越來越多地大規模動員以聲援2019年抗議的五大訴求[47],還有一些團體呼籲香港獨立。這顯然加劇了中央關於香港對其兩項國家安全要務——維護領土完整以及中共的政治領導和意識形態主導地位——所構成的威脅的擔憂。《香港國安法》清楚反映了這些安全擔憂,並以中央認為會帶來這些國家安全威脅的行動為打擊目標。

在此背景下,我們在下文中概述了一些當前在結構上、政策上和與權利有關的執行問題:

對保密性的要求和允許破壞了透明度、問責和善治

正如國內和國際法所承認的,對信息或程序保密在某些情況下具有合法理由,例如香港法律規定的涉及青少年的法庭程序,或者對個人信息、行業或商業秘密的保護(第63條)。然而,《香港國安法》中要求保密的條款讓人對正當程序、實施該法的透明度和主要行為者的問責產生了切實的擔憂。

  • 根據第47條,香港特區法院必須取得行政長官發出的具有約束力的證明書,證明被指控的犯罪行為是否涉及國家安全或證據是否涉及國家秘密。
  • 前文所述的新設機構直接受中央人民政府的監督並向其報告,沒有任何權利保護的保障或措施,且其行動不受法院或任何獨立機構的審查[48]
  • 香港律政司的國家安全犯罪專門檢控科(第18條)和香港警務處維護國家安全處(第16條)[49]的負責人必須宣誓遵守法律和保守秘密。
  • 第41條禁止新聞界和公眾旁聽涉及國家秘密或公共秩序的全部或部分審理程序。
  • 第63條規定,執法、司法機關及其人員,以及辯護人或訴訟代理人除了對在辦案過程中知悉的商業或個人信息保密之外,還必須保守國家秘密。

該法的前線執行者是不受限制地和任意行使酌處權的香港警務處。

除了對仍受香港法院司法管轄的案件(即《香港國安法》第55條規定以外的案件)作出裁決的法院之外,香港警務處是《香港國安法》的主要前線執行者。

《香港國安法》第43條授權香港特區行政長官會同香港特區維護國家安全委員會制定相關實施細則,以採取該條規定的措施[50]。於7月6日發佈、7月7日生效的《第四十三條實施細則》詳細列明瞭實施這些措施的程序要求、審批條件等,以確保執行人員既實現法律目標,又符合《香港國安法》對依法尊重和保護權利的要求。

然而,鑒於該法對保密的要求及其由中央人民政府領導的集中化統屬體系,《實施細則》似乎只會對香港警務處任意行使酌處權進行賦能和合法化,這在警方持續鎮壓和平行使權利的行為模式中就有所凸顯[51]。《實施細則》還提及了香港特區本地的一些其他法律[52]。這些法律需要受到嚴格審視,不僅因為其頒佈背景截然不同,還因為它們具有不同的立法目的,針對不同的問題,而且在某些情況下,它們的實施條款似乎與《香港國安法》的規定有所衝突,例如批准某些行動和措施所需的警官級別,以及所援引的法律與整個《香港國安法》關係的明晰度。

保護年輕人的權利[53]

年輕人是香港未來的關鍵。如果社會不能與他們有效交流並提供建設性的保護,則將導致一代年輕人更加心灰意冷,不論他們是離開還是留下。這是一個將對香港未來產生負面影響的因素。正如在「佔領中環」運動和2019年社會抗議期間有力彰顯的,年輕人既身處兩場運動的前線,也是抗議訴求的一般參與者和支持者。他們仍在默默奮鬥,尋找繼續為保護和捍衛香港的價值觀和生活方式努力的途徑。

從《香港國安法》頒佈後的第一天開始[54]至今,許多年輕人(有的年僅12歲)已經遭到警方的逮捕、騷擾、恐嚇和肢體暴力。7月29日,4名年齡為16至21歲的前學生動源[55]成員因涉嫌分裂國家罪被捕[56]。8月23日,12名年齡為16至33歲的人士在海上被捕,並被禁止會見律師[57]。8月31日,在至少12名被捕者中,警方稱有一名自稱是記者的17歲男生[58]。在9月5日的逮捕行動中,一段在網上瘋傳的視頻記錄了一名12歲女孩被防暴警察用膝蓋壓住制伏的情景[59]。女孩和她的哥哥後來因違反社交距離規定遭到罰款。

《香港國安法》迄今的實施情況引發了對遵守青少年、兒童權利和被羈押的未成年人相關國際標準的嚴重擔憂。兒童權利委員會在對中國第三和第四次合併定期報告的結論性意見中提出了若干關切,包括缺乏體現兒童最大利益的一般性立法,以及需要在所有立法、行政和司法程序中適當納入並始終貫穿這一標準。委員會還建議香港特區將最低刑事責任年齡提高到國際可接受的水平[60]

 

4. 改進空間和建議:「讓飛機平穩著陸」


2020年5月的全國人大《決定》[61]授權全國人大常委會倉促通過這部國家安全法,是為了應對中央認為的香港對中國構成的兩個國家安全威脅:一是分裂主義主張的興起對中國領土完整的威脅;二是利用香港作為據點危害中國國家安全的行動,這在廣義上被定義為利用香港對內地進行滲透和破壞活動[62]。《香港國安法》自6月30日通過至今已有100多天,這些威脅是否得到了有效解決,或者該法的實施是否符合國際標準都令人生疑。而中央人民政府和香港特區官員卻聲稱香港的穩定和公共秩序已經恢復。但是,將對和平行使權利的鎮壓噤聲和對社會各界的恐嚇震懾誤認為是穩定和公共秩序是不可行的。

雖然香港警務處採取了嚴厲行動和強硬的公共秩序論調,但好在香港人仍有空間可以利用,以回擊實施《香港國安法》造成的權利限制影響。在個人層面,民眾持續用創意方式表示反抗,例如當眾閱讀被當局視為反對派報紙的《蘋果日報》和聲援被捕人士。此外,重要的討論和辯論也正在展開。尤其值得注意的是,香港的律師和學者在對《香港國安法》作出回應時,著重于從行文上關注該法和適用的國際人權標準,對《香港國安法》的實施進行了實際分析,有助於今後案件的有力法律辯護。

一些大學、高等院校和獨立智庫也舉辦了各種網絡講座和研討班,討論與《香港國安法》有關的廣泛主題,如學術自由、新聞自由、政策協作策略、國際外交,以及與例如新加坡《國內安全法》等其他法律的比較分析。本著為應對人權挑戰作出建設性貢獻的精神,我們向各利益攸關方提出了一些建議。

對各利益攸關方作進一步交涉的建議

除了通過公開聲明、國家立法和為那些必須或選擇離開香港的人士設立安全港和提供其他選擇來應對《香港國安法》造成的人權問題,國際社會還必須要制定具體措施支持香港社會的各類群體,包括正在奮力應對《香港國安法》對權利的限制的年輕人。

給中央和香港特別行政區政府的建議

  • 請務必發佈一個經過糾正的和具有法律權威的《香港國安法》的英文翻譯文本

《香港國安法》仍然沒有具有法律權威的英文版本。對於不會閱讀中文的香港居民、律師協會成員或任何可能受到該法全面和廣泛主張(包括治外法權)影響的人來說,第一要務就是準確理解該法所規定的內容。中央和香港特別行政區當局應該發佈該法的正確英文譯本並將其指定為具有法律權威的版本

  • 通過具體步驟加強與聯合國人權機制的合作
     
    • 向人權事務高級專員和特別程序發出長期有效的訪問邀請。

長期以來,聯合國人權事務高級專員和聯合國獨立特別程序任務執行人有要求政府發出訪問邀請和長期有效的邀請,這是許多成員國和民間社會都支持的建設性交涉步驟。中國應給予聯合國獨立觀察員和特別程序任務執行人「立即、有意義和不受限制的准入渠道」[63]。如果沒有任命完全獨立的監督機制,則至少應該有一個獨立的監督和交涉程序。此外,中央和香港特區政府需要在各個層面與相關的聯合國條約機構和機關積極接觸[64]。在此過程中,最緊迫的任務之一是解決多個聯合國獨立專家在9月1日的聯名信中提出的多重法律和遵守問題[65]

  • 採取具體步驟來落實聯合國條約機構和專家提出但尚未被執行的建議

聯合國條約機構已經敦促作為所有主要人權條約締約國的中央政府[66],以及香港特區政府落實有關促進和保護各項人權的建議。

《聯合國保護被剝奪自由少年規則》規定,少年司法制度的作用是維護少年的權利和安全,促進他們的身心健康[67]。香港法律制度下的犯罪年齡為10歲[68]。聯合國兒童權利委員會建議香港政府對相關的本地法律進行改革,將最低刑事責任年齡提高到國際可接受的水平[69]

香港政府應對相關的本地法律進行審議和改革,並落實這一建議。

  • 舉行包容各方的公眾諮詢,並將意見匯入到香港特區對人權事務委員會《問題清單》的答覆中

鑒於其接下來將對香港特區的第四次定期報告進行審議,聯合國人權事務委員會就香港特區實施《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》的進展發表了問題清單。為了確保香港特區所擬備的答覆能反映香港民間社會的擔憂和意見,香港特區政府應該採取措施,不僅要確保公眾的參與和意見,還要將此過程的包容性和多樣性最大化

人權事務委員會特別指出了與國家安全、反煽動和反恐法律有關的問題,並要求澄清緊急狀態和國家安全、反煽動和反恐的法律[70],包括有關以下方面的信息:

  • 《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》與2020年6月30日通過的《香港國安法》之間的關係;
  • 為確保《香港國安法》的適用和執行不違反《公約》規定而採取或計劃採取的措施;
  • 為執行《香港國安法》第56條和第57條所計劃採取的程序和立法措施;
  • 《香港國安法》的適用範圍,包括其域外適用範圍;
  • 《香港國安法》第29條規定的「勾結外國或者境外勢力危害國家安全罪」一語的含義;
  • 《香港國安法》賦予香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會和中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署的權力和豁免,以及監管這些機構的問責機制;以及
  • 根據《香港國安法》對中國香港的法律作出了或計劃作出哪些修訂。
     
  • 接受聯合國專家提供的技術援助

自2019年以來,多個聯合國特別程序就香港的權利狀況發表了關切聲明,其中最近的一次是2020年9月1日。它們還提出了技術諮詢和援助的提議和/或建議,包括與國家安全、刑事和反恐立法有關的事項。值得注意的是,所有有關技術諮詢和援助的建議措施都包括任命一名完全獨立的審查員,或至少建立一個獨立的審查和修訂程序[71]。聯合國人權事務高級專員也強調,她的優先事項之一是向各國提供技術援助。

  • 中華人民共和國應批准《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》

鑒於《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》已被納入《香港國安法》這部國家法律,中國應正式批准《公約》。

批准《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》是在人權對話中推進的,由人權機制、特別程序和民間社會團體提出的主要建議之一。在中國2013年的普遍定期審議中,30多個聯合國成員國也提出了有關批准《公約》的意見和建議[72]。老年人享有所有人權問題獨立專家的前任務執行人羅莎·科恩菲爾德-馬特女士在對中國進行國別訪問後重申,鼓勵中國批准所有尚未締約的人權條約,特別是《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》。這與其他許多就中國問題撰寫報告或就各項人權問題訪問中國的獨立專家的觀點一致[73]

給立法者、法院和政策制定者的建議

  • 善用模糊用語這把雙刃劍

正如法律專家和評論員廣泛關注的,過於寬泛或定義模糊的罪行是《香港國安法》的一大缺陷,而且《香港國安法》、其他香港特區法律和其他國家法律之間的銜接也不明確。雖然《香港國安法》中含糊的規定存在任意行使酌處權和限制權利的風險,但也應將其視為定義、澄清和界定不同行為者行使酌處權和決策的機會。

許多學者認識到,《香港國安法》的模糊性對有效促進和保護人權構成了嚴峻的規範性和結構性挑戰。同時,他們也繼續開展艱巨而必要的工作,探尋對該法進行改革或修訂的可能空間,以及司法解釋和其他工具,以解決任意和歧視性地行使酌處權和決策的嚴重風險(特別是作為前線執行者的香港警務處),並限制過於寬泛或相互衝突的條款,包括普通法法理的適用。

在這一方面,人權事務委員會在其《問題清單》中提出的具體問題為法律改革和修正工作提供了建設性的明確議程,也為當前的學術研究和分析劃清了重點,以為這些立法工作獻計獻策。

結論:當前局勢的風險

《香港國安法》通過僅有數月。為了對香港未來的任何預測提供背景,我們有必要回顧一下內地、香港乃至世界僅在過去的幾年裡發生的劇變。在國內,在習近平的領導下,國家和黨的權力急劇集中化,並擴大了對中國社會各個群體的全面社會和意識形態控制。在全球,中國加大了對現有國際規範秩序的重塑力度;中美兩大經濟強國展開了影響全球的貿易戰;整個世界在被2019冠狀病毒病疫情和氣候危機鉗住,無人能逃的同時,還面臨著獨裁主義、民族主義、排外民粹主義抬頭帶來的威脅。在本世紀初,或者早在1997年,很少有人能夠預料到我們現在的處境。

在此期間,香港人經歷了社會問題的加劇,包括經濟不平等、可負擔住房危機、環境的可持續性,以及現在關於香港年輕人和教育政策的激烈政策辯論。然而,儘管北京不斷侵犯香港的自治權,香港仍然是中國唯一一個有多元化獨立民間社會組織和參與大規模公眾集會和年度集會的地方,包括紀念六四的集會——直到今年生變。

對香港人來說,當前局勢的最終風險就是香港能否有一個在法治之下權利受到尊重的未來,而這對中國內地也有重大影響。正如陳文敏教授所言,香港對中國社會、經濟、政治發展能作出的最佳貢獻,就是保留香港的不同之處和堅持香港的核心價值[74]。現在,距離1984年《聯合聲明》和《基本法》所規定的香港自治、核心價值和生活方式受到保護的50年期限還剩27年。誰能預測未來會怎樣呢?

除了大呼香港已亡、法治已死等論調的新聞頭條之外,《香港國安法》的逐步實施可能讓香港人感到氣餒,但他們並沒有放棄。隨著國家利益斷層線的變化和全球大流行疫情給國際社會敲響警鐘,有令人鼓舞的跡象表明,國際社會有更大的政治意願來共同應對內地和香港的人權挑戰。

除了通過公開聲明、國家立法和為那些必須或選擇離開香港的人士設立安全港和提供其他選擇來應對《香港國安法》造成的人權問題,國際社會還必須要在這些重要努力之外制定具體措施支持香港社會的各類群體,特別是在嚴重受限的大環境下掙扎的年輕人。在他們繼續為塑造香港的未來奮鬥之時,他們需要國際社會的聲援和具體的、精神上的支持。

香港未來言棄實屬尚早。

 


[1] The Decision authorizes the NPC Standing Committee (NPCSC) to draft the legislation, to be added directly into Annex III of the Basic Law—which contains a list of national laws relating to defense and foreign affairs that are applicable to Hong Kong. In effect, the Decision prescribes a legislative process that will bypass the HKSAR’s own legislative process. 全國人民代表大會關於建立健全香港特別行政區維護國家安全的法律制度和執行機制的決定 (Quanguo renmindaibiao dahui guanyu jianli jianquan xianggang tebie xingzhengqu weihu guojia anquan de falv zhidu he zhixing jizhi de jueding, Decision of the National People’s Congress on establishing and completing the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region’s legal system and implementing mechanisms for protecting national security), 13th National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China, 3rd Session (May 28, 2020). Available at: http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2020-05/28/c_1126046490.htm.

[2] Law of the People’s Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2020). Available at: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/A406.

[3] Hualing Fu, “National Security Law: Challenges and Prospects,” in Johannes Chan and C.L. Lim, eds., Law of the Hong Kong Constitution, 3rd edition, Sweet & Maxwell Asia Ltd, forthcoming in 2021.

[4] For the key offences, there is no requirement of violence or use of force, which distinguishes the NSL from both Macau’s National Security Law and Hong Kong’s 2003 Draft National Security Bill, which required use of force and major unlawful means. Hualing Fu, “National Security Law: Challenges and Prospects,” in Johannes Chan and C.L. Lim, eds., Law of the Hong Kong Constitution, 3rd edition, Sweet & Maxwell Asia Ltd, forthcoming in 2021.

[5] Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance (Cap. 383) (1991): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap383, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap383!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N&xpid=ID_....

[6] The Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance was enacted in June 1991, prior to hand-over, but remains effective post 1997.

[7] South China Morning Post Video, “New purple flag warning protesters about breaking national security law used by Hong Kong police.” July 1, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/video/hong-kong/3091340/new-purple-flag-warning-protesters-about-breaking-national-security-law.

[8] See databases maintained by Kong Tsung-gan tracking the total number of protesters arrested and prosecuted since August 2019, with the names and brief information of those arrested. Updated frequently. Available at: Arrests and trials of Hong Kong protesters.

[9] On July 3, the spokesperson for the High Commissioner for Human Rights stated: “[w]e are alarmed that arrests are already made under the [NSL] . . . when there is not full information and understanding of the scope of the offences." Among the concerns expressed are the vague and overly broad definition of the offenses which “may lead to discriminatory or arbitrary interpretation and enforcement”; and the “collusion” offense which “may lead to a restriction of civic space and of the possibility for civil society actors to exercise their right to participate in public affairs.” United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner, Press briefing note on China / Hong Kong SAR by Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on the National Security Law Rupert Colville, July 3, 2020. Available at: EN: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26033&LangID=E, CH: https://www.ohchr.org/CH/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26033&....

[10] Channel News Asia, “Hong Kong press body says new police media rules could limit scrutiny.” September 24, 2020. Available at: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asia/hong-kong-press-body-says-new-police-media-rules-could-limit-scrutiny-13141422.

[11] Leung, Christy, and Cheung, Tony, “Hong Kong police limit access to press briefings to news outlets recognised by government, sparking concern and criticism from media groups.” South China Morning Post, September 22, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-and-crime/article/3102527/who-qualifies-media-hong-kong-police-revising,. In response to the increasingly restrictive environment, foreign media and business have also moved some of their operations out of Hong Kong, e.g., the NYT moved its digital news section to Seoul, South Korean tech firm Naver Corp moved its servers in Hong Kong to Singapore to protect user data. Mercator Institute for China Studies, “Transforming Hong Kong: 100 days of the National Security Law.” October 7, 2020. Available at: https://merics.org/en/graphic/transforming-hong-kong-100-days-national-security-law.

[12] Westbrook, Laura, “National security law: Hong Kong libraries pull books by some localist and democracy activists for review.” South China Morning Post, July 4, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3091842/national-security-law-hong-libraries-pull-books-some.

[13] Statement of the Hong Kong Bar Association on the Hong Kong Government's Decision to Postpone the Legislative Council Election, August 2, 2020. Available at: https://www.hkba.org/sites/default/files/20200802 - HK Government Decision to Postpone the Legislative Council Election %28Eng%29.pdf

[14] Ted Hui was struck by a car in Kennedy Town, Hong Kong, on August 14, 2020 by the same vehicle that had been following him for days. According to Hui, when the police arrived they did not search the vehicle or ask the driver to step out. The Hong Kong police force said that the men were journalists and that the driver passed a breath test, though it was not confirmed which media outlet the journalists are from. Grundy, Tom, “Video: Hong Kong democrat Ted Hui tackled by police after confronting vehicle he said was following him.” Hong Kong Free Press, August 15, 2020. Available at: https://hongkongfp.com/2020/08/15/video-hong-kong-democrat-ted-hui-tackled-by-police-after-confronting-vehicle-he-said-was-following-him/.. A widely circulated video on social media shows the police failing to search the vehicle or speak with the driver, but instead clearing the crowd gathering so that the vehicle could drive away.

[15] Teenage boy played popular protest tunes on a recorder at a crowded intersection as some demonstrators sang along. Ramzy, Austin, Yu, Elaine, and May, Tiffany, “On China’s National Day, Hong Kong Police Quash Protests.” The New York Times. October 1, 2020. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/01/world/asia/hong-kong-protests-china.html; Ho, Kelly, “Protest anthem ‘Glory to Hong Kong’ will survive despite tough new security law and ban in schools, composer says.” Hong Kong Free Press, September 19, 2020. Available at: https://hongkongfp.com/2020/09/19/protest-anthem-glory-to-hong-kong-will-survive-despite-tough-new-security-law-and-ban-in-schools-composer-says/; Mullany, Gerry, “Hong Kong Bans Protest Song and Other Political Expression at Schools.” The New York Times, July 8, 2020. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/08/world/asia/hong-kong-students-protests-china.html. Sadly, Oliver Ma, who was arrested twice for singing protest anthem on street, has stopped performing. Coconuts Hong Kong.,“Arrested twice and facing a dubious weapons charge, ‘Glory to Hong Kong’ busker says he’s stopped performing.” Coconuts Hong Kong, September 10, 2020. Available at: https://coconuts.co/hongkong/news/arrested-twice-weapons-charge-glory-hong-kong-busker-oliver-ma-stopped-performing/.

[16] When Carrie Lam postponed the LegCo election due to COVID-19 and Beijing extended the current LegCo term for a year, pro-democracy lawmakers were divided as to whether they should stay on to serve another term. Raymond Chan and Eddie Chu announced they would not serve out their extended terms, Tanya Chan quit politics for personal reasons, and the remaining 19 out of 22 democratic lawmakers decided to remain in the legislature. Cheung, Tony, Wong, Natalie, and Chung, Kimmy, “Hong Kong leader delays legislative elections, asks Beijing to resolve legal questions, citing coronavirus pandemic dangers.” South China Morning Post, July 31, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3095461/hong-kong-legislative-council-elections-be-postponed; Cheung, Tony, Cheung, Gary, and Chung, Kimmy, “Beijing extends Hong Kong’s Legislative Council term by ‘at least one year’ but kicks ball back to Carrie Lam to decide how disqualified lawmakers can continue their duties.” South China Morning Post, August 11, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3096895/chinas-top-legislative-body-passes-resolution-extending; Wong, Natalie, and Cheung, Tony, “Most of Hong Kong’s opposition lawmakers to serve out extended term in Legislative Council, after supporters narrowly back move in poll.” South China Morning Post, September 29, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3103434/hong-kong-opposition-poll-shows-supporters-narrowly-back.

[17] “As a Chinese person, being a patriot is never by choice. It is an obligation and it is the correct way.” Wong, Rachel, “Beijing’s Liaison Office Chief Luo Huining says security legislation ended unrest in Hong Kong,” Hong Kong Free Press, September 30, 2020. Available at: https://hongkongfp.com/2020/09/30/beijings-liaison-office-chief-luo-huining-says-security-legislation-has-ended-unrest/.

[18] Chung, Kimmy and Leung, Christy, “National security law: arrested Hong Kong activist among group caught by China’s coastguard while fleeing to Taiwan, sources confirm.” South China Morning Post, August 23, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3099094/national-security-law-arrested-hong-kong-activist-among.

[19] Wen, Gang, “Arrest of 12 HK fugitives approved by mainland authorities,” China Daily, October 4, 2020. Available at: https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202010/04/WS5f79b276a31024ad0ba7d2b3.html. They have all been denied access to lawyers of their choice and family visits. Feng, Gao, and Man, Sing, “Hong Kong Detainees in China Denied Meetings With Defense Lawyers,” Radio Free Asia, September 7, 2020. Available at: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/hongkong-protest-09072020154801.html; Wong, Rachel, “Rights lawyer says China may have appointed ‘state lawyers’ to Hongkonger arrested whilst fleeing by boat,” Hong Kong Free Press, September 9, 2020. Available at: https://hongkongfp.com/2020/09/09/rights-lawyer-says-china-may-have-appointed-state-lawyers-to-hongkonger-arrested-whilst-fleeing-by-boat/. On October 9, media reports citing leaked document and flight records of Hong Kong’s Government Flying Service (GFS) suggest Hong Kong police’s involvement in the group’s capture.

[20] Article 22 of the Basic Law states that “[n]o department of the Central People’s Government and no province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the Central Government may interfere in the affairs which the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region administers on its own in accordance with this Law.”

[21] For critical analyses of impact or the relationship of mainland criminal law and procedure law to the NSL HKSAR, see series of articles posted by long-time Chinese law expert, Professor Cohen, available at: Jerome A. Cohen’s blog: http://www.jeromecohen.net/jerrys-blog?offset=1597258389940

[22] “International human rights law requires States and other duty bearers to create and support a safe and enabling environment that allows civil society to exercise fully the rights and freedoms that are indispensable for them to fulfil their essential role of bringing the voices of all parts of society to the table.” See: Para. 57 of the Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, “Procedures and practices in respect of civil society engagement with international and regional organizations,” April 18, 2018. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/HRC/38/18

[23] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (1948). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Documents/UDHR_Translations/eng.pdf.

[24] The ICCPR was adopted by the General Assembly in 1966 and entered into force in March 1976. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx.

[25] The ICESCR was adopted by the General Assembly in 1966 and entered into force in January 1976. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx.

[26] “The same rights that people have offline must also be protected online, in particular freedom of expression, which is applicable regardless of frontiers and through any media of one’s choice, in accordance with article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.” Human Rights Council, “The Promotion, Protection and Enjoyment of Human Rights on the Internet” (A/HRC/38/L.10). July 2, 2018., Available at: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/HRC/d_res_dec/A_HRC_38_L10.docx. See also UN Human Rights Council, “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue,” (A/HRC/17/27).May 16, 2011. Available at: https://documents-ddsny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/132/01/PDF/G1113201.pdf.

[27] Adopted by consensus at the World Conference, endorsed by the forty-eighth session of the General Assembly (resolution 48/121, of 1993). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/vienna.pdf.

[28] Chairpersons, Ten UN Treaty Bodies, “UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies call for human rights approach in fighting COVID-19,” March 24, 2020. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25742&LangID=E. The UN Human Rights Committee also issued a statement reminding states parties to the ICCPR that any derogations from the rights protected must be in compliance with their treaty obligations and with standards on derogations. See UN Human Rights Committee, “Statement on derogations from the Covenant in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic,” April 24, 2020, by clicking “Committee adopts statement on derogations from the Covenant in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, 24 April 2020”. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CCPR/Pages/CCPRIndex.aspx.

[29] The omnibus Resolution was adopted by the General Assembly on September 11, 2020. Preamble of the General Assembly resolution A/74/L.92, “Comprehensive and coordinated response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic,” September 10, 2020. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/74/L.92. See also Statement by UN Special Procedures holder: “While we recognize the severity of the current health crisis and acknowledge that the use of emergency powers is allowed by international law in response to significant threats, we urgently remind States that any emergency responses to the coronavirus must be proportionate, necessary and non-discriminatory… The use of emergency powers must be publicly declared and should be notified to the relevant treaty bodies when fundamental rights including movement, family life and assembly are being significantly limited…Moreover, emergency declarations based on the Covid-19 outbreak should not be used as a basis to target particular groups, minorities, or individuals. It should not function as a cover for repressive action under the guise of protecting health nor should it be used to silence the work of human rights defenders. (Emphasis added). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25722&LangID=E March 16, 2020.

[30] Statement during Item 2 of the 45th session of the Human Rights Council on September 14, 2020. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26226.

[31] HRIC translations of NSL provisions are cited. Please see Appendix A for full annotations.

[32] The term “necessary in a democratic society” is explicitly cited in ICCPR in Article 14 (Right to a free trial), Article 22 (Freedom of Association), and Article 21 (Freedom of Assembly). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx. Although it is not explicitly mentioned in ICCPR Article 17 (Right to Privacy), the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy has cogently argued that the same standard applies and any interference with the right to privacy must also be consistent with “the principles of legality, necessity and proportionality”, reflecting the terms used in the jurisprudence of the Human Rights Committee. See: Para. 17 of the Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy, (A/HRC/40/63)., October 16, 2019. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/HRC/40/63.

[33] See, e.g., Article 2, ICCPR (2), (3)(a)-(c). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx.

[34] The Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information. (November, 1996). Available at: https://www.article19.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/joburg-principles.pdf.

[35] See for example PRC representative Geng Gai, at the Human Rights Council:“[n]ational security legislation is a common practice in all countries including those countries that accuse China. Isn’t it China’s right to legislate our own national security in its own land?” Statement during General Debate under Item 4, UN Human Rights Council 45th session, Geneva, September 28, 2020. See 35:40-35:50, available at http://webtv.un.org/meetings-events/human-rights-council/watch/item4-general-debate-contd-22nd-meeting-45th-regular-session-human-rights-council/6195218409001#player; Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam said in a video message to the UN Human Rights Council on June 30, 2020: “[f]or those foreign governments or politicians raising objection to the legislation, one could only lament the double standards they are adopting. All those countries which have pointed their fingers at China have their own national security legislation in place. We could think of no valid reason why China alone should be inhibited from enacting a national security legislation to protect every corner of its territory and all of its nationals.” Video message of Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam to UN Human Rights Council, June 30, 2020. See 00:28-00:55, available at https://www.scmp.com/video/china/3091249/carrie-lam-defends-national-security-law-speech-united-nations.

[36] See e.g., Nadege Rolland, "China’s Vision for a New World Order”, The National Bureau of Asian Research, January 2020. Available at: https://www.nbr.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/publications/sr83_chinasvision_jan2020.pdf. “The Chinese leadership’s efforts to increase China’s discourse power should not be dismissed or misconstrued as mere propaganda or empty slogans. Rather, they should be seen as evidence of the leadership’s determination to alter the norms that underpin existing institutions and put in place the building blocks of a new international system coveted by the Chinese Communist Party… The Chinese leadership’s critique of the existing international order reveals its unswerving objection to the values on which this order has been built.” (Emphasis added).

[37] The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, adopted at the Third Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress (April 4, 1990), Available at: https://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/images/basiclaw_full_text_en.pdf.

[38] Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance (Cap. 383) (1991): EN, CH. https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap383.

[39] In response to recommendations by UN member states, treaty bodies, and civil society groups, to ratify the ICCPR, including during all three of its UPRs, China has consistently responded that it will do so when the domestic conditions for its ratification are present. Available at: https://www.upr-info.org/en/review/China.

[40] Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Art. 18(a): “[o]bligation not to defeat the object and Purpose of a treaty prior to its entry into force. A State is obliged to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of a treaty when: (a) it has signed the treaty…until it shall have made its intention clear not to become a party to the treaty.”(Emphasis added).

[41] Seven UN experts’ communication to China urging review and reconsideration of National Security Law to comply with international law, September 1, 2020, Available at: https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487; See also Human Rights in China, “UN Legal Experts Urge China to Review, Reconsider National Security Law to Comply with Its International Obligations,” September 6, 2020. Available at: https://www.hrichina.org/en/press-work/hric-law-bulletin/un-legal-experts-urge-china-review-reconsider-national-security-law.

[42] “… States should ensure that counter-terrorism legislation is limited to criminalizing terrorism conduct which is properly and precisely defined on the basis of the provisions of international counterterrorism instruments and is strictly guided by the principles of legality, necessity and proportionality. National legislation should be guided by the acts defined in the Suppression Conventions, the definition found in Security Council resolution 1566 (2004) and also by the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism and the Declaration to Supplement the 1994 Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, which were approved by the General Assembly. The Security Council’s definition of a terrorist act requires intentionality to cause death or serious bodily harm and the act must be committed to provoke a state of terror. The model definition of terrorism advanced by the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism provides clear guidance to States on appropriate conduct to be proscribed as best practice: the model definition’s three-pronged set of elements for the regulation of terrorism acts and its cumulative approach more broadly, function as a safety threshold to ensure that it is only conduct of a terrorist nature that is identified as terrorist conduct.” (Emphases added). Seven UN experts’ communication to China urging review and reconsideration of National Security Law to comply with international law, September 1, 2020. Available at: https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487.

[43] Starting on September 26 and lasting 79 days until the police cleared all the sites by December 15, 2014, the Occupy Central movement—led by students and actively supported by the original OCLP leaders—grew into the largest-scale sustained citizen protest in Hong Kong history, drawing over 100,000 people at its height. This peaceful protest, later also called the Umbrella Movement for the signature yellow umbrellas protestors used to protect themselves from tear gas and other attacks by the police, drew wide attention and support from people around the world. South China Morning Post, “TIMELINE: How Occupy Central’s democracy push turned into an Umbrella Revolution.” October 9, 2014. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1612900/timeline-how-occupy-centrals-democracy-push-turned-umbrella; BBC News, “Hong Kong protests: What is the ‘Umbrella Movement’?” September 28, 2019. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/49862757.

[44] Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019, was formally withdrawn by the government in October 2019. Available at: https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr18-19/english/bills/b201903291.pdf. See also, HKSAR government press release “CE announces withdrawal of Fugitive Offenders Bill among "four actions" to help society move forward.” September 4, 2019. Available at: https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201909/04/P2019090400704.htm#:~:text=The%20Chief%20Executive%2C%20Mrs%20Carrie,withdraw%22%20the%20Fugitive%20Offenders%20Bill.&text=%22First%2C%20the%20Fugitive%20Offenders%20Bill,to%20fully%20allay%20public%20concerns.

[45] See a timeline of selected key protests and events in the Hong Kong protest movement from February 2018 to February 2020 compiled by writer, educator, and activist Kong Tsung-gan. Kong Tsung-gan, Medium. March 11, 2020. Available at: https://medium.com/@KongTsungGan/a-timeline-of-the-hong-kong-protests-1d13422ce006. See also two excellent books by Kong Tsung-gan, Umbrella: A Political Tale from Hong Kong,Pema Press, September 12, 2017; and As long as there is resistance there is hope: Essays on the Hong Kong freedom struggle on the post-Umbrella Movement era, 2014–2018,Pema Press, March 18, 2019.

[46] The widely discredited “fact-finding study” by the Independent Complaints Council (IPCC) (2020) aimed to provide a broader picture of the incidents related to the police use of force that generated large number of complaints. The 900 plus page report concluded there was no systemic problem with policy but room for improvement. Lum, Alvin, and Lok-kei, Sum, “Hong Kong protests: no systemic problem with policing, but room to improve, watchdog concludes”, South China Morning Post, May 15, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-and-crime/article/3084550/hong-k.... See also, Research Office, Legislative Council Secretariat, “Information Note: Policy on police use of force in public order events in selected places, IN14/19-20.” Available at: https://www.legco.gov.hk/research-publications/english/1920in14-policy-on-police-use-of-force-in-public-order-events-in-selected-places-20200713-e.pdf.

[47] The five demands: withdrawal of the extradition bill, an investigation into alleged police brutality and misconduct, the release of all the arrested, a retraction of the official characterisation of the protests as "riots", and the resignation of Carrie Lam as HKSAR Chief Executive.

[48] “Information relating to the work of the Committee [CSNS] shall not be subject to disclosure. Decisions made by the Committee shall not be subject to judicial review.” (Art. 15)

[49] “When assuming office, the head of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force shall . . . swear to abide by the law and to safeguard secrets.” (Art. 16, para. 2)

[50] Implementation Rules for Article 43 of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , gazette July 6, effective July 7, 2020. Available at: https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/06/P2020070600784.htm.

[51] As a prominent Chinese legal scholar also notes, “[h]istorically . . . a unified intelligence, security and police power was regarded as the trademark of totalitarian policing, often associated with the Gestapo or the KGB,” and expresses concern that such “fusion”… “presents a significant danger to Hong Kong’s rule of law-based criminal justice system.” Hualing Fu, “National Security Law: Challenges and Prospects,” in Johannes Chan and C.L. Lim, eds., Law of the Hong Kong Constitution, 3rd edition, Sweet & Maxwell Asia Ltd, forthcoming in 2021.

[52] The Firearms and Ammunition Ordinance (Cap. 238) (1981): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap238, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap238!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N; Import and Export Ordinance (Cap. 60) (1972): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap60, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap60!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N&xpid=ID_1438403512990_002; Prevention of Bribery Ordinance (Cap. 201) (1971): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap201, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap201!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N; Organized and Serious Crimes Ordinance (Cap. 455) (1994): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap455, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap455!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N; and Societies Ordinance (Cap. 151) (1949): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap151, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap151!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N.

[53] Under Hong Kong’s Juvenile Offenders Ordinance, a “child” is defined as anyone aged 13 or younger. A “young person” is aged 14 and 15, and anyone 16 years old and above is no longer considered a juvenile offender, and are tried in court same as adults. Young persons are entitled to same rights as adults when being detained by police, although there are a few differences. A child or young person should not be arrested or interviewed at school, and they must be accompanied by a parent or guardian when being detained or interviewed by police. Under Section 11 of the Juvenile Offenders Ordinance Ordinance, children aged between 10 to 13 cannot be sentenced to imprisonment. Young persons aged between 14 and 15 inclusive, cannot be sentenced to imprisonment if they can be “suitably dealt with in any other way”. Juvenile Offenders Ordinance (Cap. 226); EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap226?pmc=0&m=0&pm=1, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap226!zh-Hant-HK?pmc=0&m=0&pm=1&INDE.... See also: Lee, Joshua, "Can children be arrested and sentenced in court? A breakdown of how Hong Kong law deals with juvenile offenders.” South China Morning Post, May 3, 2018. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/yp/discover/lifestyle/features/article/3071859/can-children-be-arrested-and-sentenced-court.

[54] A 15-year-old student was arrested for carrying a “Hong Kong Independence” flag and is being investigated for secession under the national security law. On the same day, a 17-year-old student was allegedly found with one intact petrol bomb and two broken ones and two others, aged 16 and 17, were arrested for criminal damage. Lau, Chris, and Lo, Clifford, “National security law: at least five people under investigation for secession offences after Hong Kong protest, sources say.” South China Morning Post, July 2, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3091559/national-security-law-three-hong-kong-customs-officers.

[55] Kang-chung, Ng, “Who are Studentlocalism and are they a national security threat for Hong Kong?” South China Morning Post, July 31, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3095412/who-are-studentlocalism-and-are-they-really-national.

[56] Chan, Erin, “Police still holding four activists under new law.” The Standard, July 31, 2020. Available at: https://www.thestandard.com.hk/section-news/section/11/221458/Police-still-holding-four-activists-under-new-law.

[57] Aljazeera, “Hong Kong’s Lam says 12 arrested at sea ‘not democracy activists.’” September 14, 2020. Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/9/15/hong-kongs-lam-says-12-arrested-at-sea-not-democracy-activists; Ramzy, Austin, and Yu, Elaine, “Families of Hong Kong Activists Arrested at Sea Plead for Access to Lawyers.” The New York Times, September 12, 2020. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/12/world/asia/hong-kong-activists-china.html.

[58] Channel News Asia, “At least 12 arrested after protest in Mong Kok.” August 31, 2020. Available at: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asia/hong-kong-police-arrested-protest-mong-kok-13069450.

[59] Siu, Phila, and Ho-him, Chan, “Hong Kong protests: at least 289 arrested as scattered groups heed online calls to rally on postponed election day.” South China Morning Post, September 6, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3100426/hong-kong-protests-small-groups-heed-online-calls-rally.

[60] Committee on the Rights of the Child, “Final Concluding Observations and recommendations, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-fourth session (16 September–4 October 2013): CRC/C/CHN/CO/3-4.” October 29, 2013. The Committee also invited the State party to submit its fifth and sixth periodic reports in one combined report by 31 March 2019.

[61] NPC Observer, “2020 NPC Session: NPC´s Decision on National Security in Hong Kong Explained (Updated),” May 28, 2020. Available at: https://npcobserver.com/2020/05/22/2020-npc-session-npcs-imminent-decision-on-national-security-in-hong-kong-explained/.

[62] Hualing Fu, “China’s Imperatives for National Security Legislation,” in Cora Chan and Fiona de Londras, eds., China's National Security: Endangering Hong Kong's Rule of Law?, Hart Publishing, March 2020.

[63] See also joint statement delivered by German Ambassador Christoph Heusgen on October 6, 2020, on behalf of 39 countries in the General Assembly Third Committee General Debate, expressing grave concerns about the human rights situation in Xinjiang and recent developments in Hong Kong. The joint statement called on China to uphold autonomy, rights and freedoms in Hong Kong, and to respect the independence of the Hong Kong judiciary and to allow “immediate, meaningful and unfettered” access to Xinjiang for independent observers including the UN High Commission for Human Rights and her Office, and relevant special procedure mandate holders to urgently implement CERD’s eight recommendations related to Xinjiang, including by refraining from the arbitrary detention of Uyghurs and members of other minorities. See: Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the United Nations, “Statement by Ambassador Christoph Heusgen on behalf of 39 Countries in the Third Committee General Debate.” October 6, 2020. Available at: https://new-york-un.diplo.de/un-en/news-corner/201006-heusgen-china/2402648.

[64] The UN High Commissioner of the Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, has reportedly been encouraging Hong Kong authorities to monitor closely the enforcement of the National Security Law and to take necessary steps to review it. See Reuters, “U.N. rights chief discussing visit to Xinjiang with China.” September 14, 2020. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-un-rights-china-idUSKBN2651D6.

[65] Seven UN experts’ communication to China urging review and reconsideration of National Security Law to comply with international law, September 1, 2020. Available at: https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487.

[66] As pointed out in this brief, while China has not yet ratified the ICCPR which it signed on October 5, 1998, as a signatory, it has an obligation under the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Art 18(a), to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of the treaty.

[67] A juvenile is defined as every person under the age of 18, the age limit below which it should not be permitted to deprive a child of his or her liberty should be determined by law. Imprisonment should be used as a last resort. United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty, adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/113 of 14 December 1990. Available at: https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/blog/document/united-nations-rules-for-the-protection-of-juveniles-deprived-of-their-liberty/. Juveniles should only be deprived of their liberty in accordance with the principles and procedures set forth in these Rules and in the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules). United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty, adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/113 of 14 December 1990. Available at: https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/blog/document/united-nations-rules-for-the-protection-of-juveniles-deprived-of-their-liberty/.

[68] The Hong Kong Criminal Procedure Ordinance states that courts cannot sentence a young person from age 16 to 20 to imprisonment unless “the court is of opinion that no other method of dealing with such person is appropriate.” This does not apply to “excepted offences,” which include serious crimes like manslaughter, robbery, and indecent assault.

Criminal Procedure Ordinance (Cap. 221) (1899), available at: EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap221; CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap221!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N&xpid=ID_....

[69] Committee on the Rights of the Child, “Final Concluding Observations and recommendations, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-fourth session (16 September–4 October 2013): CRC/C/CHN/CO/3-4.” Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhso23wCwLcI6mikolpecekJiKxokT9PZd%2bAIuwnAS9cTQ8odgT3SN5r8b2fwEGfzcssJ8eKxAFqJbvyE3s8JRY4Uw7I4nkOnElqyaQajNCXsj. October 29, 2013. The Committee also invited the State party to submit its fifth and sixth periodic reports in one combined report by 31 March 2019.

[70] UN Human Rights Committee, “List of issues in relation to the fourth periodic report of Hong Kong, China (Advance unedited version): CCPR/C/CHN-HKG/Q/4”, August 6, 2020. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CCPR/Shared%20Documents/HKG/CCPR_C_CHN-HKG_Q_4_42807_E.pdf.

[71] See for example: Recommendation for the “appointment of a fully independent reviewer of the application, operation, and compliance of the law with international human rights obligations as a recommended best practice by the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. We remain open and willing to provide technical advice and assistance to the establishment and operation of such a body.” (Page 11, UN Special Procedures Joint Statement to China dated September 1); Recommendation “to tighten and ensure that the definition of terrorism contained in national law is appropriately narrow and tailored, and that use of counterterrorism law and practice is in conformity with international human rights standards, and strictly contained to those specifically violent acts that constitute terrorism under international law. We offer technical assistance to this purpose and affirm our goal to engage positively with your Government.” (Page 18, UN Special Procedures Joint Statement to China dated November 1, 2019) (Emphases added.) Seven UN experts’ communication to China urging review and reconsideration of National Security Law to comply with international law, September 1, 2020. Available at: https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487.

[72] See China’s 2013 UPR. Human Rights in China, “UN Treaty Bodies and China”. Available at: https://www.hrichina.org/en/un-treaty-bodies-and-china.

[73] UN General Assembly, “Report of the Independent Expert on the enjoyment of all human rights by older persons: A/HRC/45/14/Add.1,” UN Human Rights Council 45th session, August 7, 2020. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/HRC/45/14/Add.1.

[74] Johannes Chan, “Maintaining Institutional Strength: the Court, the Act of State and the Rule of Law.” In Cora Chan and Fiona de Londras, eds., China's National Security: Endangering Hong Kong's Rule of Law?, Hart Publishing, March 2020.

 

附件A:中國人權最新《中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法》雙語注釋表(重點提出了翻譯問題和修改建議)

Key to notations and changes

  • Grey highlight and bolding have been applied to the terms with translation issues.
  • In Column 2 of the chart (the English translation column), strikethrough has been applied to word(s) in the original official translation for which HRIC suggests alternate translation. HRIC’s suggested alternate translations along with Chinese source text appear inside square brackets.
  • Word(s) added by HRIC are indicated by an asterisk (*) preceding the added word(s) inside square brackets.
  • All emphases (in italics) in the English translation have been added by HRIC.
  • A typographical error in Article 24 of the Chinese source text is indicated: [].

 

HRIC’s suggested translation changes highlight the importance of the accuracy of the text of a law. Technical language accuracy is critical to the accurate understanding of the scope of prohibited activities and the criminal liability. Under international standards and under common law interpretation norms, rights-restricting laws, should be construed narrowly and in the least restrictive manner possible, so as to enable the appropriate exercise of rights. In addition, our suggested language revision is aimed at conveying more accurately the ideological and political tone in several key provisions of the Chinese text, which is not reflected in the official English translation—as a key objective of the NSL, a Chinese law, is to assert control over perceived threats to the ideological and political dominance of the Communist Party of China over Hong Kong.

Below are some examples of HRIC’s suggested translation changes—with strikethrough on the original translation we suggest replacing, followed by our suggested translation change and Chinese source text inside square brackets—that illustrate the issues of scope and ideological and political overtone:

  • From Article 1: “. . . preventing, suppressing and imposing punishment for the offences of secession, subversion, organisation and perpetration of terrorist activities, and collusion with a foreign country or with external elements [overseas forces 境外勢力] to endanger national security . . . .”

    Note: “External elements” can be read as a neutral term, but the Chinese phrase 境外勢力—“overseas forces”—is global in nature and connotes hostility. It is a phrase that is commonly used by the Chinese authorities to refer to foreign governments and civil society organizations critical of China.

  • From Article 5, para. 2: “A person is presumed innocent until convicted by a judicial body. The right to defend himself or herself and other rights in judicial proceedings [the legal process 訴訟] that a criminal suspect, defendant, and other parties in judicial proceedings are entitled to under the law shall be protected [guaranteed 保障].”

    Note: The official English translation of 訴訟 as “judicial proceedings” is a narrow rendering of the source text, whereas the Chinese term is more expansive and should be translated as “the legal process” to convey more accurately that rights are not limited to court proceedings.

  • Article 6: “It is the common responsibility of all the people of China, including the people of Hong Kong [compatriots 同胞], to safeguard the sovereignty, unification and territorial integrity of the People’ s Republic of China.”

    Note: The official English translation, “the people of Hong Kong,” omitted the lineage and jurisdictional claim and the ideological overtone in the source text, 同胞, “compatriots.” The literal meaning of 同胞 is “those born of the same parents.” “Compatriots” is a term commonly used by the United Front Work Department of the Communist Party of China to refer to people in Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan.

  • From Article 21: “A person who incites, assists in, abets [counsels 教唆] or provides pecuniary or other financial assistance or pecuniary property for the commission by other persons of the offence under Article 20 of this Law shall be guilty of an offence.”

    Note: The English word “abet” means “encourage, support, aide, or approve” a wrongdoing; the original Chinese term, 教唆, means “counsel, urge, advise” and is broader than the more narrow act of abetting a prohibited act.

HRIC welcomes comments and suggestions. Please send by email to communications@hrichina.org, with “NSL translation” in the subject line.

 

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法

The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

 

發佈機構: 全國人民代表大會常務委員會
發佈日期:2020 年6月30日
生效日期:2020 年6月30日 

中國人權于2020年10月14日登陸該網頁

Promulgating entity: Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress
Date of promulgation: June 30, 2020
Date of legal effect: June 30, 2020

HRIC visited this page on October 14, 2020

 

目錄

第一章        總則

第二章     香港特別行政區維護國家安全的職責和機構
第一節     職責
第二節     機構

第三章     罪行和處罰
第一節     分裂國家罪
第二節     顛覆國家政權罪
第三節     恐怖活動罪
第四節     勾結外國或者境外勢力危害國家安全罪
第五節     其他處罰規定
第六節     效力範圍

第四章     案件管轄、法律適用和程序

第五章     中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全機構

第六章     附則

Contents

Chapter I      General Principles

Chapter II     The Duties and the Government Bodies of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for Safeguarding National Security
Part 1     Duties
Part 2     Government Bodies 

Chapter III   Offences and Penalties
Part 1     Secession
Part 2     Subversion
Part 3     Terrorist Activities
Part 4     Collusion with a Foreign Country or with External Elements [overseas forces 境外勢力] to Endanger National Security
Part 5     Other Provisions on Penalty
Part 6     Scope of Application

Chapter IV   Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and Procedure

Chapter V    Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 

Chapter VI   Supplementary Provisions

HRIC summary/annotation

Editors’ note: The summary below follows, where applicable, HRIC’s suggested translation change(s) rather than the published official translation.

第一章       總則

Chapter I
General Principles

 

第一條

為堅定不移並全面準確貫徹「一國兩制」、「港人治港」、高度自治的方針,維護國家安全,防範、制止和懲治與香港特別行政區有關的分裂國家、顛覆國家政權、組織實施恐怖活動和勾結外國或者境外勢力危害國家安全等犯罪,保持香港特別行政區的繁榮和穩定,保障香港特別行政區居民的合法權益,根據中華人民共和國憲法、中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法和全國人民代表大會關於建立健全香港特別行政區維護國家安全的法律制度和執行機制的決定,制定本法。

Article 1

This Law is enacted, in accordance with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, and the Decision of the National People’s Congress on Establishing and Improving the Legal System and Enforcement Mechanisms for Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, for the purpose of[1]:

  • ensuring the resolute, full and faithful [correct 準確] implementation of the policy of One Country, Two Systems under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy;
  • safeguarding national security;
  • preventing, suppressing and imposing punishment for the offences of secession, subversion, organisation and perpetration of terrorist activities, and collusion with a foreign country or with external elements [overseas forces 境外勢力] to endanger national security in relation to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
  • maintaining prosperity and stability of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; and
  • protecting [guaranteeing 保障] the lawful rights and interests of the residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Authority for the Law: PRC Constitution, HKSAR Basic Law, and NPCSC Decision.

 

Legislative purposes:

  • implementation of One Country, Two Systems under which people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy;
  • safeguarding national security;
  • preventing, suppressing, and imposing punishment for secession, subversion, organisation, and perpetration of terrorist activities, and collusion with a foreign country or overseas forces;
  • maintaining prosperity and stability of HKSAR; and
  • protecting lawful rights and interests of HKSAR residents.

第二條

關於香港特別行政區法律地位的香港特別行政區基本法第一條*和第十二條規定是香港特別行政區基本法的根本性條款。香港特別行政區任何機構、組織和個人行使權利和自由,不得違背香港特別行政區基本法第一條和第十二條的規定。

Article 2

The provisions in Articles 1 and 12 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on the legal status of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region are the fundamental provisions in the Basic Law. No institution, organisation or individual in the Region shall contravene these provisions in exercising their rights and freedoms.

No contravening of fundamental Basic Law Articles: Art. 1 (HKSAR is inalienable part of PRC) and Art. 12 (HKSAR shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy directly under the Central People's Government (CPG)).

第三條

中央人民政府對香港特別行政區有關的國家安全事務負有根本責任。

Article 3

The Central People’ s Government has an overarching [a fundamental 根本] responsibility for national security affairs relating to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Responsibilities and duties of CPG and HKSAR govt:

  • CPG has fundamental responsibility for national security affairs.
  • HKSAR govt has constitutional duty to safeguard national security.
  • Executive, legislative, and judicial organs of HKSAR shall effectively prevent, suppress, and impose punishment.

香港特別行政區負有維護國家安全的憲制責任,應當履行維護國家安全的職責

It is the [constitutional 憲制] duty of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under the Constitution to safeguard national security and the Region shall perform the duty [duties and responsibilities 職責] accordingly.

香港特別行政區行政機關立法機關、司法機關應當依據本法和其他有關法律規定有效防範、制止和懲治危害國家安全的行為和活動。

The executive authorities, legislature and judiciary [legislative, and judicial organs 立法機關、司法機關] of the Region shall effectively prevent, suppress [prohibit 制止] and impose punishment for any act or activity endangering national security in accordance with this Law and other relevant laws.

第四條

香港特別行政區維護國家安全應當尊重和保障人權,依法保護香港特別行政區居民根據香港特別行政區基本法和《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》、《經濟、社會與文化權利的國際公約》適用於香港的有關規定享有的包括言論、新聞、出版的自由,結社、集會、遊行、示威的自由在內的權利和自由。

Article 4

Human rights shall be respected and protected in safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. [In safeguarding national security, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall respect and guarantee human rights 香港特別行政區維護國家安全應當尊重和保障人權]. The rights and freedoms, including the freedoms of speech, of the press, of publication, of association, of assembly, of procession and of demonstration, which the residents of the Region enjoy under the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the provisions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as applied to Hong Kong, shall be protected in accordance with the law.

Human rights and freedoms shall be respected and protected, including those under Basic Law, ICCPR, and ICESCR:

  • freedoms of speech, the press, publication, association, assembly, procession, and demonstration.

第五條

防範、制止和懲治危害國家安全犯罪,應當堅持法治原則。法律規定為犯罪行為的,依照法律定罪處刑;法律沒有規定為犯罪行為的,不得定罪處刑。

Article 5

The principle of the rule of law shall be adhered to in preventing, suppressing, and imposing punishment for offences endangering national security. A person who commits an act which constitutes an offence under the law shall be convicted and punished in accordance with the law. No one shall be convicted and punished for an act which does not constitute an offence under the law.

Rule of law shall be adhered to in preventing, suppressing, and imposing punishment for offences endangering national security.

任何人未經司法機關判罪之前均假定無罪。保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和其他訴訟參與人依法享有的辯護權和其他訴訟權利。任何人已經司法程序被最終確定有罪或者宣告無罪的,不得就同一行為再予審判或者懲罰。

A person is presumed innocent until convicted by a judicial body. The right to defend himself or herself and other rights in judicial proceedings [the legal process 訴訟] that a criminal suspect, defendant, and other parties in judicial proceedings are entitled to under the law shall be protected [guaranteed 保障]. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he or she has already been finally convicted or acquitted in judicial proceedings.

Presumption of innocence until convicted.

Defence rights of criminal suspects/defendants shall be guaranteed.

No double jeopardy.

第六條

維護國家主權、統一和領土完整是包括香港同胞在內的全中國人民的共同義務。

Article 6

It is the common responsibility of all the people of China, including the people of Hong Kong [compatriots 同胞], to safeguard the sovereignty, unification and territorial integrity of the People’ s Republic of China.

Safeguarding sovereignty, unification, and territorial integrity of PRC is common responsibility of people of China, including of Hong Kong compatriots.

Scope of prohibition: behavior and activities by any institution, organisation, or individual in HKSAR. 

Written confirmation or loyalty oath to uphold Basic Law is required for standing for election or assuming office.

在香港特別行政區的任何機構、組織和個人都應當遵守本法和香港特別行政區有關維護國家安全的其他法律,不得從事危害國家安全的行為和活動。

Any institution, organisation or individual in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall abide by this Law and the laws of the Region in relation to the safeguarding of national security, and shall not engage in any act or activity which endangers national security.

香港特別行政區居民在參選或者就任公職時應當依法簽署文件確認或者宣誓擁護中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法,效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區。

A resident of the Region who stands for election or assumes public office shall confirm in writing or take an oath to uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China and swear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China in accordance with the law.

第二章  香港特別行政區維護國家安全的職責和機構

Chapter II
The Duties and the Government Bodies of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for Safeguarding National Security

 

第一節  職責

Part 1 Duties

 

第七條

香港特別行政區應當儘早完成香港特別行政區基本法規定的維護國家安全立法,完善相關法律。

Article 7

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall complete, as early as possible, legislation for safeguarding national security as stipulated in the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and shall refine [improve 完善] relevant laws.

HKSAR shall complete national security legislation and improve relevant laws.

第八條

香港特別行政區執法、司法機關應當切實執行本法和香港特別行政區現行法律有關防範、制止和懲治危害國家安全行為和活動的規定,有效維護國家安全。

Article 8

In order to safeguard national security effectively, the law enforcement and judicial authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall fully enforce this Law and the laws in force in the Region concerning the prevention of, suppression of, and imposition of punishment for acts and activities endangering national security.

HK law enforcement and judicial authorities shall fully enforce this Law and related HKSAR national security laws.

第九條

香港特別行政區應當加強維護國家安全和防範恐怖活動的工作。對學校、社會團體、媒體、網絡等涉及國家安全的事宜,香港特別行政區政府應當採取必要措施,加強宣傳、指導、監督和管理

Article 9

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall strengthen its work on safeguarding national security and prevention of terrorist activities. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall take necessary measures to strengthen public communication, guidance, supervision and regulation [management 管理] over matters concerning national security, including those relating to schools, universities, social organisations, the media, and the internet.

HKSAR shall:

  • strengthen work on safeguarding national security and prevention of terrorist activities;
  • strengthen public communication guidance, supervision and management over national security matters in relation to schools, universities, social organizations, the media, and the Internet.

NOTE: The Chinese source text states “schools” but not “universities.”

第十條

香港特別行政區應當通過學校、社會團體、媒體、網絡等開展國家安全教育,提高香港特別行政區居民的國家安全意識和守法意識。

Article 10

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall promote [carry out 開展] national security education in schools and universities and through social organisations, the media, the internet and other means to raise the awareness of Hong Kong residents of national security and of the obligation to abide by the law.

HKSAR shall carry out national security education in schools, universities, social organizations, and media, and on the Internet to raise awareness of national security and obligations.

NOTE: The Chinese source text states “schools” but not “universities.”

第十一條

香港特別行政區行政長官應當就香港特別行政區維護國家安全事務向中央人民政府負責,並就香港特別行政區履行維護國家安全職責的情況提交年度報告。

Article 11

The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be accountable to the Central People’ s Government for affairs relating to safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and shall submit an annual report on the performance of duties [*and responsibilities 職責] of the Region in safeguarding national security.

HKSAR Chief Executive (CE) shall be accountable to CPG and submit an annual report and report on specific matters as requested.

如中央人民政府提出要求,行政長官應當就維護國家安全特定事項及時提交報告。

The Chief Executive shall, at the request of the Central People’s Government, submit in a timely manner a report on specific matters relating to safeguarding national security.

 

第二節   機構

Part 2 Government Bodies

 

第十二條

香港特別行政區設立維護國家安全委員會,負責香港特別行政區維護國家安全事務,承擔維護國家安全的主要責任,並接受中央人民政府的監督和問責。

Article 12

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall establish the Committee for Safeguarding National Security. The Committee shall be responsible for affairs relating to and assume primary responsibility for safeguarding national security in the Region. It shall be under the supervision of and accountable to the Central People’ s Government.

HKSAR shall establish Committee for Safeguarding National Security (CSNS), with primary responsibility for safeguarding national security, under supervision of and accountable to CPG.

第十三條

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會由行政長官擔任主席,成員包括政務司長、財政司長、律政司長、保安局局長、警務處處長、本法第十六條規定的警務處維護國家安全部門的負責人、入境事務處處長、海關關長和行政長官辦公室主任。

Article 13

The Chief Executive shall be the chairperson of the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The other members of the Committee shall be [include 包括] the Chief Secretary for Administration, the Financial Secretary, the Secretary for Justice, the Secretary for Security, the Commissioner of Police, the head of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force established under Article 16 of this Law, the Director of Immigration, the Commissioner of Customs and Excise, and the Director of the Chief Executive’ s Office.

CSNS chair: CE
CSNS members:

  • Chief Secretary for Administration
  • Financial Secretary
  • Secretary for Justice
  • Secretary for Security
  • Commissioner of Police
  • Head of Dept for safeguarding national security of the HKPF established under Art. 16
  • Director of Immigration
  • Commissioner of Customs and Excise
  • Director of CE Office

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會下設秘書處,由秘書長領導。秘書長由行政長官提名,報中央人民政府任命。

A secretariat headed by a Secretary-General shall be established under the Committee. The Secretary-General shall be appointed by the Central People’s Government upon nomination by the Chief Executive.

Head of CSNS Secretariat: Secretary-General appointed by CPG, nominated by CE.

第十四條

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會的職責為:

Article 14

The duties and functions [responsibilities 職責] of the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be:

 

  1. 分析研判香港特別行政區維護國家安全形勢規劃有關工作,制定香港特別行政區維護國家安全政策;
  2. 推進香港特別行政區維護國家安全的法律制度和執行機制建設
  3. 協調香港特別行政區維護國家安全的重點工作和重大行動
  1. analysing and assessing developments [situations 形勢] in relation to safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, making work plans [planning related work 規劃有關工作], and formulating policies for safeguarding national security in the Region;
  2. advancing the development [construction 建設] of the legal system and enforcement mechanisms of the Region for safeguarding national security; and
  3. coordinating major [significant 重點] work and significant [major 重大] operations for safeguarding national security in the Region.

Duties and responsibilities of CSNS:

  1. analyse and assess situations, plan related work, formulate policies;
  2. advance construction of HKSAR’s legal system and enforcement mechanisms; and
  3. coordinate significant work and major operations in HKSAR.

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會的工作不受香港特別行政區任何其他機構、組織和個人的干涉,工作信息不予公開。香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會作出的決定不受司法覆核

No institution, organisation or individual in the Region shall interfere with the work of the Committee. Information relating to the work of the Committee shall not be subject to disclosure. Decisions made by the Committee shall not be amenable [subject 不受] to judicial review.

No institution, organisation or individual in HKSAR shall interfere with work of CSNS.

Work of CSNS not subject to disclosure.

Decisions of CSNS not subject to judicial review.

第十五條

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會設立國家安全事務顧問,由中央人民政府指派,就香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會履行職責相關事務提供意見。國家安全事務顧問列席香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會會議。

Article 15

The Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall have a National Security Adviser, who shall be designated by the Central People’ s Government and provide advice on matters relating to the [*performance of 履行] duties and functions [responsibilities ] of the Committee. The National Security Adviser shall sit in on [attend 列席] meetings of the Committee.

National Security Adviser to be designated by CPG shall advise CSNS on matters related to its duties and responsibilities.

第十六條

香港特別行政區政府警務處設立維護國家安全的部門,配備執法力量

Article 16

The Police Force of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall establish a department for safeguarding national security with law enforcement capacity [power].

Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF) to establish dept for safeguarding national security (HKPF DSNS).

警務處維護國家安全部門負責人由行政長官任命,行政長官任命前須書面徵求本法第四十八條規定的機構的意見。警務處維護國家安全部門負責人在就職時應當宣誓擁護中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法,效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區,遵守法律,保守秘密

 

The head of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force shall be appointed by the Chief Executive. The Chief Executive shall seek in writing the opinion of the Office established under Article 48 of this Law before making the appointment. When assuming office, the head of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force shall swear to uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, swear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, and swear to abide by the law and to observe the obligation of secrecy [safeguard secrets 保守秘密].

Head of HKPF DSNS shall be appointed by CE based on opinion of the Office to be established under Art. 48.

Head of HKPF DSNS shall swear:

  • to uphold Basic Law;
  • allegiance to HKSAR;
  • to abide by law; and
  • to safeguard secrets.

警務處維護國家安全部門可以從香港特別行政區以外聘請合格的專門人員和技術人員,協助執行維護國家安全相關任務。

The department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force may recruit qualified professionals [specialists 專門人員] and technical personnel from outside the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to provide assistance in the performance of [*related 相關] duties for safeguarding national security.

DSNS may recruit specialists and technical personnel from outside HKSAR for assistance.

第十七條

警務處維護國家安全部門的職責為:

Article 17

The duties and functions [responsibilities ] of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force shall be:

 

  1. 收集分析涉及國家安全的情報信息;
  2. 部署、協調、推進維護國家安全的措施和行動;
  3. 調查危害國家安全犯罪案件
  4. 進行反幹預調查和開展國家安全審查;
  5. 承辦香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會交辦的維護國家安全工作;
  6. 執行本法所需的其他職責。

collecting and analysing intelligence and information concerning national security;

planning [deploying 部署], coordinating and enforcing [driving forward 推進] measures and operations for safeguarding national security;

investigating offences [cases of offences 犯罪案件] endangering national security;

conducting counter-interference [anti-interference 反幹預] investigation and national security review;

carrying out [undertaking 承辦] tasks of safeguarding national security assigned by the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; and

performing other duties and functions [responsibilities ] necessary for the enforcement of this Law.

Duties and responsibilities of HKPF DSNS:

  1. collect and analyse intelligence;
  2. deploy, coordinate, and drive forward measures and operations;
  3. investigate cases of offences;
  4. conduct anti-interference investigation and national security review;
  5. undertake tasks assigned by CSNS; and
  6. perform other duties and responsibilities necessary for the enforcement of this Law.

第十八條

香港特別行政區律政司設立專門的國家安全犯罪案件檢控部門,負責危害國家安全犯罪案件的檢控工作和其他相關法律事務。該部門檢控官由律政司長徵得香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會同意後任命。

Article 18

The Department of Justice of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall establish a specialised [*national security crimes 國家安全犯罪案件] prosecution division responsible for the prosecution of offences endangering national security and other related legal work. The prosecutors of this division shall be appointed by the Secretary for Justice after obtaining the consent of the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

HKSAR Dept of Justice shall establish specialised national security crimes prosecution division (DOJ SPD).

DOJ SPD prosecutors shall be appointed by Secretary for Justice after consent of CSNS.

律政司國家安全犯罪案件檢控部門負責人由行政長官任命,行政長官任命前須書面徵求本法第四十八條規定的機構的意見。律政司國家安全犯罪案件檢控部門負責人在就職時應當宣誓擁護中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法,效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區,遵守法律,保守秘密

The head of the specialised [*national security crimes 國家安全犯罪案件] prosecution division of the Department of Justice shall be appointed by the Chief Executive, who shall seek in writing the opinion of the Office established under Article 48 of this Law before making the appointment. When assuming office, the head of the specialised [*national security crimes 國家安全犯罪案件] prosecution division shall swear to uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, swear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, and swear to abide by the law and to observe the obligation of secrecy [safeguard secrets 保守秘密].

Head of DOJ SPD shall be appointed by CE, based on opinion of the Office established under Art. 48.

Head of DOJ SPD shall swear:

  • to uphold Basic Law;
  • allegiance to HKSAR;
  • to abide by law; and
  • to observe obligation of secrecy.

第十九條

經行政長官批准,香港特別行政區政府財政司長應當從政府一般收入中撥出專門款項支付關於維護國家安全的開支並核准所涉及的人員編制,不受香港特別行政區現行有關法律規定的限制。財政司長須每年就該款項的控制和管理向立法會提交報告。

 

Article 19

The Financial Secretary of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall, upon approval of the Chief Executive, appropriate from the general revenue a special fund to meet the expenditure for safeguarding national security and approve the establishment of relevant posts, which are not subject to any restrictions in the relevant provisions of the laws in force in the Region. The Financial Secretary shall submit an annual report on the control and management of the fund for this purpose to the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Financial Secretary shall, upon CE approval, appropriate a special fund from general revenue for expenditures for safeguarding national security and establishment of relevant posts—unrestricted by HKSAR laws.

Financial Secretary shall submit annual report on control and management of the fund to HKSAR Legislative Council.

第三章  罪行和處罰

Chapter III
Offences and Penalties

 

第一節  分裂國家罪

Part 1 Secession

 

第二十條

任何人組織、策劃、實施或者參與實施以下旨在分裂國家、破壞國家統一行為之一的,不論是否使用武力或者以武力相威脅,即屬犯罪:

  1. 將香港特別行政區或者中華人民共和國其他任何部分從中華人民共和國分離出去;
  2. 非法改變香港特別行政區或者中華人民共和國其他任何部分的法律地位;
  3. 將香港特別行政區或者中華人民共和國其他任何部分轉歸外國統治

Article 20

A person who organises, plans, commits [implements 實施] or participates in any of the following acts, whether or not by force or threat of force, with a view to committing secession or undermining national unification shall be guilty of an offence:

  1. separating the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or any other part of the People’s Republic of China from the People’s Republic of China;
  2. altering by unlawful means the legal status of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or of any other part of the People’s Republic of China; or
  3. surrendering [transferring 轉歸] the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or any other part of the People’s Republic of China to [*the rule of 統治] a foreign country.

Secession offences.
Organise, plan, implement, or participate in acts to:

  1. separate HKSAR or any other part of PRC from the PRC;
  2. alter by unlawful means status of HKSAR or any other part of PRC; or
  3. transfer HKSAR or any part of PRC to the rule of a foreign country.

犯前款罪,對首要分子或者罪行重大的,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;對積極參加的,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;對其他參加的,處三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。

A person who is a principal offender or a person who commits an offence of a grave nature [with grave circumstances 罪行重大] shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years; a person who actively participates in the offence shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years; and other participants shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention or restriction.

Penalties.
Principal offender of offence with grave circumstances: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years.

Active participant: fixed-term imprisonment of three years to ten years.

Other participants: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention or restriction.

第二十一條

任何人煽動、協助、教唆、以金錢或者其他財物資助他人實施本法第二十條規定的犯罪的,即屬犯罪。情節嚴重的,處五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情節較輕的,處五年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。

Article 21

A person who incites, assists in, abets [counsels 教唆] or provides pecuniary or other financial assistance or pecuniary property for the commission by other persons of the offence under Article 20 of this Law shall be guilty of an offence. If the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a serious nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than ten years; if the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a minor nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention or restriction.

Secession offences.
Incite, assist in, counsel, or provide pecuniary or other financial assistance or property for commission of secession by others.

Penalties.
If circumstances are serious: fixed-term imprisonment of five years to ten years.

If circumstances are minor: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention, or restriction.

第二節  顛覆國家政權罪

Part 2 Subversion

 

第二十二條

任何人組織、策劃、實施或者參與實施以下以武力、威脅使用武力或者其他非法手段旨在顛覆國家政權行為之一的,即屬犯罪:

Article 22

A person who organises, plans, commits [implements 實施] or participates in any of the following acts by force or threat of force or other unlawful means with a view to subverting the State power shall be guilty of an offence:

Subversion offences.
Organise, plan, implement, or participate in acts by force/threat of force/other unlawful means to:

  1. 推翻、破壞中華人民共和國憲法所確立的中華人民共和國根本制度;
  2. 推翻中華人民共和國中央政權機關或者香港特別行政區政權機關
  3. 嚴重幹擾、阻撓破壞中華人民共和國中央政權機關或者香港特別行政區政權機關依法履行職能;
  4. 攻擊、破壞香港特別行政區政權機關履職場所及其設施,致使其無法正常履行職能。
  1. overthrowing or undermining [sabotaging 破壞] the basic system of the People’s Republic of China established by the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China;
  2. overthrowing the body [organs 機關] of central power of the People’s Republic of China or the body of power of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
  3. seriously interfering in, disrupting [obstructing 阻撓], or undermining [sabotaging 破壞] the performance of duties and functions in accordance with the law by the body of central power of the People’s Republic of China or the body of power of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; or
  4. attacking or damaging the premises and facilities used by the body of power of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to perform its duties and functions, rendering it incapable of performing its normal duties and functions.
  1. overthrow or sabotage the basic system of the PRC established by PRC Constitution;
  2. overthrow CPG or HKSAR political organs;
  3. seriously interfere in, obstruct, or sabotage the performance of duties and functions of CPG or HKSAR body of power; or
  4. attack or damage premises and facilities of HKSAR political organs, resulting in their incapacity to perform their normal duties and functions.

犯前款罪,對首要分子或者罪行重大的,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;對積極參加的,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;對其他參加的,處三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。

 

A person who is a principal offender or a person who commits an offence of a grave nature shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years; a person who actively participates in the offence shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years; and other participants shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention or restriction.

Penalties.
Principal offender of offence of a grave nature: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment not less than ten years.

Active participant: fixed-term imprisonment of three years to ten years.

Other participants: imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention, or restriction.

第二十三條

任何人煽動、協助、教唆、以金錢或者其他財物資助他人實施本法第二十二條規定的犯罪的,即屬犯罪。情節嚴重的,處五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情節較輕的,處五年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。

Article 23

A person who incites, assists in, abets [counsels 教唆] or provides pecuniary or other financial assistance or property for the commission by other persons of the offence under Article 22 of this Law shall be guilty of an offence. If the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a serious nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than ten years; if the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a minor nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention or restriction.

Subversion offences.
Incite, assist in, counsel, or provide pecuniary or other financial assistance or property for commission of subversion by others. 

Penalties.
If circumstances are serious: fixed-term imprisonment of five years to ten years. 

If circumstances are minor: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention, or restriction.

第三節  恐怖活動罪

Part 3 Terrorist Activities

 

第二十四條

為脅迫中央人民政府、香港特別行政區政府或者國際組織或者威嚇公眾 [意]實現政治主張,組織、策劃、實施、參與實施或者威脅實施以下造成或者意圖造成嚴重社會危害的恐怖活動之一的,即屬犯罪:

Article 24

A person who organises, plans, commits [implements 實施], participates in or threatens to commit any of the following terrorist activities causing or intended to cause grave harm to the society with a view to coercing the Central People’ s Government, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or an international organisation or intimidating the public in order to pursue political agenda shall be guilty of an offence:

Terrorist activities offences.

  • Organise, plan, implement, participate in, or threaten to commit acts listed below
  • causing or intended to cause grave harm to society
  • in order to coerce CPG, HKSAR, or an int’l org, or intimidate the public to pursue political agenda:
  1. 針對人的嚴重暴力;
  2. 爆炸、縱火或者投放毒害性、放射性、傳染病病原體等物質;
  3. 破壞交通工具、交通設施、電力設備、燃氣設備或者其他易燃易爆設備;
  4. 嚴重幹擾、破壞水、電、燃氣、交通、通訊、網絡等公共服務和管理的電子控制系統;
  5. 以其他危險方法嚴重危害公眾健康或者安全
  1. serious violence against a person or persons;
  2. explosion, arson, or dissemination of poisonous or radioactive substances, pathogens of infectious diseases or other substances;
  3. sabotage of means of transport, transport facilities, electric power or gas facilities, or other combustible or explosible facilities;
  4. serious interruption or sabotage of electronic control systems for providing and managing public services such as water, electric power, gas, transport, telecommunications and the internet; or
  5. other dangerous activities [methods 方法] which seriously jeopardise [harm (or endanger) 重危] public health [or] safety, or security.
  1. serious violence against person or persons;
  2. explosion, arson, dissemination of poisonous or radioactive substances, or pathogens;
  3. sabotage of means of transport, transport facilities, electric power or gas facilities, or other combustible or explosive facilities;
  4. serious interruption or sabotage of electronic control systems for public services; or
  5. other dangerous methods seriously harming (or endangering) public health or safety.

NOTE: Source text contains only a single term for “safety” 安全. The term “security” is not in the source text.

犯前款罪,致人重傷、死亡或者使公私財產遭受重大損失的,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;其他情形,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。

A person who commits the offence causing serious bodily injury, death or significant loss of public or private property shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years; in other circumstances, a person who commits the offence shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years.

Penalties.
Offender causing serious bodily injury, death, or significant loss of public or private property: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years. 

Offender in other circumstances: fixed-term imprisonment of three years to ten years.

第二十五條

組織、領導恐怖活動組織的,即屬犯罪,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑,並處沒收財產;積極參加的,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,並處罰金;其他參加的,處三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,可以並處罰金。

Article 25

A person who organises or takes charge of [leads 領導] a terrorist organisation shall be guilty of an offence and shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years, and shall be subject to confiscation of property; a person who actively participates in a terrorist organisation shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years and shall be imposed with a criminal fine; and other participants shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention or restriction, and shall be liable to a criminal fine.

Penalties.
Offender who organises or leads a terrorist organisation: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years; and confiscation of property.

Active participant in a terrorist organisation: fixed-term imprisonment of three years to ten years and criminal fine.

Other participants: imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention, or restriction.

本法所指的恐怖活動組織,是指實施或者意圖實施本法第二十四條規定的恐怖活動罪行或者參與或者協助實施本法第二十四條規定的恐怖活動罪行的組織。

For the purpose of this Law, a terrorist organisation means an organisation which commits or intends to commit the offence under Article 24 of this Law or participates or assists in the commission of the offence.

Definition.

Terrorist organisation: an organisation which commits or intends to commit, terrorist offences, or participates or assists in commission of offences under Art. 24.

第二十六條

為恐怖活動組織、恐怖活動人員、恐怖活動實施提供培訓、武器、信息、資金、物資、勞務、運輸、技術或者場所等支持、協助、便利,或者製造、非法管有爆炸性、毒害性、放射性、傳染病病原體等物質以及以其他形式準備實施恐怖活動的,即屬犯罪。情節嚴重的,處五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,並處罰金或者沒收財產;其他情形,處五年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,並處罰金。

Article 26

A person who provides support, assistance or facility [facilitation 便利] such as training, weapons, information, funds, supplies, labour, transport, technologies or venues to a terrorist organisation or a terrorist, or for the commission of a terrorist activity; or manufactures or illegally possesses substances such as explosive, poisonous or radioactive substances and pathogens of infectious diseases or uses other means to prepare for the commission of a terrorist activity, shall be guilty of an offence. If the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a serious nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than ten years, and shall be imposed with a criminal fine or subject to confiscation of property; in other circumstances, a person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention or restriction, and shall be imposed with a criminal fine.

Terrorist activities offences.

  • provide support, assistance, or facilitation such as training, weapons, information, funds, supplies, labour, transport, technologies or venues to terrorist organization or a terrorist; or
  • manufacture or illegally possess explosives, poisonous or radioactive substances, or pathogens for commission of terrorist activities.

Penalties.
If circumstances are serious: fixed-term imprisonment of five years to ten years, and criminal fine or confiscation of property.

Other circumstances: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention, or restriction, and criminal fine.

有前款行為,同時構成其他犯罪的,依照處罰較重的規定定罪處罰。

If the act referred to in the preceding paragraph also constitutes other offences, the person who commits the act shall be convicted and sentenced for the offence that carries a more severe penalty.

Offender of acts in preceding paragraph which also constitute other offences shall be convicted and sentenced for the offences carrying more severe penalties.

第二十七條

宣揚恐怖主義、煽動實施恐怖活動的,即屬犯罪。情節嚴重的,處五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,並處罰金或者沒收財產;其他情形,處五年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,並處罰金。

Article 27

A person who advocates terrorism or incites the commission of a terrorist activity shall be guilty of an offence. If the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a serious nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than ten years, and shall be imposed with a criminal fine or subject to confiscation of property; in other circumstances, a person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention or restriction, and shall be imposed with a criminal fine.

Terrorist activities offence.
Advocate terrorism or incites the commission of a terrorist activity.

Penalties.
If circumstances are serious: fixed-term imprisonment of five years to ten years, and criminal fine or confiscation of property.

Other circumstances: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention, or restriction, and criminal fine.

第二十八條

本節規定不影響依據香港特別行政區法律對其他形式的恐怖活動犯罪追究刑事責任並採取凍結財產等措施。

Article 28

The provisions of this Part shall not affect the prosecution of terrorist offences committed in other forms or the imposition of other measures such as freezing of property in accordance with the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Terrorist activities in Part 3 shall not affect prosecution of terrorist offences committed in other forms under HKSAR laws.

第四節  勾結外國或者境外勢力危害國家安全罪

Part 4 Collusion with a Foreign Country or with External Elements [Overseas Forces 境外勢力] to Endanger National Security

 

第二十九條

為外國或者境外機構、組織、人員竊取、刺探、收買、非法提供涉及國家安全的國家秘密或者情報的;請求外國或者境外機構、組織、人員實施,與外國或者境外機構、組織、人員串謀實施,或者直接或者間接接受外國或者境外機構、組織、人員的指使、控制、資助或者其他形式的支援實施以下行為之一的,均屬犯罪:

Article 29

A person who steals, spies, obtains with payment, or unlawfully provides State secrets or intelligence concerning national security for a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China shall be guilty of an offence; a person who requests a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China, or conspires with a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China, or directly or indirectly receives instructions, control, funding or other kinds of support from a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China, to commit any of the following acts shall be guilty of an offence:

Collusion offences.

  • steal, spy, obtain with payment, or unlawfully provide State secrets or intelligence concerning national security for a foreign country, or an overseas institution, organization or individual; or
  • request, conspire with, or directly or indirectly receive instructions, control, funding, or other kinds of support from a foreign country, or an overseas institution, organization or individual to commit any of the following acts:
  1. 對中華人民共和國發動戰爭,或者以武力或者武力相威脅,對中華人民共和國主權、統一和領土完整造成嚴重危害
  2. 對香港特別行政區政府或者中央人民政府制定和執行法律、政策進行嚴重阻撓並可能造成嚴重後果;
  3. 對香港特別行政區選舉進行操控、破壞並可能造成嚴重後果;
  4. 對香港特別行政區或者中華人民共和國進行制裁、封鎖或者採取其他敵對行動;
  5. 通過各種非法方式引發香港特別行政區居民對中央人民政府或者香港特別行政區政府的憎恨並可能造成嚴重後果。
  1. waging a war against the People’s Republic of China, or using or threatening to use force to seriously undermine [harm (or endanger) 危害] the sovereignty, unification and territorial integrity of the People’s Republic of China;
  2. seriously disrupting [obstructing 阻撓] the formulation and implementation of laws or policies by the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or by the Central People’s Government, which is likely to cause serious consequences;
  3. rigging or undermining [sabotaging 破壞] an election in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, which is likely to cause serious consequences;
  4. imposing sanctions or blockade, or engaging in other hostile activities against the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or the People’s Republic of China; or
  5. provoking by unlawful means hatred among Hong Kong residents towards the Central People’s Government or the Government of the Region, which is likely to cause serious consequences.
  1. wage war against PRC, or use or threaten to use force to seriously harm (or endanger) PRC sovereignty, unification, and territorial integrity;
  2. seriously obstruct formulation or implementation of laws or polices by HKSAR govt or CPG likely causing serious consequences;
  3. rig or sabotage an election in HKSAR likely causing serious consequences;
  4. impose sanctions or blockade, or engage in other hostiles act against HKSAR or PRC; or
  5. provoke by unlawful means hatred among Hong Kong residents toward CPG or HKSAR govt likely causing serious consequences.

犯前款罪,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;罪行重大的,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑。

A person who commits the offence shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years; a person who commits an offence of a grave nature shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years.

Penalties.

Fixed-term Imprisonment of three years to ten years.

Offence of grave nature: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years.

本條第一款規定涉及的境外機構、組織、人員,按共同犯罪定罪處刑。

The [overseas 境外] institution, organisation and individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’s Republic of China referred to in the first paragraph of this Article shall be convicted and punished for the same offence [their joint offences 共同犯罪].

Overseas institution, organisation, and individual referred to in the first paragraph shall be convicted and punished for the same offence.

第三十條

為實施本法第二十條、第二十二條規定的犯罪,與外國或者境外機構、組織、人員串謀,或者直接或者間接接受外國或者境外機構、組織、人員的指使、控制、資助或者其他形式的支援的,依照本法第二十條、第二十二條的規定從重處罰。

Article 30

A person who conspires with or directly or indirectly receives instructions, control, funding or other kinds of support from a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation, or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China to commit the offences under Article 20 or 22 of this Law shall be liable to a more severe penalty in accordance with the provisions therein respectively.

Penalty.

Offender who conspires with or directly or indirectly receives instructions, control, funding, or other kinds of support from a foreign country or overseas institution, organisation, or individual to commit secession (Art. 20) or subversion (Art. 22) shall receive the more severe penalties set out in Arts. 20 and 22.

第五節  其他處罰規定

Part 5 Other Provisions on Penalty

 

第三十一條

公司、團體等法人或者非法人組織實施本法規定的犯罪的,對該組織判處罰金。

Article 31

n incorporated or unincorporated body such as a company or an organisation which commits an offence under this Law shall be imposed with a criminal fine.

Penalties.
Incorporated or unincorporated body:
criminal fines and suspension of operation and revocation of license or business permit.

公司、團體等法人或者非法人組織因犯本法規定的罪行受到刑事處罰的,應責令其暫停運作或者吊銷其執照或者營業許可證。

The operation of an incorporated or unincorporated body such as a company or an organisation shall be suspended or its licence or business permit shall be revoked if the body has been punished for committing an offence under this Law.

 

第三十二條

因實施本法規定的犯罪而獲得的資助、收益、報酬等違法所得以及用於或者意圖用於犯罪的資金和工具,應當予以追繳、沒收。

Article 32

Proceeds obtained from the commission of an offence under this Law including financial aid, gains and rewards, and funds and tools used or intended to be used in the commission of the offence shall be seized [recovered 追繳] and confiscated.

Penalties.

Recovery and confiscation of proceeds from, and funds and tools used or intended to be used in, the commission of an offence.

第三十三條

有以下情形的,對有關犯罪行為人、犯罪嫌疑人、被告人可以從輕、減輕處罰;犯罪較輕的,可以免除處罰:

  1. 在犯罪過程中,自動放棄犯罪或者自動有效地防止犯罪結果發生的;
  2. 自動投案,如實供述自己的罪行的;
  3. 揭發他人犯罪行為,查證屬實,或者提供重要線索得以偵破其他案件的。

Article 33

A lighter penalty may be imposed, or the penalty may be reduced or, in the case of a minor offence, exempted, if an offender, criminal suspect, or defendant:

  1. in the process of committing an offence, voluntarily discontinues the commission of the offence or voluntarily and effectively forestalls its consequences;
  2. voluntarily surrenders himself or herself and gives a truthful account of the offence; or
  3. reports on the offence committed by other [another 他人] person, which is verified to be true, or provides material information which assists in solving other criminal case.

Lighter or reduced penalties, or exemption, in case of minor offence if offender:

  1. discontinues the commission of the offence;
  2. surrenders and gives a truthful account of the offence; or
  3. reports on others or provides information assisting in solving other cases.

被採取強制措施的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人如實供述執法、司法機關未掌握的本人犯有本法規定的其他罪行的,按前款第二項規定處理。

Sub-paragraph (2) of the preceding paragraph shall apply to a criminal suspect or defendant who is subjected to mandatory measures and provides a truthful account of other offences committed by him or her under this Law which are unknown to the law enforcement or judicial authorities.

 

第三十四條

不具有香港特別行政區永久性居民身份的人實施本法規定的犯罪的,可以獨立適用或者附加適用驅逐出境。

Article 34

A person who is not a permanent resident of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may be subject to deportation as the sole or an additional [an independent or supplementary 獨立適用或者附加] punishment if he or she commits an offence under this Law.

Penalties for persons without HKSAR permanent residency status:

  • deportation as independent or supplementary punishment if offence is committed;
  • deportation if person contravenes this Law but is not prosecuted.

不具有香港特別行政區永久性居民身份的人違反本法規定,因任何原因不對其追究刑事責任的,也可以驅逐出境。

A person who is not a permanent resident of the Region may be subject to deportation if he or she contravenes the provisions of this Law but is not prosecuted for any reason.

 

第三十五條

任何人經法院判決犯危害國家安全罪行的,即喪失作為候選人參加香港特別行政區舉行的立法會、區議會選舉或者出任香港特別行政區任何公職或者行政長官選舉委員會委員的資格;曾經宣誓或者聲明擁護中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法、效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區的立法會議員、政府官員及公務人員、行政會議成員、法官及其他司法人員、區議員,即時喪失該等職務,並喪失參選或者出任上述職務的資格。

Article 35

A person who is convicted of an offence endangering national security by a court shall be disqualified from standing as a candidate in the elections of the Legislative Council and district councils of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, holding any public office in the Region, or serving as a member of the Election Committee for electing the Chief Executive. If a person so convicted is a member of the Legislative Council, a government official, a public servant, a member of the Executive Council, a judge or a judicial officer, or a member of the district councils, who has taken an oath or made a declaration to uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’ s Republic of China and swear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’ s Republic of China, he or she shall be removed from his or her office upon conviction, and shall be disqualified from standing for the aforementioned elections or from holding any of the aforementioned posts.

Conviction of national security offence disqualifies persons from standing as candidates or holding any public office.

If a LegCo member, govt official, public servant, or member of district council who has taken oath is convicted of national security offence, he/she shall be removed, and disqualified from standing as candidates or holding any public office.

NOTE: Since a conviction can be reversed on appeal, this reference to conviction by “a” court經法院判決 raises questions on whether a conviction by “a” court that is being appealed can be the basis for disqualification/removal.

前款規定資格或者職務的喪失,由負責組織、管理有關選舉或者公職任免的機構宣佈。

The disqualification and removal from offices referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be announced by the authorities responsible for organising and managing the relevant elections or for the appointment and removal of holders of public office.

 

第六節  效力範圍

Part 6 Scope of Application

 

第三十六條

任何人在香港特別行政區內實施本法規定的犯罪的,適用本法。犯罪的行為或者結果有一項發生在香港特別行政區內的,就認為是在香港特別行政區內犯罪。

Article 36

This Law shall apply to offences under this Law which are committed in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region by any person. An offence shall be deemed to have been committed in the Region if an act constituting the offence or the consequence of the offence occurs in the Region.

This Law applies to:

  • offences committed in HKSAR by any person, including acts or consequences occurring in the HKSAR; or
  • on board a vessel/aircraft registered in HKSAR.

在香港特別行政區註冊的船舶或者航空器內實施本法規定的犯罪的,也適用本法。

This Law shall also apply to offences under this Law committed on board a vessel or aircraft registered in the Region.

 

第三十七條

香港特別行政區永久性居民或者在香港特別行政區成立的公司、團體等法人或者非法人組織在香港特別行政區以外實施本法規定的犯罪的,適用本法。

Article 37

This Law shall apply to a person who is a permanent resident of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or an incorporated or unincorporated body such as a company or an organisation which is set up in the Region if the person or the body commits an offence under this Law outside the Region.

This Law applies to:

  • a HKSAR permanent resident;
  • an incorporated or unincorporated body set up in HKSAR; or
  • a person or the body who commits an offence under this Law outside HKSAR.

第三十八條

不具有香港特別行政區永久性居民身份的人在香港特別行政區以外針對香港特別行政區實施本法規定的犯罪的,適用本法。

Article 38

This Law shall apply to offences under this Law committed against the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region from outside the Region by a person who is not a permanent resident of the Region.

This Law applies to:
offences committed against the HKSAR from outside HKSAR by a person who is not a HKSAR permanent resident.

第三十九條

本法施行以後的行為,適用本法定罪處刑。

Article 39

This Law shall apply to acts committed after its entry into force for the purpose of conviction and imposition of punishment.

This Law applies to acts committed after this Law’s entry into force.

第四章  案件管轄、法律適用和程序

Chapter IV
Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and Procedure

 

第四十條

香港特別行政區對本法規定的犯罪案件行使管轄權,但本法第五十五條規定的情形除外。

Article 40

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall have jurisdiction over cases concerning offences under this Law, except under the circumstances specified in Article 55 of this Law.

 HKSAR has jurisdiction except for circumstances specified in Art. 55 (jurisdiction of the Office for Safeguarding National Security of CPG in HKSAR).

第四十一條

香港特別行政區管轄危害國家安全犯罪案件的立案偵查、檢控、審判和刑罰的執行等程序事宜,適用本法和香港特別行政區本地法律。

Article 41

This Law and the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall apply to procedural matters, including those related to criminal [*case filing 案件的立案,] investigation, prosecution, trial, and execution of penalty, in respect of cases concerning offence endangering national security over which the Region exercises jurisdiction.

This Law shall apply to criminal case filing, investigation, prosecution, trial, and execution of penalty of cases over which the HKSAR has jurisdiction.

未經律政司長書面同意,任何人不得就危害國家安全犯罪案件提出檢控。但該規定不影響就有關犯罪依法逮捕犯罪嫌疑人並將其羈押,也不影響該等犯罪嫌疑人申請保釋。

No prosecution shall be instituted in respect of an offence endangering national security without the written consent of the Secretary for Justice. This provision shall not prejudice the arrest and detention of a person who is suspected of having committed the offence or the application for bail by the person in accordance with the law.

No prosecution may be initiated without written consent of Secretary for Justice.

香港特別行政區管轄的危害國家安全犯罪案件的審判循公訴程序進行。

Cases concerning offence endangering national security within the jurisdiction of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be tried on indictment.

Cases of endangering national security within the jurisdiction of the HKSAR shall be tried on indictment.

審判應當公開進行。因為涉及國家秘密、公共秩序等情形不宜公開審理的,禁止新聞界和公眾旁聽全部或者一部分審理程序,但判決結果應當一律公開宣佈。

The trial shall be conducted in an open court. When circumstances arise such as the trial involving State secrets or public order, [the media and the public shall be prohibited from attending 禁止新聞界和公眾旁聽] all or part of the trial shall be closed to the media and the public but the judgment shall be delivered in an open court.

All or part of a trial involving State secrets or public order shall be closed to media and public; judgment to be delivered in open court.

第四十二條

香港特別行政區執法、司法機關在適用香港特別行政區現行法律有關羈押審理期限等方面的規定時,應當確保危害國家安全犯罪案件公正、及時辦理,有效防範、制止和懲治危害國家安全犯罪。

Article 42

When applying the laws in force in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region concerning matters such as the detention and time limit for trial [time limits related to detention and trial 有關羈押、審理期限], the law enforcement and judicial authorities of the Region shall ensure that cases concerning offence endangering national security are handled in a fair and timely manner so as to effectively prevent, suppress and impose punishment for such offence.

HKSAR law enforcement and judicial authorities shall ensure fairness and timeliness in handling national security cases, so as to prevent, suppress, and punish the offences.

「對犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,除非法官有充足理由相信其不會繼續實施危害國家安全行為的,不得准予保釋。

No bail shall be granted to a criminal suspect or defendant unless the judge has sufficient grounds for believing that the criminal suspect or defendant will not continue to commit acts endangering national security.

No bail for a suspect unless a judge determines the suspect/defendant will not continue to commit acts.

第四十三條

香港特別行政區政府警務處維護國家安全部門辦理危害國家安全犯罪案件時,可以採取香港特別行政區現行法律准予警方等執法部門在調查嚴重犯罪案件時採取的各種措施,並可以採取以下措施:

Article 43

When handling cases concerning offence endangering national security, the department for safeguarding national security of the Police Force of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may take measures that law enforcement authorities, including the Hong Kong Police Force, are allowed to apply under the laws in force in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in investigating serious crimes, and may also take the following measures:

HKPF DSNS may take measures outside of those authorized by existing laws, including:

  1. 搜查可能存有犯罪證據的處所、車輛、船隻、航空器以及其他有關地方和電子設備;
  2. 要求涉嫌實施危害國家安全犯罪行為的人員交出旅行證件或者限制其離境;
  3. 對用於或者意圖用於犯罪的財產、因犯罪所得的收益等與犯罪相關的財產,予以凍結,申請限制令、押記令、沒收令以及充公;
  4. 要求信息發佈人或者有關服務商移除信息或者提供協助;
  5. 要求外國及境外政治性組織,外國及境外當局或者政治性組織的代理人提供資料;
  6. 經行政長官批准,對有合理理由懷疑涉及實施危害國家安全犯罪的人員進行截取通訊和秘密監察;
  7. 對有合理理由懷疑擁有與偵查有關的資料或者管有有關物料的人員,要求其回答問題和提交資料或者物料。
  1. search of premises, vehicles, vessels, aircraft and other relevant places and electronic devices that may contain evidence of an offence;
  2. ordering any person suspected of having committed an offence endangering national security to surrender travel documents, or prohibiting the person concerned from leaving the Region;
  3. freezing of, applying for restraint order, charging order and confiscation order in respect of, and forfeiture of property used or intended to be used for the commission of the offence, proceeds of crime, or other property relating to the commission of the offence;
  4. requiring a person who published information or the relevant service provider to delete [remove 移除] the information or provide assistance;
  5. requiring a political organisation of a foreign country or outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’s Republic of China, or an agent of authorities or a political organisation of a foreign country or outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’s Republic of China, to provide information;
  6. upon approval of the Chief Executive, carrying out interception of communications and conducting covert surveillance on a person who is suspected, on reasonable grounds, of having involved in the commission of an offence endangering national security; and
  7. requiring a person, who is suspected, on reasonable grounds, of having in possession information or material relevant to investigation, to answer questions and furnish such information or produce such material.
  1. searches of premises, vehicles, vessels, aircraft and other relevant places and electronic devices;
  2. ordering surrender of travel documents;
  3. freezing and confiscating property, proceeds of crimes, other related property;
  4. requiring service providers to remove published information;
  5. requiring foreign political organisations or their agents outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao to provide information;
  6. with approval of CE, intercepting communications and carrying out covert surveillance on suspects; and
  7. requiring a person suspected of possessing information or material relevant to investigation to answer questions and provide the material.

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會對警務處維護國家安全部門等執法機構採取本條第一款規定措施負有監督責任。

The Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be responsible for supervising the implementation of the measures stipulated in the first paragraph of this Article by law enforcement authorities including the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force.

CSNS (established by Art. 12) shall have oversight over implementation of measures in the first paragraph of this Article by law enforcement including the HKPF DSNS.

授權香港特別行政區行政長官會同香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會為採取本條第一款規定措施制定相關實施細則。

The Chief Executive shall be authorised, in conjunction with the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, to make relevant implementation rules for the purpose of applying the measures under the first paragraph of this Article.

CE shall be authorized, in conjunction with CSNS, to make implementation rules for applying HKPF DSNS measures.

第四十四條

香港特別行政區行政長官應當從裁判官、區域法院法官、高等法院原訟法庭法官、上訴法庭法官以及終審法院法官中指定若干名法官,也可從暫委或者特委法官中指定若干名法官,負責處理危害國家安全犯罪案件。行政長官在指定法官前可徵詢香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會和終審法院首席法官的意見。上述指定法官任期一年。

Article 44

The Chief Executive shall designate a number of judges from the magistrates, the judges of the District Court, the judges of the Court of First Instance and the Court of Appeal of the High Court, and the judges of the Court of Final Appeal, and may also designate a number of judges from deputy judges or recorders, to handle cases concerning offence endangering national security. Before making such designation, the Chief Executive may consult the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Chief Justice of the Court of Final Appeal. The term of office of the aforementioned designated judges shall be one year.

CE shall designate judges to handle national security cases.

CE may consult with the CSNS and the Chief Justice, and judges of the Court of Final Appeal for making such designations.

凡有危害國家安全言行的,不得被指定為審理危害國家安全犯罪案件的法官。在獲任指定法官期間,如有危害國家安全言行的,終止其指定法官資格。

A person shall not be designated as a judge to adjudicate a case concerning offence endangering national security if he or she has made any statement or behaved in any manner endangering national security. A designated judge shall be removed from the designation list if he or she makes any statement or behaves in any manner endangering national security during the term of office.

Judges who have made statements or committed acts that have “in any manner” endangered national security shall not adjudicate national security cases.

在裁判法院、區域法院、高等法院和終審法院就危害國家安全犯罪案件提起的刑事檢控程序應當分別由各該法院的指定法官處理。

The proceedings in relation to the prosecution for offences endangering national security in the magistrates’ courts, the District Court, the High Court and the Court of Final Appeal shall be handled by the designated judges in the respective courts.

All national security cases shall be tried by designated judges in the respective courts

第四十五條

除本法另有規定外,裁判法院、區域法院、高等法院和終審法院應當按照香港特別行政區的其他法律處理就危害國家安全犯罪案件提起的刑事檢控程序。

Article 45

Unless otherwise provided by this Law, magistrates’ courts, the District Court, the High Court and the Court of Final Appeal shall handle proceedings in relation to the prosecution for offences endangering national security in accordance with the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Designated judges at all levels of courts shall handle national security cases in accordance with the laws of the HKSAR.

第四十六條

對高等法院原訟法庭進行的就危害國家安全犯罪案件提起的刑事檢控程序,律政司長可基於保護國家秘密、案件具有涉外因素或者保障陪審員及其家人的人身安全理由,發出證書指示相關訴訟毋須在有陪審團的情況下進行審理。凡律政司長發出上述證書,高等法院原訟法庭應當在沒有陪審團的情況下進行審理,並由三名法官組成審判庭。

Article 46

In criminal proceedings in the Court of First Instance of the High Court concerning offences endangering national security, the Secretary for Justice may issue a certificate directing that the case shall be tried without a jury on the grounds of, among others, [including 等:] the protection of State secrets, involvement of foreign factors in the case, and the protection [guarantee 保障] of personal safety of jurors and their family members. Where the Secretary for Justice has issued the certificate, the case shall be tried in the Court of First Instance without a jury by a panel of three judges.

Secretary of Justice may issue certificate for trial without jury on grounds including:

  • protection of state secrets;
  • “foreign factors” involvement; and
  • guarantee of personal safety of jurors and family members.

凡律政司長發出前款規定的證書,適用於相關訴訟的香港特別行政區任何法律條文關於「陪審團」或者「陪審團的裁決」,均應當理解為指法官或者法官作為事實裁斷者的職能。

Where the Secretary for Justice has issued the certificate, the reference to “a jury” or “a verdict of the jury” in any provision of the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region applicable to the related proceedings shall be construed as referring to the judges or the functions of the judge as a judge of fact.

With this certificate, a case shall be tried by a panel of three judges in the Court of First Instance.

References to “jury” or “verdict of the jury” in such cases are construed as judges functioning as judge of fact.

第四十七條

香港特別行政區法院在審理案件中遇有涉及有關行為是否涉及國家安全或者有關證據材料是否涉及國家秘密的認定問題,應取得行政長官就該等問題發出的證明書,上述證明書對法院有約束力。

Article 47

The courts of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall obtain a certificate from the Chief Executive to certify whether an act involves national security or whether the relevant evidence involves State secrets when such questions arise in the adjudication of a case. The certificate shall be binding on the courts.

HKSAR courts shall obtain binding certificate from CE regarding:

  • whether act involves national security; or
  • evidence involves state secrets.

第五章  中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全機構

Chapter V
Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

 

第四十八條

中央人民政府在香港特別行政區設立維護國家安全公署。中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署依法履行維護國家安全職責,行使相關權力。

Article 48

The Central People’ s Government shall establish in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region an office for safeguarding national security. The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall perform its mandate [duties and responsibilities 職責] for safeguarding national security and exercise relevant powers in accordance with the law.

CPG shall establish an Office for Safeguarding National Security (OSNS) in HKSAR.

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署人員由中央人民政府維護國家安全的有關機關聯合派出。

The staff of the Office shall be jointly dispatched by relevant national security authorities under the Central People’s Government.

Staff of OSNS are sent by relevant CPG national security authorities

第四十九條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署的職責為:

Article 49

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall perform the following mandate [duties and responsibilities 職責]:

 

  1. 分析研判香港特別行政區維護國家安全形勢,就維護國家安全重大戰略和重要政策提出意見和建議
  2. 監督、指導、協調、支持香港特別行政區履行維護國家安全的職責
  3. 收集分析國家安全情報信息;
  4. 依法辦理危害國家安全犯罪案件。
  1. analysing and assessing developments [situations形勢] in relation to safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and providing opinions and making proposals [recommendations 建議] on major strategies and important policies for safeguarding national security;
  2. overseeing, guiding, coordinating with, and providing support to the Region in the performance of its duties [*and responsibilities 職責] for safeguarding national security;
  3. collecting and analysing intelligence and information concerning national security; and
  4. handling cases concerning offence endangering national security in accordance with the law.

OSNS is empowered to:

  1. analyse and assess national security situations in the HKSAR; provide major strategic and policy recommendations;
  2. oversee, guide, coordinate, and support all work in HKSAR relating to safeguarding national security;
  3. collect and analyse intelligence; and
  4. handle cases.

第五十條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署應當嚴格依法履行職責,依法接受監督,不得侵害任何個人和的合法權益。

Article 50

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall perform its mandate [duties and responsibilities 職責] in strict compliance with the law and be subject to supervision in accordance with the law. It shall not infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of any individual or organisation.

OSNS shall not infringe on the rights and interests of any individual or organisation.

Staff of OSNS shall:

  • abide by HKSAR and national laws; and
  • be supervised by national supervisory authorities.

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署人員除須遵守全國性法律外,還應當遵守香港特別行政區法律。

The staff of the Office shall abide by the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region as well as national laws.

QUESTION: How can Art. 50 reconcile with Art. 60, which states: “[t]he acts performed in the course of duty by the Office for Safeguarding National Security . . . and its staff in accordance with this Law shall not be subject to the jurisdiction of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region”?

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署人員依法接受國家監察機關的監督。

The staff of the Office shall be subject to the supervision of the national supervisory authorities in accordance with the law.

 

第五十一條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署的經費由中央財政保障

Article 51

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be funded [financially guaranteed 財政保障] by the Central People’ s Government.

OSNS shall be financially guaranteed by the CPG.

第五十二條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署應當加強與中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區聯絡辦公室、外交部駐香港特別行政區特派員公署、中國人民解放軍駐香港部隊的工作聯繫和工作協同。

Article 52

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall strengthen working relations and cooperation with the Liaison Office of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and the Hong Kong Garrison of the Chinese People’ s Liberation Army.

OSNS shall strengthen cooperation with CPG representative entities in HKSAR:

  • Liaison Office (LOCPG);
  • Office of Commissioner of Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the HKSAR; and
  • PLA’s Hong Kong Garrison.

第五十三條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署應當與香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會建立協調機制,監督、指導香港特別行政區維護國家安全工作。

Article 53

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall establish a mechanism of coordination with the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to oversee and provide guidance on the work of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for safeguarding national security.

OSNS has oversight power over all national security work in HKSAR, through a coordination mechanism with the CSNS (established in Art. 12).

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署的工作部門應當與香港特別行政區維護國家安全的有關機關建立協作機制,加強信息共享和行動配合。

The working departments of the Office shall establish mechanisms for collaboration with the relevant authorities of the Region responsible for safeguarding national security to enhance information sharing and operations coordination.

Working depts of OSNS shall share information and coordinate operations with relevant HKSAR authorities.

第五十四條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署、外交部駐香港特別行政區特派員公署會同香港特別行政區政府採取必要措施,加強對外國和國際組織駐香港特別行政區機構、在香港特別行政區的外國和境外非政府組織和新聞機構的管理和服務。

Article 54

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall, together with the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, take necessary measures to strengthen the management of and services for organs of foreign countries and international organisations in the Region, as well as non-governmental organisations and news agencies of foreign countries and from outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China in the Region.

OSNS, together with the Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in HKSAR, are empowered to manage:

  • organs of foreign governments;
  • international organisations and NGOs; and
  • foreign news agencies.

第五十五條

有以下情形之一的,經香港特別行政區政府或者駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署提出,並報中央人民政府批准,由駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署對本法規定的危害國家安全犯罪案件行使管轄權:

Article 55

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall, upon approval by the Central People’ s Government of a request made by the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or by the Office itself, exercise jurisdiction over a case concerning offence endangering national security under this Law, if:

OSNS shall exercise jurisdiction over a case if:

  • the case is complex;
  • a serious situation has occurred where HKSAR is unable to effectively enforce this Law; or
  • a major and imminent threat has occurred. 

QUESTION: What is the relationship between Art. 55 and Art. 18(4) of the Basic Law?

  1. 案件涉及外國或境外勢力介入的複雜情況,香港特別行政區管轄確有困難的;
  2. 出現香港特別行政區政府無法有效執行本法的嚴重情況的;
  3. 出現國家安全面臨重大現實威脅的情況的
  1. the case is complex due to the involvement of a foreign country or external elements [overseas forces 境外勢力], thus making it difficult for the Region to exercise jurisdiction over the case;
  2. a serious situation occurs where the Government of the Region is unable to effectively enforce this Law; or
  3. a major and imminent threat to national security has occurred [a situation of actual major and imminent threat to national security occurs出現國家安全面臨重大現實威脅的情況的].

 

第五十六條

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄有關危害國家安全犯罪案件時,由駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署負責立案偵查,最高人民檢察院指定有關檢察機關行使檢察權,最高人民法院指定有關法院行使審判權。

Article 56

In exercising jurisdiction over a case concerning offence endangering national security pursuant to Article 55 of this Law, the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall initiate investigation into the case, the Supreme People’ s Procuratorate shall designate a prosecuting body to prosecute it, and the Supreme People’ s Court shall designate a court to adjudicate it.

In exercising jurisdiction over a case pursuant to Art. 55:

  • OSNS shall initiate investigation;
  • Supreme People’s Procuratorate shall designate prosecuting body to prosecute;
  • Supreme People’s Court shall designate a court to adjudicate.

第五十七條

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄案件的立案偵查、審查起訴、審判和刑罰的執行等訴訟程序事宜,適用《中華人民共和國刑事訴訟法》等相關法律的規定。

Article 57

The Criminal Procedure Law of the People’ s Republic of China and other related national laws shall apply to procedural matters, including those related to criminal investigation, examination and prosecution, trial, and execution of penalty, in respect of cases over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Article 55 of this Law.

In cases over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Art. 55:

  • PRC’s Criminal Procedure Law and other related national laws shall apply;
  • decisions of authorities referred to in Art. 56 shall have legal force in HKSAR; and
  • institutions, organisations, and individuals concerned must comply with measures taken by OSNS.

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄案件時,本法第五十六條規定的執法、司法機關依法行使相關權力,其為決定採取強制措施、偵查措施和司法裁判而簽發的法律文書在香港特別行政區具有法律效力。對於駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署依法採取的措施,有關機構、組織和個人必須遵從。

When exercising jurisdiction over cases pursuant to Article 55 of this Law, the law enforcement and judicial authorities referred to in Article 56 of this Law shall exercise powers in accordance with the law. The legal documents issued by these authorities on their decisions to take mandatory and investigation measures and on their judicial decisions shall have legal force in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The institutions, organisations and individuals concerned must comply with measures taken by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in accordance with the law.

 

第五十八條

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄案件時,犯罪嫌疑人自被駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署第一次訊問或者採取強制措施之日起,有權委託律師作為辯護人。辯護律師可以依法為犯罪嫌疑人、被告人提供法律幫助。

Article 58

In a case over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Article 55 of this Law, a criminal suspect shall have the right to retain a lawyer to represent him or her from the day he or she first receives inquiry made by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or from the day a mandatory measure is taken against him or her. A defence lawyer may provide legal assistance to a criminal suspect or defendant in accordance with the law.

In cases over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Art. 55:

  • a criminal suspect shall have right to retain a lawyer from the day he/she receives inquiry from OSNS or from the day a mandatory measure is taken against him/her;
  • a criminal suspect or defendant shall be entitled to a fair trial without undue delay

QUESTION: Will the lawyers be mainland Chinese lawyers or Hong Kong lawyers?

犯罪嫌疑人、被告人被合法拘捕後,享有儘早接受司法機關公正審判的權利。

A criminal suspect or defendant who is arrested in accordance with the law shall be entitled to a fair trial before a judicial body without undue delay.

 

第五十九條

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄案件時,任何人如果知道本法規定的危害國家安全犯罪案件情況,都有如實作證的義務。

Article 59

In a case over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Article 55 of this Law, any person who has information pertaining to an offence endangering national security under this Law is obliged to testify truthfully.

In cases over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Art. 55: any person with information pertaining to an offence is obliged to testify truthfully.

第六十條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署及其人員依據本法執行職務的行為,不受香港特別行政區管轄。

Article 60

The acts performed in the course of duty by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and its staff in accordance with this Law shall not be subject to the jurisdiction of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

OSNS and its staff shall not be subject to jurisdiction of HKSAR.

持有駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署制發的證件或者證明文件的人員和車輛等在執行職務時不受香港特別行政區執法人員檢查、搜查和扣押。

In the course of performing duty, a holder of an identification document or a document of certification [proof 證明] issued by the Office and the articles including vehicles used by the holder shall not be subject to inspection, search or detention by law enforcement officers of the Region.

Holder of an identification document or a document of certification issued by OSNS and articles including vehicles used by the holder shall not be subject to inspection, search, or detention by law enforcement officers in HKSAR.

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署及其人員享有香港特別行政區法律規定的其他權利和豁免。

The Office and its staff shall enjoy other rights and immunities provided by laws of the Region.

 

第六十一條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署依據本法規定履行職責時,香港特別行政區政府有關部門須提供必要的便利和配合,對妨礙有關執行職務的行為依法予以制止並追究責任。

Article 61

The relevant departments of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall provide necessary facilitation and support to the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in performing its mandate [duties and responsibilities 職責] in accordance with this Law, and shall stop any act obstructing the performance of such mandate and hold those who commit such act liable in accordance with the law.

Relevant HKSAR government depts shall facilitate and support OSNS in performing its mandate and shall not obstruct the performance of such mandate.

第六章  附則

Chapter VI
Supplementary Provisions

 

第六十二條

香港特別行政區本地法律規定與本法不一致的,適用本法規定。

Article 62

This Law shall prevail where provisions of the local laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region are inconsistent with this Law.

Where inconsistent with HKSAR local laws, this Law shall prevail.

第六十三條

辦理本法規定的危害國家安全犯罪案件的有關執法、司法機關及其人員或者辦理其他危害國家安全犯罪案件的香港特別行政區執法、司法機關及其人員,應當對辦案過程中知悉的國家秘密、商業秘密和個人隱私予以保密。

Article 63

The law enforcement and judicial authorities and their staff who handle cases concerning offence endangering national security under this Law, or the law enforcement and judicial authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and their staff who handle other cases concerning offence endangering national security, shall keep confidential State secrets, trade secrets or personal information which they come to know in the process of handling such cases.

Confidentiality of State secrets, trade secrets, or personal information shall be kept by:

  • law enforcement and judicial authorities and their staff; and
  • a lawyer who serves as defence counsel or legal representative.

擔任辯護人或者訴訟代理人的律師應當保守在執業活動中知悉的國家秘密、商業秘密和個人隱私。

A lawyer who serves as defence counsel or legal representative shall keep confidential State secrets, trade secrets or personal information which he or she comes to know in the practice of law.

 

配合辦案的有關機構、組織和個人應當對案件有關情況予以保密。

The relevant institutions, organisations and individuals who assist with the handling of a case shall keep confidential any information pertaining to the case.

Confidentiality of case information shall be kept by:

  • relevant institutions, organisations; and
  • individuals who assist with the handling of a case.

第六十四條

香港特別行政區適用本法時,本法規定的「有期徒刑」 「無期徒刑」 「沒收財產」和「罰金」分別指「監禁」 「終身監禁」 「充公犯罪所得」和「罰款」,「拘役」參照適用香港特別行政區相關法律規定的「監禁」 「入勞役中心」 「入教導所」,「管制」參照適用香港特別行政區相關法律規定的「社會服務令」 「入感化院」,「吊銷執照或者營業許可證」指香港特別行政區相關法律規定的「取消註冊或者註冊豁免,或者取消牌照」。

Article 64

In the application of this Law in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the terms “fixed-term imprisonment” , “life imprisonment” , “confiscation of property” and “criminal fine” in this Law respectively mean “imprisonment” , “imprisonment for life” , “confiscation of proceeds of crime” and “fine”; “short-term detention” shall be construed, with reference to the relevant laws of the Region, as “imprisonment” , “detention in a detention centre” or “detention in a training centre” ; “restriction” shall be construed, with reference to the relevant laws of the Region, as “community service” or “detention in a reformatory school” ; and “revoke licence or business permit” means “revoke registration or exemption from registration, or revoke licence” as provided for in the relevant laws of the Region.

Fixed-term imprisonment, life imprisonment, confiscation of property, and “criminal fine.”

Confiscation of proceeds of crime and “fine.”

Short-term detention.

 

Restriction.

 

Revocation of licence or business permit.

第六十五條

本法的解釋權屬於全國人民代表大會常務委員會。

Article 65

The power of interpretation of this Law shall be vested in the Standing Committee of the National People’ s Congress.

NPCSC has power of interpretation of this Law.

第六十六條

本法自公佈之日起施行。

Article 66

This Law shall come into force on the date of its promulgation.

Entry into force upon promulgation.

 


[1]All emphases added.

附件B:香港國家安全機構及主要任命人員的背景
  1. 維護國家安全委員會
  2. 中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署
  3. 香港警務處維護國家安全處
  4. 專門的國家安全犯罪案件檢控科

 

1. 維護國家安全委員會(香港國安法,第12-15條、第43條)

 

委員會

主席

Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor
林鄭月娥
香港特區行政長官
(被美國制裁)

林鄭月娥是香港特別行政區第四位和現任行政長官(從2017年起)。先前,她曾擔任發展局局長(2007-2012年)和政務司司長(2012-2017年)。自香港大學畢業後,林鄭月娥在1980年加入香港政府政務職系,在各種政府機構服務。林鄭月娥是美國制裁的11名中港官員之一, 因為他們「削弱了香港的自治」和「限制了香港公民的言論自由和集會自由」。來源:「財政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士」,美國財政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

 

委員會其他成員

Matthew Cheung Kin-chung
張建宗
政務司司長

張建宗自2017年1月起出任政務司司長至今。他於1972年7月加入香港特別行政區政府,任新聞主任,後曾擔任勞工處處長(1999-2000年)、教育署署長(2000-2002年)、經濟發展及勞工局常任秘書長(2002-2007年),以及勞工及福利局局長(2007-2017年)。

Paul Chan Mo-po
陳茂波
財政司司長

陳茂波於2017年1月獲任財政司司長。先前,他曾擔任發展局局長(2012-2017年), 也是香港會計師公會前任會長。

Teresa CHENG Yeuk-wah
鄭若驊
律政司司長
(被美國制裁)

鄭若驊於2018年1月6日獲任律政司司長。在加入香港特別行政區政府之前,鄭若驊是私人執業資深大律師,具特許工程師和特許仲裁員資格。鄭若驊是倫敦大學皇家學院院士,也是北京清華大學法學院國際仲裁與爭端解決項目前任專案主任。鄭若驊是美國制裁的11名中港官員之一, 因為他們「削弱了香港的自治」和「限制了香港公民的言論自由和集會自由」。來源:「財政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士」,美國財政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

John Lee Ka-chiu
李家超
保安局局長
(被美國制裁)

李家超於1977年加入香港警隊,任見習督察,2010年晉升為副處長。他於2012年就任保安局副局長,2017年晉升為保安局局長。李家超是美國制裁的11名中港官員之一, 因為他們「削弱了香港的自治」和「限制了香港公民的言論自由和集會自由」。來源:「財政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士」,美國財政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

Chris Tang Ping-keung
鄧炳強
警務處處長
(被美國制裁)

鄧炳強於2019年11月獲任警務處處長。他於1987年加入香港警隊,任職督察。鄧炳強曾擔任高級助理警務處長、行動處處長 (2017-2018年)和警務處副處長(行動)(2018-2019年)。鄧炳強是美國制裁的11名中港官員之一, 因為他們「削弱了香港的自治」和「限制了香港公民的言論自由和集會自由」。來源:「財政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士」,美國財政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

Edwina Lau Chi-wai
劉賜蕙
警務處副處長(國家安全)和警務處維護國家安全部門負責人
(被美國制裁)

劉賜蕙於1984年加入香港警務處。2019年她晉升為監管處處長,負責監督資訊系統部和服務質素監察部的工作。2020年7月,劉賜蕙獲任命為副處長(國家安全),擔任警務處維護國家安全部門的負責人。

劉賜蕙是美國再次將中港官員指定為制裁對象的4人之一,因其「與執行中國制定的香港國安法和威脅香港的和平、安全與自治有關」。這4名官員「將被禁止前往美國,其資產在美國管轄範圍內或在美國人擁有或控制下的資產將被凍結」。來源:「指定4名威脅香港和平、安全與自治的中港官員」,美國國務院,2020年11月9日,https://www.state.gov/designations-of-four-prc-and-hong-kong-officials-t...;「對敘利亞的指定;對與敘利亞有關的指定;對與香港有關的指定」,美國財政部,2020年11月9日,https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/financial-sanctions/recent-actio...

Au Ka-wang
區嘉宏
入境事務處處長

區嘉宏於2020年7月2日獲任入境事務處處長。他於1988年加入入境事務處,任職助理入境事務主任。他於1992年晉升入境事務主任,2003年晉升高級入境事務主任,2009年晉升總入境事務主任,2014年晉升助理首席入境事務主任,2015年晉升首席入境事務主任。他於2018年晉升入境事務處助理處長,並于2019年晉升入境事務處副處長。

Hermes Tang Yi-hoi
鄧以海
海關關長

鄧以海於2017年7月獲任海關關長。他於1985年加入前人民入境事務處,任職入境事務助理員,1987年轉職香港海關,任職見習海關督察,2006至2007年間借調保安局。他於2009年1月晉升海關監督,2011年8月晉升海關高級監督,2013年5月晉升海關總監督,2015年5月晉升海關助理關長,2016年8月晉升海關副關長。

Eric Chan Kwok-ki
陳國基
行政長官辦公室主任
(被美國制裁)

陳國基於1982年加入入境事務處,任職助理入境事務主任,之後曾擔任副主任(2010-2011年)、主任(2011-2017年)。2017年7月,陳國基成為紀律部隊第一位被任命為行政長官辦公室主任的高級官員,因為這個職位通常是公務員行政人員所擔任。陳國基是美國制裁的11名中港官員之一,因為他們「削弱了香港的自治」和「限制了香港公民的言論自由和集會自由」。來源:「財政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士」,美國財政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

 

秘書處

秘書長

Eric Chan Kwok-ki
陳國基
(被美國制裁)

見上「委員會其他成員」中介紹。

 

國家安全事務顧問

Luo Huining
駱惠寧
中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區聯絡辦公室(中聯辦)主任
(被美國制裁)

駱惠寧是中國共產黨的高級官員,2020年1月獲任中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區聯絡辦公室(中聯辦)主任。駱惠寧是首位具省級地方行政工作經驗、首位無港澳工作經歷的香港中聯辦主任。駱惠寧,籍貫浙江,生於安徽,49歲調任青海前一直在安徽生活和任職。曾任安徽省委常委、青海省省長、青海省委書記、山西省委書記。駱惠寧是美國制裁的11名中港官員之一,因為他們「削弱了香港的自治」和「限制了香港公民的言論自由和集會自由」。來源:「財政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士」,美國財政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

 

2. 維護國家安全公署 (香港國安法,第48-60條)

Zheng Yanxiong
鄭雁雄
署長
(被美國制裁)

鄭雁雄在被任命為駐港國安公署署長之前擔任中共廣東省委委員、常委。他因在2011年任汕尾市市委書記期間鎮壓烏坎村村民要求政府對徵用土地進行補償的抗議活動而聞名。鄭雁雄在2018年5月至10月任中共廣東省委常務副秘書長、省委政研室主任,同年10月任中共廣東省委秘書長、省委政研室主任。鄭雁雄是美國制裁的11名中港官員之一,因為他們「削弱了香港的自治」和「限制了香港公民的言論自由和集會自由」。來源:「財政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士」,美國財政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

Li Jiangzhou
李江舟
副署長
(被美國制裁)

李江舟於2016年獲任公安部駐香港中聯辦警務聯絡部部長,之前任公安部港澳臺辦主任。

李江舟是美國再次將中港官員指定為制裁對象的4人之一,因其「與執行中國制定的香港國安法和威脅香港的和平、安全與自治有關」。這4名官員「將被禁止前往美國,其資產在美國管轄範圍內或在美國人擁有或控制下的資產將被凍結」。來源:「指定4名威脅香港和平、安全與自治的中港官員」,美國國務院,2020年11月9日,https://www.state.gov/designations-of-four-prc-and-hong-kong-officials-t...;「對敘利亞的指定;對與敘利亞有關的指定;對與香港有關的指定」,美國財政部,2020年11月9日,https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/financial-sanctions/recent-actio...

Sun Qingye
孫青野
副署長

孫青野是國家安全部高級官員。

 

3. 香港警務處維護國家安全處 (香港國安法,第16、第18條)

Edwina Lau Chi-wai
維護國家安全處負責人
劉賜蕙
警務處副處長(國家安全)

見上「委員會其他成員」中介紹。

 

4. 專門的國家安全犯罪案件檢控科 (香港國安法,第18條)

香港特區政府律政司司長鄭若驊表示,律政司已按照《香港國安法》設立專門的國家安全犯罪案件檢控科。(見鄭若驊文章:《香港國安法》為成功實踐「一國兩制」開創新格局,原文載於《中國法律》雜誌2020年第4期)

專門的國家安全犯罪案件檢控科負責人:截至2020年10月15日,沒有關於該職務任命的公開信息。

附件C:相關資源
  1. 主要政府文件
  2. 香港大律師公會聲明
  3. 國際人權專家的聲明
  4. 說明和時間表
  5. 書籍和書籍章節
  6. 網站和博客

1. 主要政府文件

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法:
英文:https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20202448e/egn2020244872.pdf
中文:https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/A406

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法第四十三條實施細則,2020年7月6日
英文:https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/06/P2020070600784.htm
中文:https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/06/P2020070600748.htm

關於進行截取及秘密監察的授權申請的運作原則及指引——依據《中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法第四十三條實施細則》附表6第20條而發出:
英文:https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20202450e/egn2020245074.pdf
中文:https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20202450e/cgn2020245074.pdf

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法:
英文:https://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/index.html
中文:https://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/tc/basiclawtext/index.html

終審法院首席法官聲明(關於《香港國安法》第44條),2020年7月2日
英文:https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/02/P2020070200414.htm?fontSize=1
中文:https://sc.isd.gov.hk/TuniS/www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/02/P2020070200412.htm?fontSize=1

終審法院首席法官馬道立指出:「根據《國家安全法》第44條,行政長官應當在各級法院指定法官,負責處理與《國家安全法》有關的案件和上訴……指定法官及相關的法庭運作必須符合《基本法》的規定,這一點至為重要……按照《基本法》第88條而任命的法官,都是根據由終審法院首席法官擔任主席的司法人員推薦委員會的推薦,由行政長官作出任命。這個安排在香港一直沿用已久。」

2. 香港大律師公會聲明

香港大律師公會關於香港政府決定推遲立法會選舉的聲明,2020年8月2日

香港大律師公會對香港政府以公眾健康風險為由推遲立法會選舉這一決定的有關法理及證據基礎提出了嚴重質疑,因為該決定將立法會選舉推遲一年而不是更短的時期,並且未諮詢民間社會。聲明強調:「國際人權專家多次警告各國政府不得以新冠肺炎為藉口壓制人權。」

香港大律師公會就《中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法》的聲明,2020年7月1日

香港大律師公會對《國家安全法》表示深切關注:與《基本法》不符的規定;在頒佈前缺乏有意義的公眾諮詢;以及沒有具法律權威的英文版。香港大律師公會指出,這些以及其他《國安法》條文的「施行將損害《基本法》及《中英聯合聲明》承諾給予香港特別行政區的高度自治,亦削弱維繫一國兩制的基石」。

3. 國際人權專家的聲明

7位聯合國專家向中國發出函件,敦促審查並重新審議《香港國安法》以符合國際法,2020年9月1日
英文:https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487

7位聯合國特別程序任務負責人強調了《香港國安法》的規定模糊不清和過於寬泛,以及其安全實體部門缺乏透明度和問責制。他們敦促中國政府審查並重新考慮《香港國安法》,以確保中國遵守《世界人權宣言》、《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》、1984年的《中英聯合聲明》和《基本法》規定的香港國際人權義務。

聯合國人權事務高級專員發言人關於《香港國安法》的聲明,2020年7月3日
英文:https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26033&LangID=E,
中文:https://www.ohchr.org/CH/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26033&LangID=C

發言人指出:「令我們感到震驚的是,在其中所述罪行的範圍沒有得到充分瞭解和認識的情況下,馬上就出現了根據該法的逮捕行動。」所表達的關切包括對罪行的模糊不清且過於寬泛的定義「有可能導致歧視或任意釋法和執法」,以及「勾結」罪的條文「可能限制公民空間,並可能會扼殺民間社會活動者行使參與公共事務權利的可能性」。

4. Explainers and timelines說明和時間表)

Transforming Hong Kong: 100 days of the National Security Law
Mercator Institute for China Studies, October 7, 2020.
https://merics.org/en/graphic/transforming-hong-kong-100-days-national-security-law

A brief timeline that maps the developments during July 1–October 1, highlighting the actions of governments of the People’s Republic of China and the Hong Kong SAR as well as those in the opposition movement, civil society, courts and the legal sector, diplomatic and international community, and the business and financial sector.

Explainer: How Beijing’s security law transformed Hong Kong – month 3
Hong Kong Free Press, September 30, 2020.
https://hongkongfp.com/2020/09/30/explainer-how-beijings-security-law-transformed-hong-kong-month-3/

Maps key developments including the detention of the “Hong Kong 12,” UN human rights experts’ communications expressing concerns about the NSL’s violations of international legal obligations, and the NSL’s impact on press freedom.

Hong Kong national security law: 26 arrests so far, resignation of a foreign judge, and suspension of a middle school pupil mark third month
South China Morning Post, September 30, 2020.
https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3103600/hong-kong-national-security-law-26-arrests-so-far

In the third month of the NSL, Justice James Spigelman, a non-permanent foreign judge on the Court of Final Appeal, resigned two years before schedule due to “the content of the national security legislation”; while a middle school pupil was suspended after using a profile picture with the protest slogan “Liberate Hong Kong; revolution of our times” in an online class.

How Hong Kong’s national security law compares to Macau’s: different reasons, eras for legislation
South China Morning Post, July 8, 2020.
https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3092215/national-security-tale-two-cities-how-different-reasons-and

Covers developments during September, including the resignation of an Australian veteran judge of the Court of Final Appeal, the arrest of activist Tam Tak-chi by the national security unit under the sedition law, and Chief Secretary Matthew Cheung Kin-chung’s defense of the NSL at the 45th Session of the UN Human Rights Council.

Arrests and trials of Hong Kong protesters
Compiled by author Kong Tsung-gan.
https://medium.com/@KongTsungGan/arrests-and-trials-of-hong-kong-protesters-2019-9d9a601d4950

Tracks the total number of protesters arrested and prosecuted since August 2019, with the names and brief information of those arrested. Updated frequently.

5. Books and book chapters(書籍和書籍章節)

Cora Chan and Fiona de Londras, eds., China’s National Security: Endangering Hong Kong’s Rule of Law?, Hart Publishing, March 2020.

A collection of 17 essays by legal experts including Albert Chen, Hualing Fu, Johannes Chan, Michael C. Davis, and Simon Young. In their introductory essay, “China’s National Security in Hong Kong: A Challenge for Constitutionalism, Autonomy and the Rule of Law,” Chan and de Londras articulate a vision for sustainable security in Hong Kong. They propose the construction of a new institutional architecture that is rights-based and addresses rule of law concerns aimed at achieving four key aims: effectiveness, accountability, transparency, and participation. In this new architecture, Chan and Londras urge the inclusion of features including limiting the National People’s Congress Standing Committee’s powers to interpret the , universal suffrage for election of Chief Executive and LegCo, a human rights institution for Hong Kong, and so on.

Michael C. Davis, Making Hong Kong China: The Rollback of Human Rights and the Rule of Law, Association for Asian Studies, October 2020. (Read opening chapter at: https://www.demdigest.org/making-hong-kong-china/)

The book traces the loss of Hong Kong's autonomy from the handover forward, highlighting the root causes, evolving erosion and eventual assault on the rule of law and basic freedoms, as reflected in the 2019 crackdown on protesters and the current imposition of the National Security Law.

Hualing Fu, “National Security Law: Challenges and Prospects,” in Johannes Chan and C.L. Lim, eds., Law of the Hong Kong Constitution, 3rd edition, Sweet & Maxwell Asia Ltd, forthcoming in 2021.

Fu examines the status of the NSL compared with that of the , the offenses it targets, and the new entities it created and their powers. Fu concludes: “It would be hard to overstate the constitutional significance of the NSL as regards the Basic Law for through this piece of legislation the CPG has gained bridgehead inside the Hong Kong legal system to exert a comprehensive control. . . . The NSL poses a challenge to Hong Kong with the potential to undermine the OCTS. Yet the NSL also creates the possibility of its own limitations, allowing it to operate under the constraints of the existing constitutional framework.”

Hualing Fu, “China’s Imperatives for National Security Legislation,” in Cora Chan and Fiona de Londras, eds., China’s National Security: Endangering Hong Kong’s Rule of Law?, Hart Publishing, March 2020

Fu discusses China’s new national security regime underpinned by legality and the creation of a new legal framework to securitize the Chinese state, including Hong Kong. Fu posits how Hong Kong is seen as a national security risk by China especially with the sudden rise of a secessionist movement and localism in recent times. Writing before the enactment of the NSL in Hong Kong, Fu highlights how the introduction of a national security legislation in Hong Kong is one of many options to address prevailing security concerns, but one that potentially has significant impact on rights and freedoms of Hong Kong.

6. Websites and blogs(網站和博客)

NPC Observer

Covering legislative developments of the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee with a summary of Hong Kong’s National Security Law.

Jerome A. Cohen’s blog

On recent developments on the rule of law in Asia and China, including a series of articles on Hong Kong under the National Security Law.

  • Credit: Studio Incendo
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