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中国人权白皮书《香港未来 言弃尚早——论〈香港国安法〉的实施》

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2020年10月16日

目录

执行概要

1. 引言

2. 《香港国安法》迄今为止的实施情况

  • 尽管基本权利的和平行使遭受打击,但民众仍然坚持不懈
  • 该法在香港建立了一个中央政府对国家安全进行直接和间接监督、监视和控制的架构,并造成了管辖权之间的拉锯

3. 实施上的挑战:权利绝非小事

  • 以国际人权框架为中心
  • 《香港国安法》与国际人权——纸面上和实践中
  • 当前在结构上、政策上和与权利有关的执行问题

4. 改进空间和建议:“让飞机平稳着陆”

  • 对各利益攸关方作进一步交涉的建议
  • 结论:当前局势的风险

附件

A. 中国人权最新《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法》双语注释表(重点提出了翻译问题和修改建议)

B. 香港国家安全机构及主要任命人员的背景

  1. 维护国家安全委员会
  2. 中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区维护国家安全公署
  3. 香港警务处维护国家安全部门
  4. 专门的国家安全犯罪案件检控部门

C. 相关资源

  1. 主要政府文件
  2. 香港大律师公会声明
  3. 国际人权专家的声明
  4. 说明和时间表
  5. 书籍和书籍章节
  6. 网站和博客

 

执行概要


2020年6月30日,全国人民代表大会常务委员会一致通过了涵盖面甚广的《中华人民共和国香港特別行政区维护国家安全法》(简称“香港国安法”)。这是一个史无前例地仓促、隐秘和完全缺乏公众咨询的立法过程。《香港国安法》禁止分裂国家、顛覆国家政权、实施恐怖活动和勾结外国势力,并新设立了一套实际全部由中央人民政府控制的实施机构。

犹如一个没有彻底检查燃油或完成其他必要准备就起飞的飞行员,中央人民政府将其感到的攸关存亡的国家安全威胁列为优先事项,却有可能无法解决该法所造成的不可避免的复杂的法律、结构和治理性的挑战。

这些直接和严重的影响正在香港被广泛而深刻地体现出来,其中最明显的是在公共领域和教育领域的审查和自我审查(一位知名香港法律学者表示:“软性洗脑会影响这整个一代的人”),还有港府紧紧跟着中央人民政府脚本的言辞。

但我们认为,对香港未来言弃为时尚早。

面对《香港国安法》可能造成的侵蚀权利的骇人行径和香港特区政府在政治上背弃人民的作为,能够起到抵御作用的有:香港司法和法律系统固有的制度性和规范性的保障,以及国际人权机制提供的保障,包括条约、盟约、宣言、指导方针、建议和原则。许多联合国独立人权专家在他们发布的指导方针和发给北京政府的信函中援引了这些保障措施,提醒其有义务尊重和保障香港人民的权利。

事实上,《香港国安法》本身也要求香港特別行政区“尊重和保障人权”,包括“根据《基本法》……和《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》、《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》适用于香港的规定(第4条),以及有关法治的规定(第5条)。

为解决这些拉锯关系和确保实施《香港国安法》不会不当地限制或损害受香港特別行政区、国家和国际法保护的权利,国际人权标准和规范需要成为根本,无论是进行监督、评估影响、制定有效保障措施、为所需的立法改革献计献策,还是确保民间社会安全和有利的环境。

除了通过公开声明、国家立法和为那些必须或选择离开香港的人士设立安全港和提供其他选择来应对《香港国安法》造成的人权问题,国际社会还必须要制定具体措施支持香港社会的各类群体,特别是在严重受限的大环境下挣扎的年轻人。在他们继续为塑造香港的未来奋斗之时,他们需要国际社会的声援和具体的、精神上的支持。

建议摘要

给中央和香港特别行政区政府的建议

  • 发布一个经过纠正的和具有法律权威的《香港国安法》的英文翻译文本
  • 通过具体步骤加强与联合国人权机制的合作
    • 向人权事务高级专员和特别程序发出长期有效的访问邀请。
    • 采取具体步骤来落实联合国条约机构和专家提出但尚未被执行的建议,包括联合国儿童权利委员会的建议,即香港政府对有关的当地法律进行改革,并将刑事责任的最低年龄提高至国际可接受的水平。
  • 举行包容各方的公众咨询,并将意见汇入到香港特区对人权事务委员会《问题清单》的答复中
    人权事务委员会特别指出了与国家安全、反煽动和反恐法律有关的问题,并要求澄清紧急状态和国家安全、反煽动和反恐的法律,包括有关以下方面的信息:
    • 《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》与2020年6月30日通过的《香港国安法》之间的关系;
    • 为确保《香港国安法》的适用和执行不违反《公约》规定而采取或计划采取的措施;
    • 为执行《香港国安法》第56条和第57条所计划采取的程序和立法措施;
    • 《香港国安法》的适用范围,包括其域外适用范围;
    • 《香港国安法》第29条规定的“勾结外国或者境外势力危害国家安全罪”一语的含义;
    • 《香港国安法》赋予香港特别行政区维护国家安全委员会和中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区维护国家安全公署的权力和豁免,以及监管这些机构的问责机制;以及
    • 根据《香港国安法》对中国香港的法律作出了或计划作出哪些修订。
  • 接受联合国专家提供的技术援助,包括国家安全、刑事和反恐立法方面的援助
  • 中华人民共和国应批准《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》

给立法者、法院和政策制定者的建议

  • 善用模糊用语这把双刃剑

虽然《香港国安法》中含糊的规定存在任意行使酌处权和限制权利的风险,但也应将其视为定义、澄清和界定不同行为者行使酌处权和决策的机会。人权事务委员会在其《问题清单》中提出的具体问题为法律改革和修正工作提供了建设性的明确议程,也为当前的学术研究和分析划清了重点,以为这些立法工作献计献策。

 

1. 引言


在中国全国人民代表大会(简称“全国人大”)于2020年5月28日发布的《决定》授权之下[1],全国人大常务委员会起草了涵盖面甚广的《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法》(简称“《香港国安法》”),并于2020年6月30日一致通过[2]。这是一部在“前所未有的隐秘和仓促[3]”之下通过的,没有任何透明度和公众咨询的法律。《香港国安法》禁止分裂国家、颠覆国家政权、实施恐怖活动和勾结外国势力[4],并新设立了一套实际全部由中央人民政府控制的实施机构。

当晚11时,香港特别行政区(简称“香港特区”)政府将此颇具争议的法律刊宪发布,香港市民这才首次看到该法的文本。《香港国安法》在国际社会广泛的谴责声浪中出台,香港人更是担心它会违背 “一国两制”的原则及香港宪制性文件《基本法》所规定的 “高度自治”。或许最重要的是,中国在国际法和条约下有义务保护的香港人的基本权利和自由,以及香港的法治恐将不保。

尽管该法的涵盖范围甚广,并在目前带来了即时和广泛的影响,但我们认为,对于侵害基本权利、削弱香港的自主权和机构独立性的行为,我们仍然有建设性的反击空间。本法律摘要的目的是:

  • 对《香港国安法》颁布以来的实施情况进行回顾;
  • 对该法设立的主要机构进行概述,并突出指出相关的治理和问责问题;
  • 对国际人权框架进行概述,并将其作为监督、评估和促进中央和香港特区政府遵守情况的根本;以及
  • 为各利益攸关方的进一步参与提出具体建议。

我们还在附件一中提供了一份最新的《香港国安法》双语注释表(原版已于7月5日发布)。虽然新华社在2020年7月1日发布了一个英文版本,且香港特区政府随后在7月3日将其刊宪发布,但这一所谓的“官方”英文译本并不具法律权威性。这一缺失对不懂中文或无法熟读中文的律师、法官、记者和香港居民,以及可能受到《香港国安法》影响的外国人士、组织和其他中国境外人士来说,从根本上阻碍了他们对该法的实质性理解。

在更新后的注释表中,我们对照中文原文对现有的英文译文进行了审校,指出了错误和遗漏,并加入了我们认为更准确的译文更正建议。我们希望这一新版注释能成为任何想要或需要仔细和准确阅读《香港国安法》的英文读者的实用工具,也欢迎您提出意见和建议。(请您将意见发至 communications@hrichina.org并在主题栏注明“NSL translation”)。

 

2. 《香港国安法》迄今为止的实施情况


尽管香港人的多项权利不断遭到侵害,且《香港国安法》蕴含着复杂的结构性和概念性的拉锯和冲突,但宣告香港和法治“死亡”的结论仍然为时过早。不仅香港司法和法律体系中的固有制度和规范保障仍然存在,香港人在重重困难面前更是一如既往地坚韧不拔。此外,中央政府和香港特区政府仍有义务确保国际人权标准在行文上和实践中得到有效和有意义的实施,被授权履行《香港国安法》主要职责的主要行为者也不例外。伴随2019冠状病毒病大流行疫情的全球性影响,《香港国安法》还改变了地缘政治格局,增强了通过集体行动应对国际法保护下的权利和自由所受威胁的政治意愿。

值得注意的是,正如中央人民政府和香港特区政府当局多次指出的,《香港国安法》还明确规定香港特区要“尊重和保障人权”,包括 “香港特别行政区居民根据香港特别行政区基本法和《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》、《经济、社会与文化权利的国际公约》适用于香港的有关规定享有的包括言论、新闻、出版的自由,结社、集会、游行、示威的自由在内的权利和自由”(第4条),并坚持法治原则(第5条)。《香港人权法案条例》(《香港法例》第383章[5])将《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》纳入香港本地法律[6]

尽管基本权利的和平行使遭受打击,但民众仍然坚持不懈

《香港国安法》在6月30日一经通过,其主要打击目标立即明确。翌日7月1日,警方以新冠大流行危害公众健康为由,自1997年以来首次禁止了香港当日一年一度的民主大游行。警方向数千名不顾禁令上街的民众举起了新增的警告“紫旗”,旗帜上写道:

这是警方发出的警告。你们现在展示旗帜或横额/叫喊口号/或其他行为,有分裂国家和颠覆国家政权等意图,有可能构成《港区国安法》的罪行,你们可能会被拘捕及刑事检控[7]

当天被警方逮捕的370人中,有10人因展示或持有带有政治口号的标语或其他物品而涉嫌分裂国家,依据《香港国安法》被捕[8]。 在噤若寒蝉的大环境之下,任何有悖于官方论调的言论或意见现在都有可能遭到刑事检控,或最起码受到威胁、骚扰和警告[9]。 然而,中央人民政府和香港特区政府当局一再坚称,《香港国安法》针对的“仅仅是少数人”。暂且不论侵害权利的客观事实与受害人数多少无关,《香港国安法》目前的主要影响并非刑事检控,而是当局以刑事制裁和行动为威胁,用该法律在香港乃至海外造成的自我审查和恐惧之风。

自7月以来,中央和香港特区政府以骇人的速度着手削减或取缔使香港成为法治自由社会的诸多权利和制度保障。这些举措时常以采取卫生措施防范2019冠状病毒病的必要性为由,以发布公告为主要形式。当局已经实行的举措有:

  • 禁唱香港抗议歌曲《愿荣光归香港》;
  • 将立法会选举延后一年;
  • 打压独立媒体,包括逮捕媒体大亨兼民主人士黎智英,以及收窄对“传媒代表”的定义[10]和到场报道政府新闻发布会的条件[11]
  • 从公共图书馆撤走书籍,特别是民主派人士的书籍[12];以及
  • 指责教师对不断增多的被禁敏感话题处理 “不当”,包括六四、2019年的社会抗议活动、地方主义和自决等。

上述当局的持续行动直接影响了多项权利的和平行使,包括言论自由、和平集会的权利、参与权、获取信息权,以及媒体的独立性和学术自由。至于香港政府以公共卫生风险为由,未向民间社会咨询便将立法会选举推迟长达一年之久的决定,香港大律师公会对此举在法律和证据上的依据提出严重怀疑。其在声明中强调:“国际人权专家多次警告,政府不得以2019冠状病毒病为借口打压人权[13]。”许智峰(立法会议员)[14]、黄之锋、周庭等民主派人士还表示遭到了不明身份的人士和车辆跟踪。

然而,尽管面临如此限制和恐吓,香港人继续高唱《愿荣光归香港》,近期集会同样歌声依旧[15]。民主派议员就其是否在政府延长的立法会任期中继续任职进行了公众咨询[16]。在警方拒绝发放游行许可后,仍有数百人在10月1日中国国庆当日集会,而就在一天前,中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区联络办公室(简称“香港中联办”)主任骆惠宁警告说,爱国不是一种选择,而是一种义务[17]

至于大众普遍担心的中央人民政府当局行使管辖权的问题,自《香港国安法》生效以来,第一批在境外被拘留人员的起诉依据并非该法本身,而是内地的刑事罪名。8月23日,中国当局在中国海域扣留了12名企图乘快艇逃往台湾的香港人(年龄在16岁至33岁之间)[18],将他们拘留一个多月后,在9月30日才正式逮捕:其中10人涉嫌偷越边境,2人涉嫌帮助他人逃港[19]。中国当局并未援引《香港国安法》第55条的管辖权,这或许反映出中国当局认识到这种管辖权将不可避免地在法律、程序和机制上带来复杂的问题,而他们尚未做好应对的准备。

该法在香港建立了一个中央政府对国家安全进行直接和间接监督、监视和控制的架构,并造成了管辖权之间的拉锯

除了对基本权利和自由的公然侵害外,中央还通过《香港国安法》建立了国家安全架构,将香港人置身于全面的社会控制之下。该法在香港新设立了四个政府机构以及相应的监督和问责架构,使中央人民政府能直接或间接地控制香港的所有国家安全事务,不论是政策、调查,还是起诉和审判。这些机构的工作层层保密,从制定香港的国家安全政策到情报收集,再到案件调查和起诉都有涉及。

机构、职能及架构概览

这四个机构是(这四个机构任命人员的背景概况请见附件A):

  • 维护国家安全委员会(简称香港国安委)(第12-15条、第43条)

香港国安委主要“负责香港特别行政区维护国家安全事务”(第12条),本质上是中央在香港设立的国家安全事务行政和政策分部。委员会由香港行政长官林郑月娥担任主席,成员包括香港特区政府的高层官员(第13条)。其国家安全事务顾问“由中央人民政府指派”(第15条),现由中央驻港高官香港中联办主任骆惠宁担任。

  • 中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区维护国家安全公署(简称“驻港国安公署”)(第48-60条)

驻港国安公署人员全部由中央派出(第48条第2段),经费由中央财政保障(第51条),是实地工作职责最为广泛的机构,具体领域包括:

  • 行动和协调:收集情报和办理案件(第49条),协调香港所有国家安全机构的行动和信息共享(第53条第2段)
  • 监督:与香港国安委共同监督香港的国家安全工作(第53条第1段)
  • 政策:为重大战略和政策提供意见(第49条第1款)
  • 与中央主要驻港代表机构的合作:与香港中联办、外交部驻港特派员公署、解放军驻港部队进行合作(第52条)

驻港国安公署、外交部驻港特派员公署和香港特别行政区政府这三个机关有权“采取必要措施”对香港的外国政府使团、国际非政府组织、外国非政府组织和新闻机构加强管理(第54条)。

驻港国安公署最具争议的职能或许要数它在三种情况下对案件行使管辖权的权力:“涉及外国或者境外势力介入的复杂情况”、香港特区政府无力执行《香港国安法》的“严重情况”和“国家安全面临重大现实威胁的情况”(第55条)。

在驻港国安公署对案件行使管辖权时,诉讼事项适用中国刑事诉讼法和其他相关国家法律,由最高人民检察院指定的检察机关进行检控,由最高人民法院指定的法院进行审判(第56条)。

  • 香港警务处维护国家安全处(简称“香港警务处国安处”)(第16、17条)

香港警务处国安处由香港警务处人员领导和任职,既负责执行以刑事调查为中心的有关国家安全的执法任务,还负责情报收集和“反干预调查”(第17条)。它的职责包括执行香港国安委“交办”的任务(第17条第5款)并接受其监督(第43条第2段)。该处的负责人由行政长官在征求驻港国安公署的“意见 ”后任命(第16条第2段)。

《香港国安法》还授权香港警务处国安处从香港以外“聘请合格的专门人员和技术人员”提供协助(第16条第3段),从而为中国特工履行执法职责提供了空间。

  • 专门的国家安全犯罪案件检控科(简称“专门检控科”)(第18条)

专门检控科“负责危害国家安全犯罪案件的检控工作和其他相关法律事务”,其检控官由律政司长在“征得香港特别行政区维护国家安全委员会同意”后任命。该科负责人由行政长官在征求驻港国安公署的“意见”后任命。

领导、监督和问责架构中的问题

由中央领导的机关对香港所有国家安全事务的直接和间接控制,破坏了香港受宪法保障的“高度自治”

  • 香港国安委和驻港国安公署作为香港最高的两个国家安全机构,共同监督、指导和支持香港所有的国家安全工作,直接对中央负责:
  • 香港国安委“接受中央人民政府的监督和问责”(第12条)。
  • 驻港国安公署人员“接受国家监察机关的监督”(第50条)。
  • 由于《香港国安法》规定行政长官在委任香港警务处国安处和专门检控科的负责人之前,必须先征求驻港国安公署的意见,因此后者具有影响这两个机构的权力。
  • 由于香港警务处国安处须执行香港国安委指派的工作并接受其监督,因此该处真正的上级是香港国安委,而非香港警务处。

《香港国安法》将香港国安委和驻港国安公署凌驾于香港法律之上引发的相关问题

驻港国安公署人员全部由内地派往香港,有权按照中国内地的司法体系对待办案件行使管辖权。由于条款语意不明且相互矛盾,《香港国安法》的多项规定也引发了对这些新设机构及其人员是否接受香港法律或司法管辖的担忧。第50条规定,驻港国安公署人员要接受国家监察机关的监督,“除须遵守全国性法律外,还应当遵守香港特别行政区法律”。(强调为作者添加。)

然而,《香港国安法》还规定:“驻香港特别行政区维护国家安全公署……的行为,不受香港特别行政区管辖”(第60条第1段);驻港国安公署证件的持有人及其使用的物品“在执行职务时不受香港特别行政区执法人员检查、搜查和扣押”(第60条第2段)。可是“在执行职务时”的具体界定是什么?如果驻港国安公署证件和物品(包括使用的车辆)的持有人不受检查、搜查和扣押,那么有什么保障措施能确保该署如第50条所规定的那样“不得侵害任何个人或组织的合法权益”呢?

此外,香港国安委的工作还不受香港特区任何“机构、组织和个人”的干涉,也不予公开披露,其决定“不受司法复核”(第14条第2段)。有什么保障措施能确保香港国安委的工作不违反《基本法》和其他香港特区法律?虽然香港国安委在严格意义上是由香港特区政府成立,但它也直接受到中央人民政府的监督和问责(第12条)。《基本法》第22条禁止中央人民政府各部门干涉香港特区事务,并规定中央人民政府各部门设立的办事机构“均须遵守香港特别行政区的法律”[20]。是否可以说,驻港国安公署在事实上是中央人民政府的一个“部门”,因此其人员必须遵守香港法律呢?

 

3.  实施上的挑战:权利绝非小事


以国际人权框架为中心

正如我们在上文介绍《香港国安法》所设立的实施机构时所强调的,该法本身在一个将一党制国家的统治地位宪法化的列宁主义法律制度[21],与具有成熟的普通法法理和独立司法机构的香港法律制度之间形成了不可避免的拉锯。该法对国家安全罪的定义模糊且过于宽泛,对域外管辖权的规定广泛,对该法的适当适用及其与香港特区和全国的其他法律及相关国际法的关系缺乏明确界定,从而加剧了这些结构和意识形态上的拉锯。

犹如一个没有彻底检查燃油或完成其他必要准备就起飞的飞行员,中央人民政府将其感到的攸关存亡的国家安全威胁列为优先事项,却有可能无法解决该法所造成的不可避免的复杂的法律、结构和治理性的挑战。为解决这些拉锯关系和确保实施《香港国安法》不会不当地限制或损害受香港特別行政区、国家和国际法保护的权利,国际人权标准和规范需要成为根本,无论是进行监督、评估影响、制定有效保障措施、为所需的立法改革献计献策,还是确保民间社会安全和有利的环境[22]

人权标准和规范在由条约、公约、宣言、准则、建议和原则组成的国际人权文书中有所规定。这套成熟且不断发展的标准和规范由各国、民间社会,以及联合国独立专家和人权机制适用,以监督、评估和促进各国政府的遵守情况。核心文件包括《世界人权宣言》[23]、《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》[24]和《经济、社会、文化权利国际公约》[25]。国际人权原则还明确指出,“自由、开放、安全和有保障的互联网”及其提供的信息获取渠道,对于“个人作出知情的决定和动员人们呼吁正义、平等、问责和更好地尊重人权”至关重要[26]。(强调为作者添加。)《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》[27]重申,权利是“普遍的”(强调为作者添加),“民主、发展和尊重人权和基本自由是相互依存、相辅相成的”。

在世界与上世纪以来最严重的全球大流行疫情抗争之际,国际专家和联合国人权机构[28]特别强调,尊重人权,包括经济、社会和文化权利以及公民和政治权利等各个范畴的人权,是公共卫生应对措施取得成果和从大流行疫情中复苏的根本。联合国大会强调:“各国需确保在抗击疫情期间所有人权都得到尊重、保护、实现,并确保各国应对冠状病毒病大流行的措施尊重并充分遵守国际法规定的义务,包括国际人道主义法和国际人权法规定的义务,同时强调所有人权都是普遍、不可分割、相互关联、相互依存、相辅相成的。[29]

联合国人权事务高级专员米歇尔·巴切莱特近期也警告:“在2019冠状病毒病疫情下,一场快速发展的全球健康危机与世界各地许多更为缓慢却更根深蒂固的政治、社会和经济危机发生了碰撞。这些多重的潜在裂痕使我们在病毒面前更加脆弱,也为其危害创造了切入口,这主要是将民众声音排除在外的政治进程以及人权保护方面的缺口造成的[30]”(强调为作者添加。)

《香港国安法》与国际人权——纸面上和实践中

《香港国安法》有两条有关权利的关键条款[31],将其纳入国家法律具有重要的现实意义。

第4条:
“香港特别行政区维护国家安全应当尊重和保障人权,依法保护香港特别行政区居民根据香港特别行政区基本法和《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》、《经济、社会与文化权利的国际公约》适用于香港的有关规定享有的包括言论、新闻、出版的自由,结社、集会、游行、示威的自由在内的权利和自由。”

第5条:
“防范、制止和惩治危害国家安全犯罪,应当坚持法治原则。法律规定为犯罪行为的,依照法律定罪处刑;法律没有规定为犯罪行为的,不得定罪处刑。”

“任何人未经司法机关判罪之前均假定无罪。保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和其他诉讼参与人依法享有的辩护权和其他诉讼权利。任何人已经司法程序被最终确定有罪或者宣告无罪的,不得就同一行为再予审判或者惩罚。” (强调为作者添加。)

从字面上解读,这两项条款都纳入了国际标准并提及了受保护的权利,其中还包括国际上关于可允许的权利限制的标准。《世界人权宣言》第29条规定,对这些权利和自由的任何限制“只受法律所确定的限制,确定此种限制的唯一目的在于保证对旁人的权利和自由给予应有的承认和尊重,并在一个民主的社会中适应道德、公共秩序和普遍福利的正当需要” [32]。(强调为作者添加。)

然而,国际人权条约规定的国家义务包括采取立法或其他措施以实现被承认的权利,包括获得有效救济的权利,以及由主管司法、行政或立法当局裁决的权利[33]。因此,为了遵守国际标准和义务,中央和香港特区政府不仅要确保在纸面上保护权利,还要采取有效措施尊重和保护这些权利保障。《香港国安法》在行文上和实际实施中都必须符合适用的国际标准,包括合法、必要和相称的原则——这些原则确立了对权利的任何合理限制的可许性以及香港特区的国际义务。任何安全法的规定还必须遵守有关国家安全立法的国际标准和规范,包括《约翰内斯堡关于国家安全、言论自由和获取信息自由原则》[34]

但是,面对当地和国际上对于《香港国安法》对香港权利和法治影响的批评,中央政府和香港特区当局一贯以“每个国家都有国家安全法”反驳,并指责批评者采用双重标准、将人权政治化以及干涉内政[35]。这些论断呼应了中央政府行使其话语权,在国际上提出的官方叙事——从大处看,这是一种挑战普世价值和原则,以将国家问责边缘化的做法[36]

此外,当局以《香港国安法》第4条为依据,宣称人权确有受到尊重和保护,并援引第5条作为将会坚持法治的保证。这种单纯引用法律条文却不提出更具体的实施措施的做法,不仅将纸上的正式法律与实际的实施进展混为一谈,也没有对该法的实质性条款及其实施是否实际符合国际人权标准,以及中央和香港特区政府在国家、地方和国际法下的义务作出有意义的回应。

香港特区《基本法》[37]和《香港人权法案条例》(《香港法例》第383章)[38]将《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》适用于香港的条款纳入了本地法律。中华人民共和国在1998年10月5日签署了《公约》,而至今仍未批准(尽管中国一再表示有意批准)[39]。但根据国际法,中国有义务不采取任何有违《公约》目的和宗旨的行动[40]。 然而,将《公约》纳入《香港安全法》这部国家法律(适用于香港特区)的第4条,意味着被指定根据内地刑事诉讼法处理第55条所规定案件的内地检察官和法官也需要适用《公约》的标准。这也给香港成熟的普通法体系和权利法理将扮演何种角色留下了未知的可能。

虽然这在法理上带来了复杂的挑战,但将《公约》纳入《香港国安法》可能是一个潜在的重要机会,可以扩大对内地法官和检察官的国际人权法培训,以促进该法的有效实施,使其符合国际标准以及中央和香港特区政府的义务。

当前在结构上、政策上和与权利有关的执行问题

七位联合国特别程序任务执行人明确认可了《香港国安法》积极纳入《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》和《经济、社会、文化权利国际公约》一举。在近期致中国的一份法律函件中,他们还概述了对该法具体条款的关切,突出指出了模糊和过于宽泛的条款,以及其新设立的安全机构缺乏透明度和问责制的问题。他们促请中央政府审议并重新考虑《香港国安法》,以确保中国遵守《世界人权宣言》、《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》、1984年《中英联合声明》及《基本法》中有关香港的国际人权义务[41]

正如国际人权标准所确立和联合国专家所强调的,应对包括恐怖威胁[42]在内的国家安全风险的最有效方法是解决根源问题,以及充分尊重和保护人权。联合国人权事务委员会在定期审议香港特区政府履行《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》义务的情况时,不断对其在确保真正的普选参与公共事务的权利,以及参选权方面缺乏有意义的进展提出关切[43]

在《香港国安法》通过之前,香港政府在2019年提出了一部引渡法案[44]。该法案会将香港人暴露于缺乏独立司法机构和健全正当程序保护的大陆法律制度,引发了大规模的社会抗议[45]。政府拒绝解决这些担忧的顽固态度和香港警察随后的行动,使抗议诉求从最初的撤回引渡法案,扩大到包括民主改革和对警方过度使用武力的问责[46]。香港社会各界越来越多地大规模动员以声援2019年抗议的五大诉求[47],还有一些团体呼吁香港独立。这显然加剧了中央关于香港对其两项国家安全要务——维护领土完整以及中共的政治领导和意识形态主导地位——所构成的威胁的担忧。《香港国安法》清楚反映了这些安全担忧,并以中央认为会带来这些国家安全威胁的行动为打击目标。

在此背景下,我们在下文中概述了一些当前在结构上、政策上和与权利有关的执行问题:

对保密性的要求和允许破坏了透明度、问责和善治

正如国内和国际法所承认的,对信息或程序保密在某些情况下具有合法理由,例如香港法律规定的涉及青少年的法庭程序,或者对个人信息、行业或商业秘密的保护(第63条)。然而,《香港国安法》中要求保密的条款让人对正当程序、实施该法的透明度和主要行为者的问责产生了切实的担忧。

  • 根据第47条,香港特区法院必须取得行政长官发出的具有约束力的证明书,证明被指控的犯罪行为是否涉及国家安全或证据是否涉及国家秘密。
  • 前文所述的新设机构直接受中央人民政府的监督并向其报告,没有任何权利保护的保障或措施,且其行动不受法院或任何独立机构的审查[48]
  • 香港律政司的国家安全犯罪专门检控科(第18条)和香港警务处维护国家安全处(第16条)[49]的负责人必须宣誓遵守法律和保守秘密。
  • 第41条禁止新闻界和公众旁听涉及国家秘密或公共秩序的全部或部分审理程序。
  • 第63条规定,执法、司法机关及其人员,以及辩护人或诉讼代理人除了对在办案过程中知悉的商业或个人信息保密之外,还必须保守国家秘密。

该法的前线执行者是不受限制地和任意行使酌处权的香港警务处。

除了对仍受香港法院司法管辖的案件(即《香港国安法》第55条规定以外的案件)作出裁决的法院之外,香港警务处是《香港国安法》的主要前线执行者。

《香港国安法》第43条授权香港特区行政长官会同香港特区维护国家安全委员会制定相关实施细则,以采取该条规定的措施[50]。于7月6日发布、7月7日生效的《第四十三条实施细则》详细列明了实施这些措施的程序要求、审批条件等,以确保执行人员既实现法律目标,又符合《香港国安法》对依法尊重和保护权利的要求。

然而,鉴于该法对保密的要求及其由中央人民政府领导的集中化统属体系,《实施细则》似乎只会对香港警务处任意行使酌处权进行赋能和合法化,这在警方持续镇压和平行使权利的行为模式中就有所凸显[51]。《实施细则》还提及了香港特区本地的一些其他法律[52]。这些法律需要受到严格审视,不仅因为其颁布背景截然不同,还因为它们具有不同的立法目的,针对不同的问题,而且在某些情况下,它们的实施条款似乎与《香港国安法》的规定有所冲突,例如批准某些行动和措施所需的警官级别,以及所援引的法律与整个《香港国安法》关系的明晰度。

保护年轻人的权利[53]

年轻人是香港未来的关键。如果社会不能与他们有效交流并提供建设性的保护,则将导致一代年轻人更加心灰意冷,不论他们是离开还是留下。这是一个将对香港未来产生负面影响的因素。正如在“占领中环”运动和2019年社会抗议期间有力彰显的,年轻人既身处两场运动的前线,也是抗议诉求的一般参与者和支持者。他们仍在默默奋斗,寻找继续为保护和捍卫香港的价值观和生活方式努力的途径。

从《香港国安法》颁布后的第一天开始[54]至今,许多年轻人(有的年仅12岁)已经遭到警方的逮捕、骚扰、恐吓和肢体暴力。7月29日,4名年龄为16至21岁的前学生动源[55]成员因涉嫌分裂国家罪被捕[56]。8月23日,12名年龄为16至33岁的人士在海上被捕,并被禁止会见律师[57]。8月31日,在至少12名被捕者中,警方称有一名自称是记者的17岁男生[58]。在9月5日的逮捕行动中,一段在网上疯传的视频记录了一名12岁女孩被防暴警察用膝盖压住制伏的情景[59]。女孩和她的哥哥后来因违反社交距离规定遭到罚款。

《香港国安法》迄今的实施情况引发了对遵守青少年、儿童权利和被羁押的未成年人相关国际标准的严重担忧。儿童权利委员会在对中国第三和第四次合并定期报告的结论性意见中提出了若干关切,包括缺乏体现儿童最大利益的一般性立法,以及需要在所有立法、行政和司法程序中适当纳入并始终贯穿这一标准。委员会还建议香港特区将最低刑事责任年龄提高到国际可接受的水平[60]

 

4. 改进空间和建议:“让飞机平稳着陆”


2020年5月的全国人大《决定》[61]授权全国人大常委会仓促通过这部国家安全法,是为了应对中央认为的香港对中国构成的两个国家安全威胁:一是分裂主义主张的兴起对中国领土完整的威胁;二是利用香港作为据点危害中国国家安全的行动,这在广义上被定义为利用香港对内地进行渗透和破坏活动[62]。《香港国安法》自6月30日通过至今已有100多天,这些威胁是否得到了有效解决,或者该法的实施是否符合国际标准都令人生疑。而中央人民政府和香港特区官员却声称香港的稳定和公共秩序已经恢复。但是,将对和平行使权利的镇压噤声和对社会各界的恐吓震慑误认为是稳定和公共秩序是不可行的。

虽然香港警务处采取了严厉行动和强硬的公共秩序论调,但好在香港人仍有空间可以利用,以回击实施《香港国安法》造成的权利限制影响。在个人层面,民众持续用创意方式表示反抗,例如当众阅读被当局视为反对派报纸的《苹果日报》和声援被捕人士。此外,重要的讨论和辩论也正在展开。尤其值得注意的是,香港的律师和学者在对《香港国安法》作出回应时,着重于从行文上关注该法和适用的国际人权标准,对《香港国安法》的实施进行了实际分析,有助于今后案件的有力法律辩护。

一些大学、高等院校和独立智库也举办了各种网络讲座和研讨班,讨论与《香港国安法》有关的广泛主题,如学术自由、新闻自由、政策协作策略、国际外交,以及与例如新加坡《国内安全法》等其他法律的比较分析。本着为应对人权挑战作出建设性贡献的精神,我们向各利益攸关方提出了一些建议。

对各利益攸关方作进一步交涉的建议

除了通过公开声明、国家立法和为那些必须或选择离开香港的人士设立安全港和提供其他选择来应对《香港国安法》造成的人权问题,国际社会还必须要制定具体措施支持香港社会的各类群体,包括正在奋力应对《香港国安法》对权利的限制的年轻人。

给中央和香港特别行政区政府的建议

  • 请务必发布一个经过纠正的和具有法律权威的《香港国安法》的英文翻译文本

《香港国安法》仍然没有具有法律权威的英文版本。对于不会阅读中文的香港居民、律师协会成员或任何可能受到该法全面和广泛主张(包括治外法权)影响的人来说,第一要务就是准确理解该法所规定的内容。中央和香港特别行政区当局应该发布该法的正确英文译本并将其指定为具有法律权威的版本

  • 通过具体步骤加强与联合国人权机制的合作
     
    • 向人权事务高级专员和特别程序发出长期有效的访问邀请。

长期以来,联合国人权事务高级专员和联合国独立特别程序任务执行人有要求政府发出访问邀请和长期有效的邀请,这是许多成员国和民间社会都支持的建设性交涉步骤。中国应给予联合国独立观察员和特别程序任务执行人“立即、有意义和不受限制的准入渠道”[63]。如果没有任命完全独立的监督机制,则至少应该有一个独立的监督和交涉程序。此外,中央和香港特区政府需要在各个层面与相关的联合国条约机构和机关积极接触[64]。在此过程中,最紧迫的任务之一是解决多个联合国独立专家在9月1日的联名信中提出的多重法律和遵守问题[65]

  • 采取具体步骤来落实联合国条约机构和专家提出但尚未被执行的建议

联合国条约机构已经敦促作为所有主要人权条约缔约国的中央政府[66],以及香港特区政府落实有关促进和保护各项人权的建议。

《联合国保护被剥夺自由少年规则》规定,少年司法制度的作用是维护少年的权利和安全,促进他们的身心健康[67]。香港法律制度下的犯罪年龄为10岁[68]。联合国儿童权利委员会建议香港政府对相关的本地法律进行改革,将最低刑事责任年龄提高到国际可接受的水平[69]

香港政府应对相关的本地法律进行审议和改革,并落实这一建议。

  • 举行包容各方的公众咨询,并将意见汇入到香港特区对人权事务委员会《问题清单》的答复中

鉴于其接下来将对香港特区的第四次定期报告进行审议,联合国人权事务委员会就香港特区实施《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》的进展发表了问题清单。为了确保香港特区所拟备的答复能反映香港民间社会的担忧和意见,香港特区政府应该采取措施,不仅要确保公众的参与和意见,还要将此过程的包容性和多样性最大化

人权事务委员会特别指出了与国家安全、反煽动和反恐法律有关的问题,并要求澄清紧急状态和国家安全、反煽动和反恐的法律[70],包括有关以下方面的信息:

  • 《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》与2020年6月30日通过的《香港国安法》之间的关系;
  • 为确保《香港国安法》的适用和执行不违反《公约》规定而采取或计划采取的措施;
  • 为执行《香港国安法》第56条和第57条所计划采取的程序和立法措施;
  • 《香港国安法》的适用范围,包括其域外适用范围;
  • 《香港国安法》第29条规定的“勾结外国或者境外势力危害国家安全罪”一语的含义;
  • 《香港国安法》赋予香港特别行政区维护国家安全委员会和中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区维护国家安全公署的权力和豁免,以及监管这些机构的问责机制;以及
  • 根据《香港国安法》对中国香港的法律作出了或计划作出哪些修订。
     
  • 接受联合国专家提供的技术援助

自2019年以来,多个联合国特别程序就香港的权利状况发表了关切声明,其中最近的一次是2020年9月1日。它们还提出了技术咨询和援助的提议和/或建议,包括与国家安全、刑事和反恐立法有关的事项。值得注意的是,所有有关技术咨询和援助的建议措施都包括任命一名完全独立的审查员,或至少建立一个独立的审查和修订程序[71]。联合国人权事务高级专员也强调,她的优先事项之一是向各国提供技术援助。

  • 中华人民共和国应批准《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》

鉴于《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》已被纳入《香港国安法》这部国家法律,中国应正式批准《公约》。

批准《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》是在人权对话中推进的,由人权机制、特别程序和民间社会团体提出的主要建议之一。在中国2013年的普遍定期审议中,30多个联合国成员国也提出了有关批准《公约》的意见和建议[72]。老年人享有所有人权问题独立专家的前任务执行人罗莎·科恩菲尔德-马特女士在对中国进行国别访问后重申,鼓励中国批准所有尚未缔约的人权条约,特别是《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》。这与其他许多就中国问题撰写报告或就各项人权问题访问中国的独立专家的观点一致[73]

给立法者、法院和政策制定者的建议

  • 善用模糊用语这把双刃剑

正如法律专家和评论员广泛关注的,过于宽泛或定义模糊的罪行是《香港国安法》的一大缺陷,而且《香港国安法》、其他香港特区法律和其他国家法律之间的衔接也不明确。虽然《香港国安法》中含糊的规定存在任意行使酌处权和限制权利的风险,但也应将其视为定义、澄清和界定不同行为者行使酌处权和决策的机会。

许多学者认识到,《香港国安法》的模糊性对有效促进和保护人权构成了严峻的规范性和结构性挑战。同时,他们也继续开展艰巨而必要的工作,探寻对该法进行改革或修订的可能空间,以及司法解释和其他工具,以解决任意和歧视性地行使酌处权和决策的严重风险(特别是作为前线执行者的香港警务处),并限制过于宽泛或相互冲突的条款,包括普通法法理的适用。

在这一方面,人权事务委员会在其《问题清单》中提出的具体问题为法律改革和修正工作提供了建设性的明确议程,也为当前的学术研究和分析划清了重点,以为这些立法工作献计献策。

结论:当前局势的风险

《香港国安法》通过仅有数月。为了对香港未来的任何预测提供背景,我们有必要回顾一下内地、香港乃至世界仅在过去的几年里发生的剧变。在国内,在习近平的领导下,国家和党的权力急剧集中化,并扩大了对中国社会各个群体的全面社会和意识形态控制。在全球,中国加大了对现有国际规范秩序的重塑力度;中美两大经济强国展开了影响全球的贸易战;整个世界在被2019冠状病毒病疫情和气候危机钳住,无人能逃的同时,还面临着独裁主义、民族主义、排外民粹主义抬头带来的威胁。在本世纪初,或者早在1997年,很少有人能够预料到我们现在的处境。

在此期间,香港人经历了社会问题的加剧,包括经济不平等、可负担住房危机、环境的可持续性,以及现在关于香港年轻人和教育政策的激烈政策辩论。然而,尽管北京不断侵犯香港的自治权,香港仍然是中国唯一一个有多元化独立民间社会组织和参与大规模公众集会和年度集会的地方,包括纪念六四的集会——直到今年生变。

对香港人来说,当前局势的最终风险就是香港能否有一个在法治之下权利受到尊重的未来,而这对中国内地也有重大影响。正如陈文敏教授所言,香港对中国社会、经济、政治发展能作出的最佳贡献,就是保留香港的不同之处和坚持香港的核心价值[74]。现在,距离1984年《联合声明》和《基本法》所规定的香港自治、核心价值和生活方式受到保护的50年期限还剩27年。谁能预测未来会怎样呢?

除了大呼香港已亡、法治已死等论调的新闻头条之外,《香港国安法》的逐步实施可能让香港人感到气馁,但他们并没有放弃。随着国家利益断层线的变化和全球大流行疫情给国际社会敲响警钟,有令人鼓舞的迹象表明,国际社会有更大的政治意愿来共同应对内地和香港的人权挑战。

除了通过公开声明、国家立法和为那些必须或选择离开香港的人士设立安全港和提供其他选择来应对《香港国安法》造成的人权问题,国际社会还必须要在这些重要努力之外制定具体措施支持香港社会的各类群体,特别是在严重受限的大环境下挣扎的年轻人。在他们继续为塑造香港的未来奋斗之时,他们需要国际社会的声援和具体的、精神上的支持。

香港未来言弃实属尚早。

 


[1] The Decision authorizes the NPC Standing Committee (NPCSC) to draft the legislation, to be added directly into Annex III of the Basic Law—which contains a list of national laws relating to defense and foreign affairs that are applicable to Hong Kong. In effect, the Decision prescribes a legislative process that will bypass the HKSAR’s own legislative process. 全国人民代表大会关于建立健全香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定 (Quanguo renmindaibiao dahui guanyu jianli jianquan xianggang tebie xingzhengqu weihu guojia anquan de falv zhidu he zhixing jizhi de jueding, Decision of the National People’s Congress on establishing and completing the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region’s legal system and implementing mechanisms for protecting national security), 13th National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China, 3rd Session (May 28, 2020). Available at: http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2020-05/28/c_1126046490.htm.

[2] Law of the People’s Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2020). Available at: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/A406.

[3] Hualing Fu, “National Security Law: Challenges and Prospects,” in Johannes Chan and C.L. Lim, eds., Law of the Hong Kong Constitution, 3rd edition, Sweet & Maxwell Asia Ltd, forthcoming in 2021.

[4] For the key offences, there is no requirement of violence or use of force, which distinguishes the NSL from both Macau’s National Security Law and Hong Kong’s 2003 Draft National Security Bill, which required use of force and major unlawful means. Hualing Fu, “National Security Law: Challenges and Prospects,” in Johannes Chan and C.L. Lim, eds., Law of the Hong Kong Constitution, 3rd edition, Sweet & Maxwell Asia Ltd, forthcoming in 2021.

[5] Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance (Cap. 383) (1991): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap383, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap383!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N&xpid=ID_....

[6] The Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance was enacted in June 1991, prior to hand-over, but remains effective post 1997.

[7] South China Morning Post Video, “New purple flag warning protesters about breaking national security law used by Hong Kong police.” July 1, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/video/hong-kong/3091340/new-purple-flag-warning-protesters-about-breaking-national-security-law.

[8] See databases maintained by Kong Tsung-gan tracking the total number of protesters arrested and prosecuted since August 2019, with the names and brief information of those arrested. Updated frequently. Available at: Arrests and trials of Hong Kong protesters.

[9] On July 3, the spokesperson for the High Commissioner for Human Rights stated: “[w]e are alarmed that arrests are already made under the [NSL] . . . when there is not full information and understanding of the scope of the offences." Among the concerns expressed are the vague and overly broad definition of the offenses which “may lead to discriminatory or arbitrary interpretation and enforcement”; and the “collusion” offense which “may lead to a restriction of civic space and of the possibility for civil society actors to exercise their right to participate in public affairs.” United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner, Press briefing note on China / Hong Kong SAR by Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on the National Security Law Rupert Colville, July 3, 2020. Available at: EN: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26033&LangID=E, CH: https://www.ohchr.org/CH/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26033&....

[10] Channel News Asia, “Hong Kong press body says new police media rules could limit scrutiny.” September 24, 2020. Available at: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asia/hong-kong-press-body-says-new-police-media-rules-could-limit-scrutiny-13141422.

[11] Leung, Christy, and Cheung, Tony, “Hong Kong police limit access to press briefings to news outlets recognised by government, sparking concern and criticism from media groups.” South China Morning Post, September 22, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-and-crime/article/3102527/who-qualifies-media-hong-kong-police-revising,. In response to the increasingly restrictive environment, foreign media and business have also moved some of their operations out of Hong Kong, e.g., the NYT moved its digital news section to Seoul, South Korean tech firm Naver Corp moved its servers in Hong Kong to Singapore to protect user data. Mercator Institute for China Studies, “Transforming Hong Kong: 100 days of the National Security Law.” October 7, 2020. Available at: https://merics.org/en/graphic/transforming-hong-kong-100-days-national-security-law.

[12] Westbrook, Laura, “National security law: Hong Kong libraries pull books by some localist and democracy activists for review.” South China Morning Post, July 4, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3091842/national-security-law-hong-libraries-pull-books-some.

[13] Statement of the Hong Kong Bar Association on the Hong Kong Government's Decision to Postpone the Legislative Council Election, August 2, 2020. Available at: https://www.hkba.org/sites/default/files/20200802 - HK Government Decision to Postpone the Legislative Council Election %28Eng%29.pdf

[14] Ted Hui was struck by a car in Kennedy Town, Hong Kong, on August 14, 2020 by the same vehicle that had been following him for days. According to Hui, when the police arrived they did not search the vehicle or ask the driver to step out. The Hong Kong police force said that the men were journalists and that the driver passed a breath test, though it was not confirmed which media outlet the journalists are from. Grundy, Tom, “Video: Hong Kong democrat Ted Hui tackled by police after confronting vehicle he said was following him.” Hong Kong Free Press, August 15, 2020. Available at: https://hongkongfp.com/2020/08/15/video-hong-kong-democrat-ted-hui-tackled-by-police-after-confronting-vehicle-he-said-was-following-him/.. A widely circulated video on social media shows the police failing to search the vehicle or speak with the driver, but instead clearing the crowd gathering so that the vehicle could drive away.

[15] Teenage boy played popular protest tunes on a recorder at a crowded intersection as some demonstrators sang along. Ramzy, Austin, Yu, Elaine, and May, Tiffany, “On China’s National Day, Hong Kong Police Quash Protests.” The New York Times. October 1, 2020. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/01/world/asia/hong-kong-protests-china.html; Ho, Kelly, “Protest anthem ‘Glory to Hong Kong’ will survive despite tough new security law and ban in schools, composer says.” Hong Kong Free Press, September 19, 2020. Available at: https://hongkongfp.com/2020/09/19/protest-anthem-glory-to-hong-kong-will-survive-despite-tough-new-security-law-and-ban-in-schools-composer-says/; Mullany, Gerry, “Hong Kong Bans Protest Song and Other Political Expression at Schools.” The New York Times, July 8, 2020. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/08/world/asia/hong-kong-students-protests-china.html. Sadly, Oliver Ma, who was arrested twice for singing protest anthem on street, has stopped performing. Coconuts Hong Kong.,“Arrested twice and facing a dubious weapons charge, ‘Glory to Hong Kong’ busker says he’s stopped performing.” Coconuts Hong Kong, September 10, 2020. Available at: https://coconuts.co/hongkong/news/arrested-twice-weapons-charge-glory-hong-kong-busker-oliver-ma-stopped-performing/.

[16] When Carrie Lam postponed the LegCo election due to COVID-19 and Beijing extended the current LegCo term for a year, pro-democracy lawmakers were divided as to whether they should stay on to serve another term. Raymond Chan and Eddie Chu announced they would not serve out their extended terms, Tanya Chan quit politics for personal reasons, and the remaining 19 out of 22 democratic lawmakers decided to remain in the legislature. Cheung, Tony, Wong, Natalie, and Chung, Kimmy, “Hong Kong leader delays legislative elections, asks Beijing to resolve legal questions, citing coronavirus pandemic dangers.” South China Morning Post, July 31, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3095461/hong-kong-legislative-council-elections-be-postponed; Cheung, Tony, Cheung, Gary, and Chung, Kimmy, “Beijing extends Hong Kong’s Legislative Council term by ‘at least one year’ but kicks ball back to Carrie Lam to decide how disqualified lawmakers can continue their duties.” South China Morning Post, August 11, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3096895/chinas-top-legislative-body-passes-resolution-extending; Wong, Natalie, and Cheung, Tony, “Most of Hong Kong’s opposition lawmakers to serve out extended term in Legislative Council, after supporters narrowly back move in poll.” South China Morning Post, September 29, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3103434/hong-kong-opposition-poll-shows-supporters-narrowly-back.

[17] “As a Chinese person, being a patriot is never by choice. It is an obligation and it is the correct way.” Wong, Rachel, “Beijing’s Liaison Office Chief Luo Huining says security legislation ended unrest in Hong Kong,” Hong Kong Free Press, September 30, 2020. Available at: https://hongkongfp.com/2020/09/30/beijings-liaison-office-chief-luo-huining-says-security-legislation-has-ended-unrest/.

[18] Chung, Kimmy and Leung, Christy, “National security law: arrested Hong Kong activist among group caught by China’s coastguard while fleeing to Taiwan, sources confirm.” South China Morning Post, August 23, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3099094/national-security-law-arrested-hong-kong-activist-among.

[19] Wen, Gang, “Arrest of 12 HK fugitives approved by mainland authorities,” China Daily, October 4, 2020. Available at: https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202010/04/WS5f79b276a31024ad0ba7d2b3.html. They have all been denied access to lawyers of their choice and family visits. Feng, Gao, and Man, Sing, “Hong Kong Detainees in China Denied Meetings With Defense Lawyers,” Radio Free Asia, September 7, 2020. Available at: https://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/hongkong-protest-09072020154801.html; Wong, Rachel, “Rights lawyer says China may have appointed ‘state lawyers’ to Hongkonger arrested whilst fleeing by boat,” Hong Kong Free Press, September 9, 2020. Available at: https://hongkongfp.com/2020/09/09/rights-lawyer-says-china-may-have-appointed-state-lawyers-to-hongkonger-arrested-whilst-fleeing-by-boat/. On October 9, media reports citing leaked document and flight records of Hong Kong’s Government Flying Service (GFS) suggest Hong Kong police’s involvement in the group’s capture.

[20] Article 22 of the Basic Law states that “[n]o department of the Central People’s Government and no province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the Central Government may interfere in the affairs which the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region administers on its own in accordance with this Law.”

[21] For critical analyses of impact or the relationship of mainland criminal law and procedure law to the NSL HKSAR, see series of articles posted by long-time Chinese law expert, Professor Cohen, available at: Jerome A. Cohen’s blog: http://www.jeromecohen.net/jerrys-blog?offset=1597258389940

[22] “International human rights law requires States and other duty bearers to create and support a safe and enabling environment that allows civil society to exercise fully the rights and freedoms that are indispensable for them to fulfil their essential role of bringing the voices of all parts of society to the table.” See: Para. 57 of the Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, “Procedures and practices in respect of civil society engagement with international and regional organizations,” April 18, 2018. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/HRC/38/18

[23] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (1948). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Documents/UDHR_Translations/eng.pdf.

[24] The ICCPR was adopted by the General Assembly in 1966 and entered into force in March 1976. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx.

[25] The ICESCR was adopted by the General Assembly in 1966 and entered into force in January 1976. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx.

[26] “The same rights that people have offline must also be protected online, in particular freedom of expression, which is applicable regardless of frontiers and through any media of one’s choice, in accordance with article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.” Human Rights Council, “The Promotion, Protection and Enjoyment of Human Rights on the Internet” (A/HRC/38/L.10). July 2, 2018., Available at: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/HRC/d_res_dec/A_HRC_38_L10.docx. See also UN Human Rights Council, “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue,” (A/HRC/17/27).May 16, 2011. Available at: https://documents-ddsny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/132/01/PDF/G1113201.pdf.

[27] Adopted by consensus at the World Conference, endorsed by the forty-eighth session of the General Assembly (resolution 48/121, of 1993). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/vienna.pdf.

[28] Chairpersons, Ten UN Treaty Bodies, “UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies call for human rights approach in fighting COVID-19,” March 24, 2020. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25742&LangID=E. The UN Human Rights Committee also issued a statement reminding states parties to the ICCPR that any derogations from the rights protected must be in compliance with their treaty obligations and with standards on derogations. See UN Human Rights Committee, “Statement on derogations from the Covenant in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic,” April 24, 2020, by clicking “Committee adopts statement on derogations from the Covenant in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, 24 April 2020”. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CCPR/Pages/CCPRIndex.aspx.

[29] The omnibus Resolution was adopted by the General Assembly on September 11, 2020. Preamble of the General Assembly resolution A/74/L.92, “Comprehensive and coordinated response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic,” September 10, 2020. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/74/L.92. See also Statement by UN Special Procedures holder: “While we recognize the severity of the current health crisis and acknowledge that the use of emergency powers is allowed by international law in response to significant threats, we urgently remind States that any emergency responses to the coronavirus must be proportionate, necessary and non-discriminatory… The use of emergency powers must be publicly declared and should be notified to the relevant treaty bodies when fundamental rights including movement, family life and assembly are being significantly limited…Moreover, emergency declarations based on the Covid-19 outbreak should not be used as a basis to target particular groups, minorities, or individuals. It should not function as a cover for repressive action under the guise of protecting health nor should it be used to silence the work of human rights defenders. (Emphasis added). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25722&LangID=E March 16, 2020.

[30] Statement during Item 2 of the 45th session of the Human Rights Council on September 14, 2020. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26226.

[31] HRIC translations of NSL provisions are cited. Please see Appendix A for full annotations.

[32] The term “necessary in a democratic society” is explicitly cited in ICCPR in Article 14 (Right to a free trial), Article 22 (Freedom of Association), and Article 21 (Freedom of Assembly). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx. Although it is not explicitly mentioned in ICCPR Article 17 (Right to Privacy), the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy has cogently argued that the same standard applies and any interference with the right to privacy must also be consistent with “the principles of legality, necessity and proportionality”, reflecting the terms used in the jurisprudence of the Human Rights Committee. See: Para. 17 of the Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy, (A/HRC/40/63)., October 16, 2019. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/HRC/40/63.

[33] See, e.g., Article 2, ICCPR (2), (3)(a)-(c). Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx.

[34] The Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information. (November, 1996). Available at: https://www.article19.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/joburg-principles.pdf.

[35] See for example PRC representative Geng Gai, at the Human Rights Council:“[n]ational security legislation is a common practice in all countries including those countries that accuse China. Isn’t it China’s right to legislate our own national security in its own land?” Statement during General Debate under Item 4, UN Human Rights Council 45th session, Geneva, September 28, 2020. See 35:40-35:50, available at http://webtv.un.org/meetings-events/human-rights-council/watch/item4-general-debate-contd-22nd-meeting-45th-regular-session-human-rights-council/6195218409001#player; Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam said in a video message to the UN Human Rights Council on June 30, 2020: “[f]or those foreign governments or politicians raising objection to the legislation, one could only lament the double standards they are adopting. All those countries which have pointed their fingers at China have their own national security legislation in place. We could think of no valid reason why China alone should be inhibited from enacting a national security legislation to protect every corner of its territory and all of its nationals.” Video message of Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam to UN Human Rights Council, June 30, 2020. See 00:28-00:55, available at https://www.scmp.com/video/china/3091249/carrie-lam-defends-national-security-law-speech-united-nations.

[36] See e.g., Nadege Rolland, "China’s Vision for a New World Order”, The National Bureau of Asian Research, January 2020. Available at: https://www.nbr.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/publications/sr83_chinasvision_jan2020.pdf. “The Chinese leadership’s efforts to increase China’s discourse power should not be dismissed or misconstrued as mere propaganda or empty slogans. Rather, they should be seen as evidence of the leadership’s determination to alter the norms that underpin existing institutions and put in place the building blocks of a new international system coveted by the Chinese Communist Party… The Chinese leadership’s critique of the existing international order reveals its unswerving objection to the values on which this order has been built.” (Emphasis added).

[37] The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, adopted at the Third Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress (April 4, 1990), Available at: https://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/images/basiclaw_full_text_en.pdf.

[38] Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance (Cap. 383) (1991): EN, CH. https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap383.

[39] In response to recommendations by UN member states, treaty bodies, and civil society groups, to ratify the ICCPR, including during all three of its UPRs, China has consistently responded that it will do so when the domestic conditions for its ratification are present. Available at: https://www.upr-info.org/en/review/China.

[40] Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Art. 18(a): “[o]bligation not to defeat the object and Purpose of a treaty prior to its entry into force. A State is obliged to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of a treaty when: (a) it has signed the treaty…until it shall have made its intention clear not to become a party to the treaty.”(Emphasis added).

[41] Seven UN experts’ communication to China urging review and reconsideration of National Security Law to comply with international law, September 1, 2020, Available at: https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487; See also Human Rights in China, “UN Legal Experts Urge China to Review, Reconsider National Security Law to Comply with Its International Obligations,” September 6, 2020. Available at: https://www.hrichina.org/en/press-work/hric-law-bulletin/un-legal-experts-urge-china-review-reconsider-national-security-law.

[42] “… States should ensure that counter-terrorism legislation is limited to criminalizing terrorism conduct which is properly and precisely defined on the basis of the provisions of international counterterrorism instruments and is strictly guided by the principles of legality, necessity and proportionality. National legislation should be guided by the acts defined in the Suppression Conventions, the definition found in Security Council resolution 1566 (2004) and also by the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism and the Declaration to Supplement the 1994 Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, which were approved by the General Assembly. The Security Council’s definition of a terrorist act requires intentionality to cause death or serious bodily harm and the act must be committed to provoke a state of terror. The model definition of terrorism advanced by the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism provides clear guidance to States on appropriate conduct to be proscribed as best practice: the model definition’s three-pronged set of elements for the regulation of terrorism acts and its cumulative approach more broadly, function as a safety threshold to ensure that it is only conduct of a terrorist nature that is identified as terrorist conduct.” (Emphases added). Seven UN experts’ communication to China urging review and reconsideration of National Security Law to comply with international law, September 1, 2020. Available at: https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487.

[43] Starting on September 26 and lasting 79 days until the police cleared all the sites by December 15, 2014, the Occupy Central movement—led by students and actively supported by the original OCLP leaders—grew into the largest-scale sustained citizen protest in Hong Kong history, drawing over 100,000 people at its height. This peaceful protest, later also called the Umbrella Movement for the signature yellow umbrellas protestors used to protect themselves from tear gas and other attacks by the police, drew wide attention and support from people around the world. South China Morning Post, “TIMELINE: How Occupy Central’s democracy push turned into an Umbrella Revolution.” October 9, 2014. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1612900/timeline-how-occupy-centrals-democracy-push-turned-umbrella; BBC News, “Hong Kong protests: What is the ‘Umbrella Movement’?” September 28, 2019. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/49862757.

[44] Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019, was formally withdrawn by the government in October 2019. Available at: https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr18-19/english/bills/b201903291.pdf. See also, HKSAR government press release “CE announces withdrawal of Fugitive Offenders Bill among "four actions" to help society move forward.” September 4, 2019. Available at: https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201909/04/P2019090400704.htm#:~:text=The%20Chief%20Executive%2C%20Mrs%20Carrie,withdraw%22%20the%20Fugitive%20Offenders%20Bill.&text=%22First%2C%20the%20Fugitive%20Offenders%20Bill,to%20fully%20allay%20public%20concerns.

[45] See a timeline of selected key protests and events in the Hong Kong protest movement from February 2018 to February 2020 compiled by writer, educator, and activist Kong Tsung-gan. Kong Tsung-gan, Medium. March 11, 2020. Available at: https://medium.com/@KongTsungGan/a-timeline-of-the-hong-kong-protests-1d13422ce006. See also two excellent books by Kong Tsung-gan, Umbrella: A Political Tale from Hong Kong,Pema Press, September 12, 2017; and As long as there is resistance there is hope: Essays on the Hong Kong freedom struggle on the post-Umbrella Movement era, 2014–2018,Pema Press, March 18, 2019.

[46] The widely discredited “fact-finding study” by the Independent Complaints Council (IPCC) (2020) aimed to provide a broader picture of the incidents related to the police use of force that generated large number of complaints. The 900 plus page report concluded there was no systemic problem with policy but room for improvement. Lum, Alvin, and Lok-kei, Sum, “Hong Kong protests: no systemic problem with policing, but room to improve, watchdog concludes”, South China Morning Post, May 15, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-and-crime/article/3084550/hong-k.... See also, Research Office, Legislative Council Secretariat, “Information Note: Policy on police use of force in public order events in selected places, IN14/19-20.” Available at: https://www.legco.gov.hk/research-publications/english/1920in14-policy-on-police-use-of-force-in-public-order-events-in-selected-places-20200713-e.pdf.

[47] The five demands: withdrawal of the extradition bill, an investigation into alleged police brutality and misconduct, the release of all the arrested, a retraction of the official characterisation of the protests as "riots", and the resignation of Carrie Lam as HKSAR Chief Executive.

[48] “Information relating to the work of the Committee [CSNS] shall not be subject to disclosure. Decisions made by the Committee shall not be subject to judicial review.” (Art. 15)

[49] “When assuming office, the head of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force shall . . . swear to abide by the law and to safeguard secrets.” (Art. 16, para. 2)

[50] Implementation Rules for Article 43 of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , gazette July 6, effective July 7, 2020. Available at: https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/06/P2020070600784.htm.

[51] As a prominent Chinese legal scholar also notes, “[h]istorically . . . a unified intelligence, security and police power was regarded as the trademark of totalitarian policing, often associated with the Gestapo or the KGB,” and expresses concern that such “fusion”… “presents a significant danger to Hong Kong’s rule of law-based criminal justice system.” Hualing Fu, “National Security Law: Challenges and Prospects,” in Johannes Chan and C.L. Lim, eds., Law of the Hong Kong Constitution, 3rd edition, Sweet & Maxwell Asia Ltd, forthcoming in 2021.

[52] The Firearms and Ammunition Ordinance (Cap. 238) (1981): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap238, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap238!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N; Import and Export Ordinance (Cap. 60) (1972): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap60, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap60!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N&xpid=ID_1438403512990_002; Prevention of Bribery Ordinance (Cap. 201) (1971): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap201, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap201!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N; Organized and Serious Crimes Ordinance (Cap. 455) (1994): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap455, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap455!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N; and Societies Ordinance (Cap. 151) (1949): EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap151, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap151!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N.

[53] Under Hong Kong’s Juvenile Offenders Ordinance, a “child” is defined as anyone aged 13 or younger. A “young person” is aged 14 and 15, and anyone 16 years old and above is no longer considered a juvenile offender, and are tried in court same as adults. Young persons are entitled to same rights as adults when being detained by police, although there are a few differences. A child or young person should not be arrested or interviewed at school, and they must be accompanied by a parent or guardian when being detained or interviewed by police. Under Section 11 of the Juvenile Offenders Ordinance Ordinance, children aged between 10 to 13 cannot be sentenced to imprisonment. Young persons aged between 14 and 15 inclusive, cannot be sentenced to imprisonment if they can be “suitably dealt with in any other way”. Juvenile Offenders Ordinance (Cap. 226); EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap226?pmc=0&m=0&pm=1, CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap226!zh-Hant-HK?pmc=0&m=0&pm=1&INDE.... See also: Lee, Joshua, "Can children be arrested and sentenced in court? A breakdown of how Hong Kong law deals with juvenile offenders.” South China Morning Post, May 3, 2018. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/yp/discover/lifestyle/features/article/3071859/can-children-be-arrested-and-sentenced-court.

[54] A 15-year-old student was arrested for carrying a “Hong Kong Independence” flag and is being investigated for secession under the national security law. On the same day, a 17-year-old student was allegedly found with one intact petrol bomb and two broken ones and two others, aged 16 and 17, were arrested for criminal damage. Lau, Chris, and Lo, Clifford, “National security law: at least five people under investigation for secession offences after Hong Kong protest, sources say.” South China Morning Post, July 2, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3091559/national-security-law-three-hong-kong-customs-officers.

[55] Kang-chung, Ng, “Who are Studentlocalism and are they a national security threat for Hong Kong?” South China Morning Post, July 31, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3095412/who-are-studentlocalism-and-are-they-really-national.

[56] Chan, Erin, “Police still holding four activists under new law.” The Standard, July 31, 2020. Available at: https://www.thestandard.com.hk/section-news/section/11/221458/Police-still-holding-four-activists-under-new-law.

[57] Aljazeera, “Hong Kong’s Lam says 12 arrested at sea ‘not democracy activists.’” September 14, 2020. Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/9/15/hong-kongs-lam-says-12-arrested-at-sea-not-democracy-activists; Ramzy, Austin, and Yu, Elaine, “Families of Hong Kong Activists Arrested at Sea Plead for Access to Lawyers.” The New York Times, September 12, 2020. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/12/world/asia/hong-kong-activists-china.html.

[58] Channel News Asia, “At least 12 arrested after protest in Mong Kok.” August 31, 2020. Available at: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asia/hong-kong-police-arrested-protest-mong-kok-13069450.

[59] Siu, Phila, and Ho-him, Chan, “Hong Kong protests: at least 289 arrested as scattered groups heed online calls to rally on postponed election day.” South China Morning Post, September 6, 2020. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3100426/hong-kong-protests-small-groups-heed-online-calls-rally.

[60] Committee on the Rights of the Child, “Final Concluding Observations and recommendations, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-fourth session (16 September–4 October 2013): CRC/C/CHN/CO/3-4.” October 29, 2013. The Committee also invited the State party to submit its fifth and sixth periodic reports in one combined report by 31 March 2019.

[61] NPC Observer, “2020 NPC Session: NPC´s Decision on National Security in Hong Kong Explained (Updated),” May 28, 2020. Available at: https://npcobserver.com/2020/05/22/2020-npc-session-npcs-imminent-decision-on-national-security-in-hong-kong-explained/.

[62] Hualing Fu, “China’s Imperatives for National Security Legislation,” in Cora Chan and Fiona de Londras, eds., China's National Security: Endangering Hong Kong's Rule of Law?, Hart Publishing, March 2020.

[63] See also joint statement delivered by German Ambassador Christoph Heusgen on October 6, 2020, on behalf of 39 countries in the General Assembly Third Committee General Debate, expressing grave concerns about the human rights situation in Xinjiang and recent developments in Hong Kong. The joint statement called on China to uphold autonomy, rights and freedoms in Hong Kong, and to respect the independence of the Hong Kong judiciary and to allow “immediate, meaningful and unfettered” access to Xinjiang for independent observers including the UN High Commission for Human Rights and her Office, and relevant special procedure mandate holders to urgently implement CERD’s eight recommendations related to Xinjiang, including by refraining from the arbitrary detention of Uyghurs and members of other minorities. See: Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the United Nations, “Statement by Ambassador Christoph Heusgen on behalf of 39 Countries in the Third Committee General Debate.” October 6, 2020. Available at: https://new-york-un.diplo.de/un-en/news-corner/201006-heusgen-china/2402648.

[64] The UN High Commissioner of the Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, has reportedly been encouraging Hong Kong authorities to monitor closely the enforcement of the National Security Law and to take necessary steps to review it. See Reuters, “U.N. rights chief discussing visit to Xinjiang with China.” September 14, 2020. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-un-rights-china-idUSKBN2651D6.

[65] Seven UN experts’ communication to China urging review and reconsideration of National Security Law to comply with international law, September 1, 2020. Available at: https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487.

[66] As pointed out in this brief, while China has not yet ratified the ICCPR which it signed on October 5, 1998, as a signatory, it has an obligation under the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Art 18(a), to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of the treaty.

[67] A juvenile is defined as every person under the age of 18, the age limit below which it should not be permitted to deprive a child of his or her liberty should be determined by law. Imprisonment should be used as a last resort. United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty, adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/113 of 14 December 1990. Available at: https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/blog/document/united-nations-rules-for-the-protection-of-juveniles-deprived-of-their-liberty/. Juveniles should only be deprived of their liberty in accordance with the principles and procedures set forth in these Rules and in the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules). United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty, adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/113 of 14 December 1990. Available at: https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/blog/document/united-nations-rules-for-the-protection-of-juveniles-deprived-of-their-liberty/.

[68] The Hong Kong Criminal Procedure Ordinance states that courts cannot sentence a young person from age 16 to 20 to imprisonment unless “the court is of opinion that no other method of dealing with such person is appropriate.” This does not apply to “excepted offences,” which include serious crimes like manslaughter, robbery, and indecent assault.

Criminal Procedure Ordinance (Cap. 221) (1899), available at: EN: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap221; CH: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap221!zh-Hant-HK?INDEX_CS=N&xpid=ID_....

[69] Committee on the Rights of the Child, “Final Concluding Observations and recommendations, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-fourth session (16 September–4 October 2013): CRC/C/CHN/CO/3-4.” Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhso23wCwLcI6mikolpecekJiKxokT9PZd%2bAIuwnAS9cTQ8odgT3SN5r8b2fwEGfzcssJ8eKxAFqJbvyE3s8JRY4Uw7I4nkOnElqyaQajNCXsj. October 29, 2013. The Committee also invited the State party to submit its fifth and sixth periodic reports in one combined report by 31 March 2019.

[70] UN Human Rights Committee, “List of issues in relation to the fourth periodic report of Hong Kong, China (Advance unedited version): CCPR/C/CHN-HKG/Q/4”, August 6, 2020. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CCPR/Shared%20Documents/HKG/CCPR_C_CHN-HKG_Q_4_42807_E.pdf.

[71] See for example: Recommendation for the “appointment of a fully independent reviewer of the application, operation, and compliance of the law with international human rights obligations as a recommended best practice by the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. We remain open and willing to provide technical advice and assistance to the establishment and operation of such a body.” (Page 11, UN Special Procedures Joint Statement to China dated September 1); Recommendation “to tighten and ensure that the definition of terrorism contained in national law is appropriately narrow and tailored, and that use of counterterrorism law and practice is in conformity with international human rights standards, and strictly contained to those specifically violent acts that constitute terrorism under international law. We offer technical assistance to this purpose and affirm our goal to engage positively with your Government.” (Page 18, UN Special Procedures Joint Statement to China dated November 1, 2019) (Emphases added.) Seven UN experts’ communication to China urging review and reconsideration of National Security Law to comply with international law, September 1, 2020. Available at: https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487.

[72] See China’s 2013 UPR. Human Rights in China, “UN Treaty Bodies and China”. Available at: https://www.hrichina.org/en/un-treaty-bodies-and-china.

[73] UN General Assembly, “Report of the Independent Expert on the enjoyment of all human rights by older persons: A/HRC/45/14/Add.1,” UN Human Rights Council 45th session, August 7, 2020. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/HRC/45/14/Add.1.

[74] Johannes Chan, “Maintaining Institutional Strength: the Court, the Act of State and the Rule of Law.” In Cora Chan and Fiona de Londras, eds., China's National Security: Endangering Hong Kong's Rule of Law?, Hart Publishing, March 2020.

 

附件A:中国人权最新《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法》双语注释表(重点提出了翻译问题和修改建议)

Key to notations and changes

  • Grey highlight and bolding have been applied to the terms with translation issues.
  • In Column 2 of the chart (the English translation column), strikethrough has been applied to word(s) in the original official translation for which HRIC suggests alternate translation. HRIC’s suggested alternate translations along with Chinese source text appear inside square brackets.
  • Word(s) added by HRIC are indicated by an asterisk (*) preceding the added word(s) inside square brackets.
  • All emphases (in italics) in the English translation have been added by HRIC.
  • A typographical error in Article 24 of the Chinese source text is indicated: [].

 

HRIC’s suggested translation changes highlight the importance of the accuracy of the text of a law. Technical language accuracy is critical to the accurate understanding of the scope of prohibited activities and the criminal liability. Under international standards and under common law interpretation norms, rights-restricting laws, should be construed narrowly and in the least restrictive manner possible, so as to enable the appropriate exercise of rights. In addition, our suggested language revision is aimed at conveying more accurately the ideological and political tone in several key provisions of the Chinese text, which is not reflected in the official English translation—as a key objective of the NSL, a Chinese law, is to assert control over perceived threats to the ideological and political dominance of the Communist Party of China over Hong Kong.

Below are some examples of HRIC’s suggested translation changes—with strikethrough on the original translation we suggest replacing, followed by our suggested translation change and Chinese source text inside square brackets—that illustrate the issues of scope and ideological and political overtone:

  • From Article 1: “. . . preventing, suppressing and imposing punishment for the offences of secession, subversion, organisation and perpetration of terrorist activities, and collusion with a foreign country or with external elements [overseas forces 境外勢力] to endanger national security . . . .”

    Note: “External elements” can be read as a neutral term, but the Chinese phrase 境外勢力—“overseas forces”—is global in nature and connotes hostility. It is a phrase that is commonly used by the Chinese authorities to refer to foreign governments and civil society organizations critical of China.

  • From Article 5, para. 2: “A person is presumed innocent until convicted by a judicial body. The right to defend himself or herself and other rights in judicial proceedings [the legal process 訴訟] that a criminal suspect, defendant, and other parties in judicial proceedings are entitled to under the law shall be protected [guaranteed 保障].”

    Note: The official English translation of 訴訟 as “judicial proceedings” is a narrow rendering of the source text, whereas the Chinese term is more expansive and should be translated as “the legal process” to convey more accurately that rights are not limited to court proceedings.

  • Article 6: “It is the common responsibility of all the people of China, including the people of Hong Kong [compatriots 同胞], to safeguard the sovereignty, unification and territorial integrity of the People’ s Republic of China.”

    Note: The official English translation, “the people of Hong Kong,” omitted the lineage and jurisdictional claim and the ideological overtone in the source text, 同胞, “compatriots.” The literal meaning of 同胞 is “those born of the same parents.” “Compatriots” is a term commonly used by the United Front Work Department of the Communist Party of China to refer to people in Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan.

  • From Article 21: “A person who incites, assists in, abets [counsels 教唆] or provides pecuniary or other financial assistance or pecuniary property for the commission by other persons of the offence under Article 20 of this Law shall be guilty of an offence.”

    Note: The English word “abet” means “encourage, support, aide, or approve” a wrongdoing; the original Chinese term, 教唆, means “counsel, urge, advise” and is broader than the more narrow act of abetting a prohibited act.

HRIC welcomes comments and suggestions. Please send by email to communications@hrichina.org, with “NSL translation” in the subject line.

 

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法

The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

 

发布机构: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会
发布日期:2020 年6月30日
生效日期:2020 年6月30日 

中国人权于2020年10月14日登陆该网页

Promulgating entity: Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress
Date of promulgation: June 30, 2020
Date of legal effect: June 30, 2020

HRIC visited this page on October 14, 2020

 

目錄

第一章        總則

第二章     香港特別行政區維護國家安全的職責和機構
第一節     職責
第二節     機構

第三章     罪行和處罰
第一節     分裂國家罪
第二節     顛覆國家政權罪
第三節     恐怖活動罪
第四節     勾結外國或者境外勢力危害國家安全罪
第五節     其他處罰規定
第六節     效力範圍

第四章     案件管轄、法律適用和程序

第五章     中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全機構

第六章     附則

Contents

Chapter I      General Principles

Chapter II     The Duties and the Government Bodies of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for Safeguarding National Security
Part 1     Duties
Part 2     Government Bodies 

Chapter III   Offences and Penalties
Part 1     Secession
Part 2     Subversion
Part 3     Terrorist Activities
Part 4     Collusion with a Foreign Country or with External Elements [overseas forces 境外勢力] to Endanger National Security
Part 5     Other Provisions on Penalty
Part 6     Scope of Application

Chapter IV   Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and Procedure

Chapter V    Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 

Chapter VI   Supplementary Provisions

HRIC summary/annotation

Editors’ note: The summary below follows, where applicable, HRIC’s suggested translation change(s) rather than the published official translation.

第一章       總則

Chapter I
General Principles

 

第一條

為堅定不移並全面準確貫徹“一國兩制”、“港人治港”、高度自治的方針,維護國家安全,防範、制止和懲治與香港特別行政區有關的分裂國家、顛覆國家政權、組織實施恐怖活動和勾結外國或者境外勢力危害國家安全等犯罪,保持香港特別行政區的繁榮和穩定,保障香港特別行政區居民的合法權益,根據中華人民共和國憲法、中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法和全國人民代表大會關於建立健全香港特別行政區維護國家安全的法律制度和執行機制的決定,制定本法。

Article 1

This Law is enacted, in accordance with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, and the Decision of the National People’s Congress on Establishing and Improving the Legal System and Enforcement Mechanisms for Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, for the purpose of[1]:

  • ensuring the resolute, full and faithful [correct 準確] implementation of the policy of One Country, Two Systems under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy;
  • safeguarding national security;
  • preventing, suppressing and imposing punishment for the offences of secession, subversion, organisation and perpetration of terrorist activities, and collusion with a foreign country or with external elements [overseas forces 境外勢力] to endanger national security in relation to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
  • maintaining prosperity and stability of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; and
  • protecting [guaranteeing 保障] the lawful rights and interests of the residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Authority for the Law: PRC Constitution, HKSAR Basic Law, and NPCSC Decision.

 

Legislative purposes:

  • implementation of One Country, Two Systems under which people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy;
  • safeguarding national security;
  • preventing, suppressing, and imposing punishment for secession, subversion, organisation, and perpetration of terrorist activities, and collusion with a foreign country or overseas forces;
  • maintaining prosperity and stability of HKSAR; and
  • protecting lawful rights and interests of HKSAR residents.

第二條

關於香港特別行政區法律地位的香港特別行政區基本法第一條*和第十二條規定是香港特別行政區基本法的根本性條款。香港特別行政區任何機構、組織和個人行使權利和自由,不得違背香港特別行政區基本法第一條和第十二條的規定。

Article 2

The provisions in Articles 1 and 12 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on the legal status of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region are the fundamental provisions in the Basic Law. No institution, organisation or individual in the Region shall contravene these provisions in exercising their rights and freedoms.

No contravening of fundamental Basic Law Articles: Art. 1 (HKSAR is inalienable part of PRC) and Art. 12 (HKSAR shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy directly under the Central People's Government (CPG)).

第三條

中央人民政府對香港特別行政區有關的國家安全事務負有根本責任。

Article 3

The Central People’ s Government has an overarching [a fundamental 根本] responsibility for national security affairs relating to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Responsibilities and duties of CPG and HKSAR govt:

  • CPG has fundamental responsibility for national security affairs.
  • HKSAR govt has constitutional duty to safeguard national security.
  • Executive, legislative, and judicial organs of HKSAR shall effectively prevent, suppress, and impose punishment.

香港特別行政區負有維護國家安全的憲制責任,應當履行維護國家安全的職責

It is the [constitutional 憲制] duty of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under the Constitution to safeguard national security and the Region shall perform the duty [duties and responsibilities 職責] accordingly.

香港特別行政區行政機關立法機關、司法機關應當依據本法和其他有關法律規定有效防範、制止和懲治危害國家安全的行為和活動。

The executive authorities, legislature and judiciary [legislative, and judicial organs 立法機關、司法機關] of the Region shall effectively prevent, suppress [prohibit 制止] and impose punishment for any act or activity endangering national security in accordance with this Law and other relevant laws.

第四條

香港特別行政區維護國家安全應當尊重和保障人權,依法保護香港特別行政區居民根據香港特別行政區基本法和《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》、《經濟、社會與文化權利的國際公約》適用於香港的有關規定享有的包括言論、新聞、出版的自由,結社、集會、遊行、示威的自由在內的權利和自由。

Article 4

Human rights shall be respected and protected in safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. [In safeguarding national security, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall respect and guarantee human rights 香港特別行政區維護國家安全應當尊重和保障人權]. The rights and freedoms, including the freedoms of speech, of the press, of publication, of association, of assembly, of procession and of demonstration, which the residents of the Region enjoy under the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the provisions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as applied to Hong Kong, shall be protected in accordance with the law.

Human rights and freedoms shall be respected and protected, including those under Basic Law, ICCPR, and ICESCR:

  • freedoms of speech, the press, publication, association, assembly, procession, and demonstration.

第五條

防範、制止和懲治危害國家安全犯罪,應當堅持法治原則。法律規定為犯罪行為的,依照法律定罪處刑;法律沒有規定為犯罪行為的,不得定罪處刑。

Article 5

The principle of the rule of law shall be adhered to in preventing, suppressing, and imposing punishment for offences endangering national security. A person who commits an act which constitutes an offence under the law shall be convicted and punished in accordance with the law. No one shall be convicted and punished for an act which does not constitute an offence under the law.

Rule of law shall be adhered to in preventing, suppressing, and imposing punishment for offences endangering national security.

任何人未經司法機關判罪之前均假定無罪。保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和其他訴訟參與人依法享有的辯護權和其他訴訟權利。任何人已經司法程序被最終確定有罪或者宣告無罪的,不得就同一行為再予審判或者懲罰。

A person is presumed innocent until convicted by a judicial body. The right to defend himself or herself and other rights in judicial proceedings [the legal process 訴訟] that a criminal suspect, defendant, and other parties in judicial proceedings are entitled to under the law shall be protected [guaranteed 保障]. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he or she has already been finally convicted or acquitted in judicial proceedings.

Presumption of innocence until convicted.

Defence rights of criminal suspects/defendants shall be guaranteed.

No double jeopardy.

第六條

維護國家主權、統一和領土完整是包括香港同胞在內的全中國人民的共同義務。

Article 6

It is the common responsibility of all the people of China, including the people of Hong Kong [compatriots 同胞], to safeguard the sovereignty, unification and territorial integrity of the People’ s Republic of China.

Safeguarding sovereignty, unification, and territorial integrity of PRC is common responsibility of people of China, including of Hong Kong compatriots.

Scope of prohibition: behavior and activities by any institution, organisation, or individual in HKSAR. 

Written confirmation or loyalty oath to uphold Basic Law is required for standing for election or assuming office.

在香港特別行政區的任何機構、組織和個人都應當遵守本法和香港特別行政區有關維護國家安全的其他法律,不得從事危害國家安全的行為和活動。

Any institution, organisation or individual in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall abide by this Law and the laws of the Region in relation to the safeguarding of national security, and shall not engage in any act or activity which endangers national security.

香港特別行政區居民在參選或者就任公職時應當依法簽署文件確認或者宣誓擁護中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法,效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區。

A resident of the Region who stands for election or assumes public office shall confirm in writing or take an oath to uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China and swear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China in accordance with the law.

第二章  香港特別行政區維護國家安全的職責和機構

Chapter II
The Duties and the Government Bodies of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for Safeguarding National Security

 

第一節  職責

Part 1 Duties

 

第七條

香港特別行政區應當儘早完成香港特別行政區基本法規定的維護國家安全立法,完善相關法律。

Article 7

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall complete, as early as possible, legislation for safeguarding national security as stipulated in the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and shall refine [improve 完善] relevant laws.

HKSAR shall complete national security legislation and improve relevant laws.

第八條

香港特別行政區執法、司法機關應當切實執行本法和香港特別行政區現行法律有關防範、制止和懲治危害國家安全行為和活動的規定,有效維護國家安全。

Article 8

In order to safeguard national security effectively, the law enforcement and judicial authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall fully enforce this Law and the laws in force in the Region concerning the prevention of, suppression of, and imposition of punishment for acts and activities endangering national security.

HK law enforcement and judicial authorities shall fully enforce this Law and related HKSAR national security laws.

第九條

香港特別行政區應當加強維護國家安全和防範恐怖活動的工作。對學校、社會團體、媒體、網絡等涉及國家安全的事宜,香港特別行政區政府應當採取必要措施,加強宣傳、指導、監督和管理

Article 9

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall strengthen its work on safeguarding national security and prevention of terrorist activities. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall take necessary measures to strengthen public communication, guidance, supervision and regulation [management 管理] over matters concerning national security, including those relating to schools, universities, social organisations, the media, and the internet.

HKSAR shall:

  • strengthen work on safeguarding national security and prevention of terrorist activities;
  • strengthen public communication guidance, supervision and management over national security matters in relation to schools, universities, social organizations, the media, and the Internet.

NOTE: The Chinese source text states “schools” but not “universities.”

第十條

香港特別行政區應當通過學校、社會團體、媒體、網絡等開展國家安全教育,提高香港特別行政區居民的國家安全意識和守法意識。

Article 10

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall promote [carry out 開展] national security education in schools and universities and through social organisations, the media, the internet and other means to raise the awareness of Hong Kong residents of national security and of the obligation to abide by the law.

HKSAR shall carry out national security education in schools, universities, social organizations, and media, and on the Internet to raise awareness of national security and obligations.

NOTE: The Chinese source text states “schools” but not “universities.”

第十一條

香港特別行政區行政長官應當就香港特別行政區維護國家安全事務向中央人民政府負責,並就香港特別行政區履行維護國家安全職責的情況提交年度報告。

Article 11

The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be accountable to the Central People’ s Government for affairs relating to safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and shall submit an annual report on the performance of duties [*and responsibilities 職責] of the Region in safeguarding national security.

HKSAR Chief Executive (CE) shall be accountable to CPG and submit an annual report and report on specific matters as requested.

如中央人民政府提出要求,行政長官應當就維護國家安全特定事項及時提交報告。

The Chief Executive shall, at the request of the Central People’s Government, submit in a timely manner a report on specific matters relating to safeguarding national security.

 

第二節   機構

Part 2 Government Bodies

 

第十二條

香港特別行政區設立維護國家安全委員會,負責香港特別行政區維護國家安全事務,承擔維護國家安全的主要責任,並接受中央人民政府的監督和問責。

Article 12

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall establish the Committee for Safeguarding National Security. The Committee shall be responsible for affairs relating to and assume primary responsibility for safeguarding national security in the Region. It shall be under the supervision of and accountable to the Central People’ s Government.

HKSAR shall establish Committee for Safeguarding National Security (CSNS), with primary responsibility for safeguarding national security, under supervision of and accountable to CPG.

第十三條

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會由行政長官擔任主席,成員包括政務司長、財政司長、律政司長、保安局局長、警務處處長、本法第十六條規定的警務處維護國家安全部門的負責人、入境事務處處長、海關關長和行政長官辦公室主任。

Article 13

The Chief Executive shall be the chairperson of the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The other members of the Committee shall be [include 包括] the Chief Secretary for Administration, the Financial Secretary, the Secretary for Justice, the Secretary for Security, the Commissioner of Police, the head of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force established under Article 16 of this Law, the Director of Immigration, the Commissioner of Customs and Excise, and the Director of the Chief Executive’ s Office.

CSNS chair: CE
CSNS members:

  • Chief Secretary for Administration
  • Financial Secretary
  • Secretary for Justice
  • Secretary for Security
  • Commissioner of Police
  • Head of Dept for safeguarding national security of the HKPF established under Art. 16
  • Director of Immigration
  • Commissioner of Customs and Excise
  • Director of CE Office

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會下設秘書處,由秘書長領導。秘書長由行政長官提名,報中央人民政府任命。

A secretariat headed by a Secretary-General shall be established under the Committee. The Secretary-General shall be appointed by the Central People’s Government upon nomination by the Chief Executive.

Head of CSNS Secretariat: Secretary-General appointed by CPG, nominated by CE.

第十四條

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會的職責為:

Article 14

The duties and functions [responsibilities 職責] of the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be:

 

  1. 分析研判香港特別行政區維護國家安全形勢規劃有關工作,制定香港特別行政區維護國家安全政策;
  2. 推進香港特別行政區維護國家安全的法律制度和執行機制建設
  3. 協調香港特別行政區維護國家安全的重點工作和重大行動
  1. analysing and assessing developments [situations 形勢] in relation to safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, making work plans [planning related work 規劃有關工作], and formulating policies for safeguarding national security in the Region;
  2. advancing the development [construction 建設] of the legal system and enforcement mechanisms of the Region for safeguarding national security; and
  3. coordinating major [significant 重點] work and significant [major 重大] operations for safeguarding national security in the Region.

Duties and responsibilities of CSNS:

  1. analyse and assess situations, plan related work, formulate policies;
  2. advance construction of HKSAR’s legal system and enforcement mechanisms; and
  3. coordinate significant work and major operations in HKSAR.

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會的工作不受香港特別行政區任何其他機構、組織和個人的干涉,工作信息不予公開。香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會作出的決定不受司法覆核

No institution, organisation or individual in the Region shall interfere with the work of the Committee. Information relating to the work of the Committee shall not be subject to disclosure. Decisions made by the Committee shall not be amenable [subject 不受] to judicial review.

No institution, organisation or individual in HKSAR shall interfere with work of CSNS.

Work of CSNS not subject to disclosure.

Decisions of CSNS not subject to judicial review.

第十五條

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會設立國家安全事務顧問,由中央人民政府指派,就香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會履行職責相關事務提供意見。國家安全事務顧問列席香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會會議。

Article 15

The Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall have a National Security Adviser, who shall be designated by the Central People’ s Government and provide advice on matters relating to the [*performance of 履行] duties and functions [responsibilities ] of the Committee. The National Security Adviser shall sit in on [attend 列席] meetings of the Committee.

National Security Adviser to be designated by CPG shall advise CSNS on matters related to its duties and responsibilities.

第十六條

香港特別行政區政府警務處設立維護國家安全的部門,配備執法力量

Article 16

The Police Force of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall establish a department for safeguarding national security with law enforcement capacity [power].

Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF) to establish dept for safeguarding national security (HKPF DSNS).

警務處維護國家安全部門負責人由行政長官任命,行政長官任命前須書面徵求本法第四十八條規定的機構的意見。警務處維護國家安全部門負責人在就職時應當宣誓擁護中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法,效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區,遵守法律,保守秘密

 

The head of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force shall be appointed by the Chief Executive. The Chief Executive shall seek in writing the opinion of the Office established under Article 48 of this Law before making the appointment. When assuming office, the head of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force shall swear to uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, swear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, and swear to abide by the law and to observe the obligation of secrecy [safeguard secrets 保守秘密].

Head of HKPF DSNS shall be appointed by CE based on opinion of the Office to be established under Art. 48.

Head of HKPF DSNS shall swear:

  • to uphold Basic Law;
  • allegiance to HKSAR;
  • to abide by law; and
  • to safeguard secrets.

警務處維護國家安全部門可以從香港特別行政區以外聘請合格的專門人員和技術人員,協助執行維護國家安全相關任務。

The department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force may recruit qualified professionals [specialists 專門人員] and technical personnel from outside the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to provide assistance in the performance of [*related 相關] duties for safeguarding national security.

DSNS may recruit specialists and technical personnel from outside HKSAR for assistance.

第十七條

警務處維護國家安全部門的職責為:

Article 17

The duties and functions [responsibilities ] of the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force shall be:

 

  1. 收集分析涉及國家安全的情報信息;
  2. 部署、協調、推進維護國家安全的措施和行動;
  3. 調查危害國家安全犯罪案件
  4. 進行反干預調查和開展國家安全審查;
  5. 承辦香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會交辦的維護國家安全工作;
  6. 執行本法所需的其他職責。

collecting and analysing intelligence and information concerning national security;

planning [deploying 部署], coordinating and enforcing [driving forward 推進] measures and operations for safeguarding national security;

investigating offences [cases of offences 犯罪案件] endangering national security;

conducting counter-interference [anti-interference 反干預] investigation and national security review;

carrying out [undertaking 承辦] tasks of safeguarding national security assigned by the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; and

performing other duties and functions [responsibilities ] necessary for the enforcement of this Law.

Duties and responsibilities of HKPF DSNS:

  1. collect and analyse intelligence;
  2. deploy, coordinate, and drive forward measures and operations;
  3. investigate cases of offences;
  4. conduct anti-interference investigation and national security review;
  5. undertake tasks assigned by CSNS; and
  6. perform other duties and responsibilities necessary for the enforcement of this Law.

第十八條

香港特別行政區律政司設立專門的國家安全犯罪案件檢控部門,負責危害國家安全犯罪案件的檢控工作和其他相關法律事務。該部門檢控官由律政司長徵得香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會同意後任命。

Article 18

The Department of Justice of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall establish a specialised [*national security crimes 國家安全犯罪案件] prosecution division responsible for the prosecution of offences endangering national security and other related legal work. The prosecutors of this division shall be appointed by the Secretary for Justice after obtaining the consent of the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

HKSAR Dept of Justice shall establish specialised national security crimes prosecution division (DOJ SPD).

DOJ SPD prosecutors shall be appointed by Secretary for Justice after consent of CSNS.

律政司國家安全犯罪案件檢控部門負責人由行政長官任命,行政長官任命前須書面徵求本法第四十八條規定的機構的意見。律政司國家安全犯罪案件檢控部門負責人在就職時應當宣誓擁護中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法,效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區,遵守法律,保守秘密

The head of the specialised [*national security crimes 國家安全犯罪案件] prosecution division of the Department of Justice shall be appointed by the Chief Executive, who shall seek in writing the opinion of the Office established under Article 48 of this Law before making the appointment. When assuming office, the head of the specialised [*national security crimes 國家安全犯罪案件] prosecution division shall swear to uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, swear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, and swear to abide by the law and to observe the obligation of secrecy [safeguard secrets 保守秘密].

Head of DOJ SPD shall be appointed by CE, based on opinion of the Office established under Art. 48.

Head of DOJ SPD shall swear:

  • to uphold Basic Law;
  • allegiance to HKSAR;
  • to abide by law; and
  • to observe obligation of secrecy.

第十九條

經行政長官批准,香港特別行政區政府財政司長應當從政府一般收入中撥出專門款項支付關於維護國家安全的開支並核准所涉及的人員編制,不受香港特別行政區現行有關法律規定的限制。財政司長須每年就該款項的控制和管理向立法會提交報告。

 

Article 19

The Financial Secretary of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall, upon approval of the Chief Executive, appropriate from the general revenue a special fund to meet the expenditure for safeguarding national security and approve the establishment of relevant posts, which are not subject to any restrictions in the relevant provisions of the laws in force in the Region. The Financial Secretary shall submit an annual report on the control and management of the fund for this purpose to the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Financial Secretary shall, upon CE approval, appropriate a special fund from general revenue for expenditures for safeguarding national security and establishment of relevant posts—unrestricted by HKSAR laws.

Financial Secretary shall submit annual report on control and management of the fund to HKSAR Legislative Council.

第三章  罪行和處罰

Chapter III
Offences and Penalties

 

第一節  分裂國家罪

Part 1 Secession

 

第二十條

任何人組織、策劃、實施或者參與實施以下旨在分裂國家、破壞國家統一行為之一的,不論是否使用武力或者以武力相威脅,即屬犯罪:

  1. 將香港特別行政區或者中華人民共和國其他任何部分從中華人民共和國分離出去;
  2. 非法改變香港特別行政區或者中華人民共和國其他任何部分的法律地位;
  3. 將香港特別行政區或者中華人民共和國其他任何部分轉歸外國統治

Article 20

A person who organises, plans, commits [implements 實施] or participates in any of the following acts, whether or not by force or threat of force, with a view to committing secession or undermining national unification shall be guilty of an offence:

  1. separating the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or any other part of the People’s Republic of China from the People’s Republic of China;
  2. altering by unlawful means the legal status of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or of any other part of the People’s Republic of China; or
  3. surrendering [transferring 轉歸] the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or any other part of the People’s Republic of China to [*the rule of 統治] a foreign country.

Secession offences.
Organise, plan, implement, or participate in acts to:

  1. separate HKSAR or any other part of PRC from the PRC;
  2. alter by unlawful means status of HKSAR or any other part of PRC; or
  3. transfer HKSAR or any part of PRC to the rule of a foreign country.

犯前款罪,對首要分子或者罪行重大的,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;對積極參加的,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;對其他參加的,處三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。

A person who is a principal offender or a person who commits an offence of a grave nature [with grave circumstances 罪行重大] shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years; a person who actively participates in the offence shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years; and other participants shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention or restriction.

Penalties.
Principal offender of offence with grave circumstances: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years.

Active participant: fixed-term imprisonment of three years to ten years.

Other participants: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention or restriction.

第二十一條

任何人煽動、協助、教唆、以金錢或者其他財物資助他人實施本法第二十條規定的犯罪的,即屬犯罪。情節嚴重的,處五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情節較輕的,處五年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。

Article 21

A person who incites, assists in, abets [counsels 教唆] or provides pecuniary or other financial assistance or pecuniary property for the commission by other persons of the offence under Article 20 of this Law shall be guilty of an offence. If the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a serious nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than ten years; if the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a minor nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention or restriction.

Secession offences.
Incite, assist in, counsel, or provide pecuniary or other financial assistance or property for commission of secession by others.

Penalties.
If circumstances are serious: fixed-term imprisonment of five years to ten years.

If circumstances are minor: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention, or restriction.

第二節  顛覆國家政權罪

Part 2 Subversion

 

第二十二條

任何人組織、策劃、實施或者參與實施以下以武力、威脅使用武力或者其他非法手段旨在顛覆國家政權行為之一的,即屬犯罪:

Article 22

A person who organises, plans, commits [implements 實施] or participates in any of the following acts by force or threat of force or other unlawful means with a view to subverting the State power shall be guilty of an offence:

Subversion offences.
Organise, plan, implement, or participate in acts by force/threat of force/other unlawful means to:

  1. 推翻、破壞中華人民共和國憲法所確立的中華人民共和國根本制度;
  2. 推翻中華人民共和國中央政權機關或者香港特別行政區政權機關
  3. 嚴重干擾、阻撓破壞中華人民共和國中央政權機關或者香港特別行政區政權機關依法履行職能;
  4. 攻擊、破壞香港特別行政區政權機關履職場所及其設施,致使其無法正常履行職能。
  1. overthrowing or undermining [sabotaging 破壞] the basic system of the People’s Republic of China established by the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China;
  2. overthrowing the body [organs 機關] of central power of the People’s Republic of China or the body of power of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
  3. seriously interfering in, disrupting [obstructing 阻撓], or undermining [sabotaging 破壞] the performance of duties and functions in accordance with the law by the body of central power of the People’s Republic of China or the body of power of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; or
  4. attacking or damaging the premises and facilities used by the body of power of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to perform its duties and functions, rendering it incapable of performing its normal duties and functions.
  1. overthrow or sabotage the basic system of the PRC established by PRC Constitution;
  2. overthrow CPG or HKSAR political organs;
  3. seriously interfere in, obstruct, or sabotage the performance of duties and functions of CPG or HKSAR body of power; or
  4. attack or damage premises and facilities of HKSAR political organs, resulting in their incapacity to perform their normal duties and functions.

犯前款罪,對首要分子或者罪行重大的,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;對積極參加的,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;對其他參加的,處三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。

 

A person who is a principal offender or a person who commits an offence of a grave nature shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years; a person who actively participates in the offence shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years; and other participants shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention or restriction.

Penalties.
Principal offender of offence of a grave nature: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment not less than ten years.

Active participant: fixed-term imprisonment of three years to ten years.

Other participants: imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention, or restriction.

第二十三條

任何人煽動、協助、教唆、以金錢或者其他財物資助他人實施本法第二十二條規定的犯罪的,即屬犯罪。情節嚴重的,處五年以上十年以下有期徒刑;情節較輕的,處五年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制。

Article 23

A person who incites, assists in, abets [counsels 教唆] or provides pecuniary or other financial assistance or property for the commission by other persons of the offence under Article 22 of this Law shall be guilty of an offence. If the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a serious nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than ten years; if the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a minor nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention or restriction.

Subversion offences.
Incite, assist in, counsel, or provide pecuniary or other financial assistance or property for commission of subversion by others. 

Penalties.
If circumstances are serious: fixed-term imprisonment of five years to ten years. 

If circumstances are minor: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention, or restriction.

第三節  恐怖活動罪

Part 3 Terrorist Activities

 

第二十四條

為脅迫中央人民政府、香港特別行政區政府或者國際組織或者威嚇公眾 [意]實現政治主張,組織、策劃、實施、參與實施或者威脅實施以下造成或者意圖造成嚴重社會危害的恐怖活動之一的,即屬犯罪:

Article 24

A person who organises, plans, commits [implements 實施], participates in or threatens to commit any of the following terrorist activities causing or intended to cause grave harm to the society with a view to coercing the Central People’ s Government, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or an international organisation or intimidating the public in order to pursue political agenda shall be guilty of an offence:

Terrorist activities offences.

  • Organise, plan, implement, participate in, or threaten to commit acts listed below
  • causing or intended to cause grave harm to society
  • in order to coerce CPG, HKSAR, or an int’l org, or intimidate the public to pursue political agenda:
  1. 針對人的嚴重暴力;
  2. 爆炸、縱火或者投放毒害性、放射性、傳染病病原體等物質;
  3. 破壞交通工具、交通設施、電力設備、燃氣設備或者其他易燃易爆設備;
  4. 嚴重干擾、破壞水、電、燃氣、交通、通訊、網絡等公共服務和管理的電子控制系統;
  5. 以其他危險方法嚴重危害公眾健康或者安全
  1. serious violence against a person or persons;
  2. explosion, arson, or dissemination of poisonous or radioactive substances, pathogens of infectious diseases or other substances;
  3. sabotage of means of transport, transport facilities, electric power or gas facilities, or other combustible or explosible facilities;
  4. serious interruption or sabotage of electronic control systems for providing and managing public services such as water, electric power, gas, transport, telecommunications and the internet; or
  5. other dangerous activities [methods 方法] which seriously jeopardise [harm (or endanger) 重危] public health [or] safety, or security.
  1. serious violence against person or persons;
  2. explosion, arson, dissemination of poisonous or radioactive substances, or pathogens;
  3. sabotage of means of transport, transport facilities, electric power or gas facilities, or other combustible or explosive facilities;
  4. serious interruption or sabotage of electronic control systems for public services; or
  5. other dangerous methods seriously harming (or endangering) public health or safety.

NOTE: Source text contains only a single term for “safety” 安全. The term “security” is not in the source text.

犯前款罪,致人重傷、死亡或者使公私財產遭受重大損失的,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑;其他情形,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。

A person who commits the offence causing serious bodily injury, death or significant loss of public or private property shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years; in other circumstances, a person who commits the offence shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years.

Penalties.
Offender causing serious bodily injury, death, or significant loss of public or private property: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years. 

Offender in other circumstances: fixed-term imprisonment of three years to ten years.

第二十五條

組織、領導恐怖活動組織的,即屬犯罪,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑,並處沒收財產;積極參加的,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑,並處罰金;其他參加的,處三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,可以並處罰金。

Article 25

A person who organises or takes charge of [leads 領導] a terrorist organisation shall be guilty of an offence and shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years, and shall be subject to confiscation of property; a person who actively participates in a terrorist organisation shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years and shall be imposed with a criminal fine; and other participants shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention or restriction, and shall be liable to a criminal fine.

Penalties.
Offender who organises or leads a terrorist organisation: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years; and confiscation of property.

Active participant in a terrorist organisation: fixed-term imprisonment of three years to ten years and criminal fine.

Other participants: imprisonment of not more than three years, short-term detention, or restriction.

本法所指的恐怖活動組織,是指實施或者意圖實施本法第二十四條規定的恐怖活動罪行或者參與或者協助實施本法第二十四條規定的恐怖活動罪行的組織。

For the purpose of this Law, a terrorist organisation means an organisation which commits or intends to commit the offence under Article 24 of this Law or participates or assists in the commission of the offence.

Definition.

Terrorist organisation: an organisation which commits or intends to commit, terrorist offences, or participates or assists in commission of offences under Art. 24.

第二十六條

為恐怖活動組織、恐怖活動人員、恐怖活動實施提供培訓、武器、信息、資金、物資、勞務、運輸、技術或者場所等支持、協助、便利,或者製造、非法管有爆炸性、毒害性、放射性、傳染病病原體等物質以及以其他形式準備實施恐怖活動的,即屬犯罪。情節嚴重的,處五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,並處罰金或者沒收財產;其他情形,處五年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,並處罰金。

Article 26

A person who provides support, assistance or facility [facilitation 便利] such as training, weapons, information, funds, supplies, labour, transport, technologies or venues to a terrorist organisation or a terrorist, or for the commission of a terrorist activity; or manufactures or illegally possesses substances such as explosive, poisonous or radioactive substances and pathogens of infectious diseases or uses other means to prepare for the commission of a terrorist activity, shall be guilty of an offence. If the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a serious nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than ten years, and shall be imposed with a criminal fine or subject to confiscation of property; in other circumstances, a person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention or restriction, and shall be imposed with a criminal fine.

Terrorist activities offences.

  • provide support, assistance, or facilitation such as training, weapons, information, funds, supplies, labour, transport, technologies or venues to terrorist organization or a terrorist; or
  • manufacture or illegally possess explosives, poisonous or radioactive substances, or pathogens for commission of terrorist activities.

Penalties.
If circumstances are serious: fixed-term imprisonment of five years to ten years, and criminal fine or confiscation of property.

Other circumstances: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention, or restriction, and criminal fine.

有前款行為,同時構成其他犯罪的,依照處罰較重的規定定罪處罰。

If the act referred to in the preceding paragraph also constitutes other offences, the person who commits the act shall be convicted and sentenced for the offence that carries a more severe penalty.

Offender of acts in preceding paragraph which also constitute other offences shall be convicted and sentenced for the offences carrying more severe penalties.

第二十七條

宣揚恐怖主義、煽動實施恐怖活動的,即屬犯罪。情節嚴重的,處五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,並處罰金或者沒收財產;其他情形,處五年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,並處罰金。

Article 27

A person who advocates terrorism or incites the commission of a terrorist activity shall be guilty of an offence. If the circumstances of the offence committed by a person are of a serious nature, the person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than ten years, and shall be imposed with a criminal fine or subject to confiscation of property; in other circumstances, a person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention or restriction, and shall be imposed with a criminal fine.

Terrorist activities offence.
Advocate terrorism or incites the commission of a terrorist activity.

Penalties.
If circumstances are serious: fixed-term imprisonment of five years to ten years, and criminal fine or confiscation of property.

Other circumstances: fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, short-term detention, or restriction, and criminal fine.

第二十八條

本節規定不影響依據香港特別行政區法律對其他形式的恐怖活動犯罪追究刑事責任並採取凍結財產等措施。

Article 28

The provisions of this Part shall not affect the prosecution of terrorist offences committed in other forms or the imposition of other measures such as freezing of property in accordance with the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Terrorist activities in Part 3 shall not affect prosecution of terrorist offences committed in other forms under HKSAR laws.

第四節  勾結外國或者境外勢力危害國家安全罪

Part 4 Collusion with a Foreign Country or with External Elements [Overseas Forces 境外勢力] to Endanger National Security

 

第二十九條

為外國或者境外機構、組織、人員竊取、刺探、收買、非法提供涉及國家安全的國家秘密或者情報的;請求外國或者境外機構、組織、人員實施,與外國或者境外機構、組織、人員串謀實施,或者直接或者間接接受外國或者境外機構、組織、人員的指使、控制、資助或者其他形式的支援實施以下行為之一的,均屬犯罪:

Article 29

A person who steals, spies, obtains with payment, or unlawfully provides State secrets or intelligence concerning national security for a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China shall be guilty of an offence; a person who requests a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China, or conspires with a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China, or directly or indirectly receives instructions, control, funding or other kinds of support from a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China, to commit any of the following acts shall be guilty of an offence:

Collusion offences.

  • steal, spy, obtain with payment, or unlawfully provide State secrets or intelligence concerning national security for a foreign country, or an overseas institution, organization or individual; or
  • request, conspire with, or directly or indirectly receive instructions, control, funding, or other kinds of support from a foreign country, or an overseas institution, organization or individual to commit any of the following acts:
  1. 對中華人民共和國發動戰爭,或者以武力或者武力相威脅,對中華人民共和國主權、統一和領土完整造成嚴重危害
  2. 對香港特別行政區政府或者中央人民政府制定和執行法律、政策進行嚴重阻撓並可能造成嚴重後果;
  3. 對香港特別行政區選舉進行操控、破壞並可能造成嚴重後果;
  4. 對香港特別行政區或者中華人民共和國進行制裁、封鎖或者採取其他敵對行動;
  5. 通過各種非法方式引發香港特別行政區居民對中央人民政府或者香港特別行政區政府的憎恨並可能造成嚴重後果。
  1. waging a war against the People’s Republic of China, or using or threatening to use force to seriously undermine [harm (or endanger) 危害] the sovereignty, unification and territorial integrity of the People’s Republic of China;
  2. seriously disrupting [obstructing 阻撓] the formulation and implementation of laws or policies by the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or by the Central People’s Government, which is likely to cause serious consequences;
  3. rigging or undermining [sabotaging 破壞] an election in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, which is likely to cause serious consequences;
  4. imposing sanctions or blockade, or engaging in other hostile activities against the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or the People’s Republic of China; or
  5. provoking by unlawful means hatred among Hong Kong residents towards the Central People’s Government or the Government of the Region, which is likely to cause serious consequences.
  1. wage war against PRC, or use or threaten to use force to seriously harm (or endanger) PRC sovereignty, unification, and territorial integrity;
  2. seriously obstruct formulation or implementation of laws or polices by HKSAR govt or CPG likely causing serious consequences;
  3. rig or sabotage an election in HKSAR likely causing serious consequences;
  4. impose sanctions or blockade, or engage in other hostiles act against HKSAR or PRC; or
  5. provoke by unlawful means hatred among Hong Kong residents toward CPG or HKSAR govt likely causing serious consequences.

犯前款罪,處三年以上十年以下有期徒刑;罪行重大的,處無期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑。

A person who commits the offence shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than ten years; a person who commits an offence of a grave nature shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years.

Penalties.

Fixed-term Imprisonment of three years to ten years.

Offence of grave nature: life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years.

本條第一款規定涉及的境外機構、組織、人員,按共同犯罪定罪處刑。

The [overseas 境外] institution, organisation and individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’s Republic of China referred to in the first paragraph of this Article shall be convicted and punished for the same offence [their joint offences 共同犯罪].

Overseas institution, organisation, and individual referred to in the first paragraph shall be convicted and punished for the same offence.

第三十條

為實施本法第二十條、第二十二條規定的犯罪,與外國或者境外機構、組織、人員串謀,或者直接或者間接接受外國或者境外機構、組織、人員的指使、控制、資助或者其他形式的支援的,依照本法第二十條、第二十二條的規定從重處罰。

Article 30

A person who conspires with or directly or indirectly receives instructions, control, funding or other kinds of support from a foreign country or an [overseas 境外] institution, organisation, or individual outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China to commit the offences under Article 20 or 22 of this Law shall be liable to a more severe penalty in accordance with the provisions therein respectively.

Penalty.

Offender who conspires with or directly or indirectly receives instructions, control, funding, or other kinds of support from a foreign country or overseas institution, organisation, or individual to commit secession (Art. 20) or subversion (Art. 22) shall receive the more severe penalties set out in Arts. 20 and 22.

第五節  其他處罰規定

Part 5 Other Provisions on Penalty

 

第三十一條

公司、團體等法人或者非法人組織實施本法規定的犯罪的,對該組織判處罰金。

Article 31

n incorporated or unincorporated body such as a company or an organisation which commits an offence under this Law shall be imposed with a criminal fine.

Penalties.
Incorporated or unincorporated body:
criminal fines and suspension of operation and revocation of license or business permit.

公司、團體等法人或者非法人組織因犯本法規定的罪行受到刑事處罰的,應責令其暫停運作或者吊銷其執照或者營業許可證。

The operation of an incorporated or unincorporated body such as a company or an organisation shall be suspended or its licence or business permit shall be revoked if the body has been punished for committing an offence under this Law.

 

第三十二條

因實施本法規定的犯罪而獲得的資助、收益、報酬等違法所得以及用於或者意圖用於犯罪的資金和工具,應當予以追繳、沒收。

Article 32

Proceeds obtained from the commission of an offence under this Law including financial aid, gains and rewards, and funds and tools used or intended to be used in the commission of the offence shall be seized [recovered 追繳] and confiscated.

Penalties.

Recovery and confiscation of proceeds from, and funds and tools used or intended to be used in, the commission of an offence.

第三十三條

有以下情形的,對有關犯罪行為人、犯罪嫌疑人、被告人可以從輕、減輕處罰;犯罪較輕的,可以免除處罰:

  1. 在犯罪過程中,自動放棄犯罪或者自動有效地防止犯罪結果發生的;
  2. 自動投案,如實供述自己的罪行的;
  3. 揭發他人犯罪行為,查證屬實,或者提供重要線索得以偵破其他案件的。

Article 33

A lighter penalty may be imposed, or the penalty may be reduced or, in the case of a minor offence, exempted, if an offender, criminal suspect, or defendant:

  1. in the process of committing an offence, voluntarily discontinues the commission of the offence or voluntarily and effectively forestalls its consequences;
  2. voluntarily surrenders himself or herself and gives a truthful account of the offence; or
  3. reports on the offence committed by other [another 他人] person, which is verified to be true, or provides material information which assists in solving other criminal case.

Lighter or reduced penalties, or exemption, in case of minor offence if offender:

  1. discontinues the commission of the offence;
  2. surrenders and gives a truthful account of the offence; or
  3. reports on others or provides information assisting in solving other cases.

被採取強制措施的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人如實供述執法、司法機關未掌握的本人犯有本法規定的其他罪行的,按前款第二項規定處理。

Sub-paragraph (2) of the preceding paragraph shall apply to a criminal suspect or defendant who is subjected to mandatory measures and provides a truthful account of other offences committed by him or her under this Law which are unknown to the law enforcement or judicial authorities.

 

第三十四條

不具有香港特別行政區永久性居民身份的人實施本法規定的犯罪的,可以獨立適用或者附加適用驅逐出境。

Article 34

A person who is not a permanent resident of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may be subject to deportation as the sole or an additional [an independent or supplementary 獨立適用或者附加] punishment if he or she commits an offence under this Law.

Penalties for persons without HKSAR permanent residency status:

  • deportation as independent or supplementary punishment if offence is committed;
  • deportation if person contravenes this Law but is not prosecuted.

不具有香港特別行政區永久性居民身份的人違反本法規定,因任何原因不對其追究刑事責任的,也可以驅逐出境。

A person who is not a permanent resident of the Region may be subject to deportation if he or she contravenes the provisions of this Law but is not prosecuted for any reason.

 

第三十五條

任何人經法院判決犯危害國家安全罪行的,即喪失作為候選人參加香港特別行政區舉行的立法會、區議會選舉或者出任香港特別行政區任何公職或者行政長官選舉委員會委員的資格;曾經宣誓或者聲明擁護中華人民共和國香港特別行政區基本法、效忠中華人民共和國香港特別行政區的立法會議員、政府官員及公務人員、行政會議成員、法官及其他司法人員、區議員,即時喪失該等職務,並喪失參選或者出任上述職務的資格。

Article 35

A person who is convicted of an offence endangering national security by a court shall be disqualified from standing as a candidate in the elections of the Legislative Council and district councils of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, holding any public office in the Region, or serving as a member of the Election Committee for electing the Chief Executive. If a person so convicted is a member of the Legislative Council, a government official, a public servant, a member of the Executive Council, a judge or a judicial officer, or a member of the district councils, who has taken an oath or made a declaration to uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’ s Republic of China and swear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’ s Republic of China, he or she shall be removed from his or her office upon conviction, and shall be disqualified from standing for the aforementioned elections or from holding any of the aforementioned posts.

Conviction of national security offence disqualifies persons from standing as candidates or holding any public office.

If a LegCo member, govt official, public servant, or member of district council who has taken oath is convicted of national security offence, he/she shall be removed, and disqualified from standing as candidates or holding any public office.

NOTE: Since a conviction can be reversed on appeal, this reference to conviction by “a” court經法院判決 raises questions on whether a conviction by “a” court that is being appealed can be the basis for disqualification/removal.

前款規定資格或者職務的喪失,由負責組織、管理有關選舉或者公職任免的機構宣佈。

The disqualification and removal from offices referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be announced by the authorities responsible for organising and managing the relevant elections or for the appointment and removal of holders of public office.

 

第六節  效力範圍

Part 6 Scope of Application

 

第三十六條

任何人在香港特別行政區內實施本法規定的犯罪的,適用本法。犯罪的行為或者結果有一項發生在香港特別行政區內的,就認為是在香港特別行政區內犯罪。

Article 36

This Law shall apply to offences under this Law which are committed in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region by any person. An offence shall be deemed to have been committed in the Region if an act constituting the offence or the consequence of the offence occurs in the Region.

This Law applies to:

  • offences committed in HKSAR by any person, including acts or consequences occurring in the HKSAR; or
  • on board a vessel/aircraft registered in HKSAR.

在香港特別行政區註冊的船舶或者航空器內實施本法規定的犯罪的,也適用本法。

This Law shall also apply to offences under this Law committed on board a vessel or aircraft registered in the Region.

 

第三十七條

香港特別行政區永久性居民或者在香港特別行政區成立的公司、團體等法人或者非法人組織在香港特別行政區以外實施本法規定的犯罪的,適用本法。

Article 37

This Law shall apply to a person who is a permanent resident of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or an incorporated or unincorporated body such as a company or an organisation which is set up in the Region if the person or the body commits an offence under this Law outside the Region.

This Law applies to:

  • a HKSAR permanent resident;
  • an incorporated or unincorporated body set up in HKSAR; or
  • a person or the body who commits an offence under this Law outside HKSAR.

第三十八條

不具有香港特別行政區永久性居民身份的人在香港特別行政區以外針對香港特別行政區實施本法規定的犯罪的,適用本法。

Article 38

This Law shall apply to offences under this Law committed against the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region from outside the Region by a person who is not a permanent resident of the Region.

This Law applies to:
offences committed against the HKSAR from outside HKSAR by a person who is not a HKSAR permanent resident.

第三十九條

本法施行以後的行為,適用本法定罪處刑。

Article 39

This Law shall apply to acts committed after its entry into force for the purpose of conviction and imposition of punishment.

This Law applies to acts committed after this Law’s entry into force.

第四章  案件管轄、法律適用和程序

Chapter IV
Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and Procedure

 

第四十條

香港特別行政區對本法規定的犯罪案件行使管轄權,但本法第五十五條規定的情形除外。

Article 40

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall have jurisdiction over cases concerning offences under this Law, except under the circumstances specified in Article 55 of this Law.

 HKSAR has jurisdiction except for circumstances specified in Art. 55 (jurisdiction of the Office for Safeguarding National Security of CPG in HKSAR).

第四十一條

香港特別行政區管轄危害國家安全犯罪案件的立案偵查、檢控、審判和刑罰的執行等程序事宜,適用本法和香港特別行政區本地法律。

Article 41

This Law and the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall apply to procedural matters, including those related to criminal [*case filing 案件的立案,] investigation, prosecution, trial, and execution of penalty, in respect of cases concerning offence endangering national security over which the Region exercises jurisdiction.

This Law shall apply to criminal case filing, investigation, prosecution, trial, and execution of penalty of cases over which the HKSAR has jurisdiction.

未經律政司長書面同意,任何人不得就危害國家安全犯罪案件提出檢控。但該規定不影響就有關犯罪依法逮捕犯罪嫌疑人並將其羈押,也不影響該等犯罪嫌疑人申請保釋。

No prosecution shall be instituted in respect of an offence endangering national security without the written consent of the Secretary for Justice. This provision shall not prejudice the arrest and detention of a person who is suspected of having committed the offence or the application for bail by the person in accordance with the law.

No prosecution may be initiated without written consent of Secretary for Justice.

香港特別行政區管轄的危害國家安全犯罪案件的審判循公訴程序進行。

Cases concerning offence endangering national security within the jurisdiction of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be tried on indictment.

Cases of endangering national security within the jurisdiction of the HKSAR shall be tried on indictment.

審判應當公開進行。因為涉及國家秘密、公共秩序等情形不宜公開審理的,禁止新聞界和公眾旁聽全部或者一部分審理程序,但判決結果應當一律公開宣佈。

The trial shall be conducted in an open court. When circumstances arise such as the trial involving State secrets or public order, [the media and the public shall be prohibited from attending 禁止新聞界和公眾旁聽] all or part of the trial shall be closed to the media and the public but the judgment shall be delivered in an open court.

All or part of a trial involving State secrets or public order shall be closed to media and public; judgment to be delivered in open court.

第四十二條

香港特別行政區執法、司法機關在適用香港特別行政區現行法律有關羈押審理期限等方面的規定時,應當確保危害國家安全犯罪案件公正、及時辦理,有效防範、制止和懲治危害國家安全犯罪。

Article 42

When applying the laws in force in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region concerning matters such as the detention and time limit for trial [time limits related to detention and trial 有關羈押、審理期限], the law enforcement and judicial authorities of the Region shall ensure that cases concerning offence endangering national security are handled in a fair and timely manner so as to effectively prevent, suppress and impose punishment for such offence.

HKSAR law enforcement and judicial authorities shall ensure fairness and timeliness in handling national security cases, so as to prevent, suppress, and punish the offences.

“對犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,除非法官有充足理由相信其不會繼續實施危害國家安全行為的,不得准予保釋。

No bail shall be granted to a criminal suspect or defendant unless the judge has sufficient grounds for believing that the criminal suspect or defendant will not continue to commit acts endangering national security.

No bail for a suspect unless a judge determines the suspect/defendant will not continue to commit acts.

第四十三條

香港特別行政區政府警務處維護國家安全部門辦理危害國家安全犯罪案件時,可以採取香港特別行政區現行法律准予警方等執法部門在調查嚴重犯罪案件時採取的各種措施,並可以採取以下措施:

Article 43

When handling cases concerning offence endangering national security, the department for safeguarding national security of the Police Force of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may take measures that law enforcement authorities, including the Hong Kong Police Force, are allowed to apply under the laws in force in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in investigating serious crimes, and may also take the following measures:

HKPF DSNS may take measures outside of those authorized by existing laws, including:

  1. 搜查可能存有犯罪證據的處所、車輛、船隻、航空器以及其他有關地方和電子設備;
  2. 要求涉嫌實施危害國家安全犯罪行為的人員交出旅行證件或者限制其離境;
  3. 對用於或者意圖用於犯罪的財產、因犯罪所得的收益等與犯罪相關的財產,予以凍結,申請限制令、押記令、沒收令以及充公;
  4. 要求信息發佈人或者有關服務商移除信息或者提供協助;
  5. 要求外國及境外政治性組織,外國及境外當局或者政治性組織的代理人提供資料;
  6. 經行政長官批准,對有合理理由懷疑涉及實施危害國家安全犯罪的人員進行截取通訊和秘密監察;
  7. 對有合理理由懷疑擁有與偵查有關的資料或者管有有關物料的人員,要求其回答問題和提交資料或者物料。
  1. search of premises, vehicles, vessels, aircraft and other relevant places and electronic devices that may contain evidence of an offence;
  2. ordering any person suspected of having committed an offence endangering national security to surrender travel documents, or prohibiting the person concerned from leaving the Region;
  3. freezing of, applying for restraint order, charging order and confiscation order in respect of, and forfeiture of property used or intended to be used for the commission of the offence, proceeds of crime, or other property relating to the commission of the offence;
  4. requiring a person who published information or the relevant service provider to delete [remove 移除] the information or provide assistance;
  5. requiring a political organisation of a foreign country or outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’s Republic of China, or an agent of authorities or a political organisation of a foreign country or outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’s Republic of China, to provide information;
  6. upon approval of the Chief Executive, carrying out interception of communications and conducting covert surveillance on a person who is suspected, on reasonable grounds, of having involved in the commission of an offence endangering national security; and
  7. requiring a person, who is suspected, on reasonable grounds, of having in possession information or material relevant to investigation, to answer questions and furnish such information or produce such material.
  1. searches of premises, vehicles, vessels, aircraft and other relevant places and electronic devices;
  2. ordering surrender of travel documents;
  3. freezing and confiscating property, proceeds of crimes, other related property;
  4. requiring service providers to remove published information;
  5. requiring foreign political organisations or their agents outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao to provide information;
  6. with approval of CE, intercepting communications and carrying out covert surveillance on suspects; and
  7. requiring a person suspected of possessing information or material relevant to investigation to answer questions and provide the material.

香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會對警務處維護國家安全部門等執法機構採取本條第一款規定措施負有監督責任。

The Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be responsible for supervising the implementation of the measures stipulated in the first paragraph of this Article by law enforcement authorities including the department for safeguarding national security of the Hong Kong Police Force.

CSNS (established by Art. 12) shall have oversight over implementation of measures in the first paragraph of this Article by law enforcement including the HKPF DSNS.

授權香港特別行政區行政長官會同香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會為採取本條第一款規定措施制定相關實施細則。

The Chief Executive shall be authorised, in conjunction with the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, to make relevant implementation rules for the purpose of applying the measures under the first paragraph of this Article.

CE shall be authorized, in conjunction with CSNS, to make implementation rules for applying HKPF DSNS measures.

第四十四條

香港特別行政區行政長官應當從裁判官、區域法院法官、高等法院原訟法庭法官、上訴法庭法官以及終審法院法官中指定若干名法官,也可從暫委或者特委法官中指定若干名法官,負責處理危害國家安全犯罪案件。行政長官在指定法官前可徵詢香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會和終審法院首席法官的意見。上述指定法官任期一年。

Article 44

The Chief Executive shall designate a number of judges from the magistrates, the judges of the District Court, the judges of the Court of First Instance and the Court of Appeal of the High Court, and the judges of the Court of Final Appeal, and may also designate a number of judges from deputy judges or recorders, to handle cases concerning offence endangering national security. Before making such designation, the Chief Executive may consult the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Chief Justice of the Court of Final Appeal. The term of office of the aforementioned designated judges shall be one year.

CE shall designate judges to handle national security cases.

CE may consult with the CSNS and the Chief Justice, and judges of the Court of Final Appeal for making such designations.

凡有危害國家安全言行的,不得被指定為審理危害國家安全犯罪案件的法官。在獲任指定法官期間,如有危害國家安全言行的,終止其指定法官資格。

A person shall not be designated as a judge to adjudicate a case concerning offence endangering national security if he or she has made any statement or behaved in any manner endangering national security. A designated judge shall be removed from the designation list if he or she makes any statement or behaves in any manner endangering national security during the term of office.

Judges who have made statements or committed acts that have “in any manner” endangered national security shall not adjudicate national security cases.

在裁判法院、區域法院、高等法院和終審法院就危害國家安全犯罪案件提起的刑事檢控程序應當分別由各該法院的指定法官處理。

The proceedings in relation to the prosecution for offences endangering national security in the magistrates’ courts, the District Court, the High Court and the Court of Final Appeal shall be handled by the designated judges in the respective courts.

All national security cases shall be tried by designated judges in the respective courts

第四十五條

除本法另有規定外,裁判法院、區域法院、高等法院和終審法院應當按照香港特別行政區的其他法律處理就危害國家安全犯罪案件提起的刑事檢控程序。

Article 45

Unless otherwise provided by this Law, magistrates’ courts, the District Court, the High Court and the Court of Final Appeal shall handle proceedings in relation to the prosecution for offences endangering national security in accordance with the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Designated judges at all levels of courts shall handle national security cases in accordance with the laws of the HKSAR.

第四十六條

對高等法院原訟法庭進行的就危害國家安全犯罪案件提起的刑事檢控程序,律政司長可基於保護國家秘密、案件具有涉外因素或者保障陪審員及其家人的人身安全理由,發出證書指示相關訴訟毋須在有陪審團的情況下進行審理。凡律政司長發出上述證書,高等法院原訟法庭應當在沒有陪審團的情況下進行審理,並由三名法官組成審判庭。

Article 46

In criminal proceedings in the Court of First Instance of the High Court concerning offences endangering national security, the Secretary for Justice may issue a certificate directing that the case shall be tried without a jury on the grounds of, among others, [including 等:] the protection of State secrets, involvement of foreign factors in the case, and the protection [guarantee 保障] of personal safety of jurors and their family members. Where the Secretary for Justice has issued the certificate, the case shall be tried in the Court of First Instance without a jury by a panel of three judges.

Secretary of Justice may issue certificate for trial without jury on grounds including:

  • protection of state secrets;
  • “foreign factors” involvement; and
  • guarantee of personal safety of jurors and family members.

凡律政司長發出前款規定的證書,適用於相關訴訟的香港特別行政區任何法律條文關於“陪審團”或者“陪審團的裁決”,均應當理解為指法官或者法官作為事實裁斷者的職能。

Where the Secretary for Justice has issued the certificate, the reference to “a jury” or “a verdict of the jury” in any provision of the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region applicable to the related proceedings shall be construed as referring to the judges or the functions of the judge as a judge of fact.

With this certificate, a case shall be tried by a panel of three judges in the Court of First Instance.

References to “jury” or “verdict of the jury” in such cases are construed as judges functioning as judge of fact.

第四十七條

香港特別行政區法院在審理案件中遇有涉及有關行為是否涉及國家安全或者有關證據材料是否涉及國家秘密的認定問題,應取得行政長官就該等問題發出的證明書,上述證明書對法院有約束力。

Article 47

The courts of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall obtain a certificate from the Chief Executive to certify whether an act involves national security or whether the relevant evidence involves State secrets when such questions arise in the adjudication of a case. The certificate shall be binding on the courts.

HKSAR courts shall obtain binding certificate from CE regarding:

  • whether act involves national security; or
  • evidence involves state secrets.

第五章  中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全機構

Chapter V
Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

 

第四十八條

中央人民政府在香港特別行政區設立維護國家安全公署。中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署依法履行維護國家安全職責,行使相關權力。

Article 48

The Central People’ s Government shall establish in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region an office for safeguarding national security. The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall perform its mandate [duties and responsibilities 職責] for safeguarding national security and exercise relevant powers in accordance with the law.

CPG shall establish an Office for Safeguarding National Security (OSNS) in HKSAR.

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署人員由中央人民政府維護國家安全的有關機關聯合派出。

The staff of the Office shall be jointly dispatched by relevant national security authorities under the Central People’s Government.

Staff of OSNS are sent by relevant CPG national security authorities

第四十九條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署的職責為:

Article 49

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall perform the following mandate [duties and responsibilities 職責]:

 

  1. 分析研判香港特別行政區維護國家安全形勢,就維護國家安全重大戰略和重要政策提出意見和建議
  2. 監督、指導、協調、支持香港特別行政區履行維護國家安全的職責
  3. 收集分析國家安全情報信息;
  4. 依法辦理危害國家安全犯罪案件。
  1. analysing and assessing developments [situations形勢] in relation to safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and providing opinions and making proposals [recommendations 建議] on major strategies and important policies for safeguarding national security;
  2. overseeing, guiding, coordinating with, and providing support to the Region in the performance of its duties [*and responsibilities 職責] for safeguarding national security;
  3. collecting and analysing intelligence and information concerning national security; and
  4. handling cases concerning offence endangering national security in accordance with the law.

OSNS is empowered to:

  1. analyse and assess national security situations in the HKSAR; provide major strategic and policy recommendations;
  2. oversee, guide, coordinate, and support all work in HKSAR relating to safeguarding national security;
  3. collect and analyse intelligence; and
  4. handle cases.

第五十條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署應當嚴格依法履行職責,依法接受監督,不得侵害任何個人和的合法權益。

Article 50

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall perform its mandate [duties and responsibilities 職責] in strict compliance with the law and be subject to supervision in accordance with the law. It shall not infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of any individual or organisation.

OSNS shall not infringe on the rights and interests of any individual or organisation.

Staff of OSNS shall:

  • abide by HKSAR and national laws; and
  • be supervised by national supervisory authorities.

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署人員除須遵守全國性法律外,還應當遵守香港特別行政區法律。

The staff of the Office shall abide by the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region as well as national laws.

QUESTION: How can Art. 50 reconcile with Art. 60, which states: “[t]he acts performed in the course of duty by the Office for Safeguarding National Security . . . and its staff in accordance with this Law shall not be subject to the jurisdiction of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region”?

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署人員依法接受國家監察機關的監督。

The staff of the Office shall be subject to the supervision of the national supervisory authorities in accordance with the law.

 

第五十一條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署的經費由中央財政保障

Article 51

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be funded [financially guaranteed 財政保障] by the Central People’ s Government.

OSNS shall be financially guaranteed by the CPG.

第五十二條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署應當加強與中央人民政府駐香港特別行政區聯絡辦公室、外交部駐香港特別行政區特派員公署、中國人民解放軍駐香港部隊的工作聯繫和工作協同。

Article 52

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall strengthen working relations and cooperation with the Liaison Office of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and the Hong Kong Garrison of the Chinese People’ s Liberation Army.

OSNS shall strengthen cooperation with CPG representative entities in HKSAR:

  • Liaison Office (LOCPG);
  • Office of Commissioner of Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the HKSAR; and
  • PLA’s Hong Kong Garrison.

第五十三條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署應當與香港特別行政區維護國家安全委員會建立協調機制,監督、指導香港特別行政區維護國家安全工作。

Article 53

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall establish a mechanism of coordination with the Committee for Safeguarding National Security of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to oversee and provide guidance on the work of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for safeguarding national security.

OSNS has oversight power over all national security work in HKSAR, through a coordination mechanism with the CSNS (established in Art. 12).

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署的工作部門應當與香港特別行政區維護國家安全的有關機關建立協作機制,加強信息共享和行動配合。

The working departments of the Office shall establish mechanisms for collaboration with the relevant authorities of the Region responsible for safeguarding national security to enhance information sharing and operations coordination.

Working depts of OSNS shall share information and coordinate operations with relevant HKSAR authorities.

第五十四條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署、外交部駐香港特別行政區特派員公署會同香港特別行政區政府採取必要措施,加強對外國和國際組織駐香港特別行政區機構、在香港特別行政區的外國和境外非政府組織和新聞機構的管理和服務。

Article 54

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall, together with the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, take necessary measures to strengthen the management of and services for organs of foreign countries and international organisations in the Region, as well as non-governmental organisations and news agencies of foreign countries and from outside the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao of the People’ s Republic of China in the Region.

OSNS, together with the Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in HKSAR, are empowered to manage:

  • organs of foreign governments;
  • international organisations and NGOs; and
  • foreign news agencies.

第五十五條

有以下情形之一的,經香港特別行政區政府或者駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署提出,並報中央人民政府批准,由駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署對本法規定的危害國家安全犯罪案件行使管轄權:

Article 55

The Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall, upon approval by the Central People’ s Government of a request made by the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or by the Office itself, exercise jurisdiction over a case concerning offence endangering national security under this Law, if:

OSNS shall exercise jurisdiction over a case if:

  • the case is complex;
  • a serious situation has occurred where HKSAR is unable to effectively enforce this Law; or
  • a major and imminent threat has occurred. 

QUESTION: What is the relationship between Art. 55 and Art. 18(4) of the Basic Law?

  1. 案件涉及外國或境外勢力介入的複雜情況,香港特別行政區管轄確有困難的;
  2. 出現香港特別行政區政府無法有效執行本法的嚴重情況的;
  3. 出現國家安全面臨重大現實威脅的情況的
  1. the case is complex due to the involvement of a foreign country or external elements [overseas forces 境外勢力], thus making it difficult for the Region to exercise jurisdiction over the case;
  2. a serious situation occurs where the Government of the Region is unable to effectively enforce this Law; or
  3. a major and imminent threat to national security has occurred [a situation of actual major and imminent threat to national security occurs出現國家安全面臨重大現實威脅的情況的].

 

第五十六條

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄有關危害國家安全犯罪案件時,由駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署負責立案偵查,最高人民檢察院指定有關檢察機關行使檢察權,最高人民法院指定有關法院行使審判權。

Article 56

In exercising jurisdiction over a case concerning offence endangering national security pursuant to Article 55 of this Law, the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall initiate investigation into the case, the Supreme People’ s Procuratorate shall designate a prosecuting body to prosecute it, and the Supreme People’ s Court shall designate a court to adjudicate it.

In exercising jurisdiction over a case pursuant to Art. 55:

  • OSNS shall initiate investigation;
  • Supreme People’s Procuratorate shall designate prosecuting body to prosecute;
  • Supreme People’s Court shall designate a court to adjudicate.

第五十七條

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄案件的立案偵查、審查起訴、審判和刑罰的執行等訴訟程序事宜,適用《中華人民共和國刑事訴訟法》等相關法律的規定。

Article 57

The Criminal Procedure Law of the People’ s Republic of China and other related national laws shall apply to procedural matters, including those related to criminal investigation, examination and prosecution, trial, and execution of penalty, in respect of cases over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Article 55 of this Law.

In cases over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Art. 55:

  • PRC’s Criminal Procedure Law and other related national laws shall apply;
  • decisions of authorities referred to in Art. 56 shall have legal force in HKSAR; and
  • institutions, organisations, and individuals concerned must comply with measures taken by OSNS.

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄案件時,本法第五十六條規定的執法、司法機關依法行使相關權力,其為決定採取強制措施、偵查措施和司法裁判而簽發的法律文書在香港特別行政區具有法律效力。對於駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署依法採取的措施,有關機構、組織和個人必須遵從。

When exercising jurisdiction over cases pursuant to Article 55 of this Law, the law enforcement and judicial authorities referred to in Article 56 of this Law shall exercise powers in accordance with the law. The legal documents issued by these authorities on their decisions to take mandatory and investigation measures and on their judicial decisions shall have legal force in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The institutions, organisations and individuals concerned must comply with measures taken by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in accordance with the law.

 

第五十八條

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄案件時,犯罪嫌疑人自被駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署第一次訊問或者採取強制措施之日起,有權委託律師作為辯護人。辯護律師可以依法為犯罪嫌疑人、被告人提供法律幫助。

Article 58

In a case over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Article 55 of this Law, a criminal suspect shall have the right to retain a lawyer to represent him or her from the day he or she first receives inquiry made by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or from the day a mandatory measure is taken against him or her. A defence lawyer may provide legal assistance to a criminal suspect or defendant in accordance with the law.

In cases over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Art. 55:

  • a criminal suspect shall have right to retain a lawyer from the day he/she receives inquiry from OSNS or from the day a mandatory measure is taken against him/her;
  • a criminal suspect or defendant shall be entitled to a fair trial without undue delay

QUESTION: Will the lawyers be mainland Chinese lawyers or Hong Kong lawyers?

犯罪嫌疑人、被告人被合法拘捕後,享有儘早接受司法機關公正審判的權利。

A criminal suspect or defendant who is arrested in accordance with the law shall be entitled to a fair trial before a judicial body without undue delay.

 

第五十九條

根據本法第五十五條規定管轄案件時,任何人如果知道本法規定的危害國家安全犯罪案件情況,都有如實作證的義務。

Article 59

In a case over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Article 55 of this Law, any person who has information pertaining to an offence endangering national security under this Law is obliged to testify truthfully.

In cases over which jurisdiction is exercised pursuant to Art. 55: any person with information pertaining to an offence is obliged to testify truthfully.

第六十條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署及其人員依據本法執行職務的行為,不受香港特別行政區管轄。

Article 60

The acts performed in the course of duty by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and its staff in accordance with this Law shall not be subject to the jurisdiction of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

OSNS and its staff shall not be subject to jurisdiction of HKSAR.

持有駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署制發的證件或者證明文件的人員和車輛等在執行職務時不受香港特別行政區執法人員檢查、搜查和扣押。

In the course of performing duty, a holder of an identification document or a document of certification [proof 證明] issued by the Office and the articles including vehicles used by the holder shall not be subject to inspection, search or detention by law enforcement officers of the Region.

Holder of an identification document or a document of certification issued by OSNS and articles including vehicles used by the holder shall not be subject to inspection, search, or detention by law enforcement officers in HKSAR.

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署及其人員享有香港特別行政區法律規定的其他權利和豁免。

The Office and its staff shall enjoy other rights and immunities provided by laws of the Region.

 

第六十一條

駐香港特別行政區維護國家安全公署依據本法規定履行職責時,香港特別行政區政府有關部門須提供必要的便利和配合,對妨礙有關執行職務的行為依法予以制止並追究責任。

Article 61

The relevant departments of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall provide necessary facilitation and support to the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the Central People’ s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in performing its mandate [duties and responsibilities 職責] in accordance with this Law, and shall stop any act obstructing the performance of such mandate and hold those who commit such act liable in accordance with the law.

Relevant HKSAR government depts shall facilitate and support OSNS in performing its mandate and shall not obstruct the performance of such mandate.

第六章  附則

Chapter VI
Supplementary Provisions

 

第六十二條

香港特別行政區本地法律規定與本法不一致的,適用本法規定。

Article 62

This Law shall prevail where provisions of the local laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region are inconsistent with this Law.

Where inconsistent with HKSAR local laws, this Law shall prevail.

第六十三條

辦理本法規定的危害國家安全犯罪案件的有關執法、司法機關及其人員或者辦理其他危害國家安全犯罪案件的香港特別行政區執法、司法機關及其人員,應當對辦案過程中知悉的國家秘密、商業秘密和個人隱私予以保密。

Article 63

The law enforcement and judicial authorities and their staff who handle cases concerning offence endangering national security under this Law, or the law enforcement and judicial authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and their staff who handle other cases concerning offence endangering national security, shall keep confidential State secrets, trade secrets or personal information which they come to know in the process of handling such cases.

Confidentiality of State secrets, trade secrets, or personal information shall be kept by:

  • law enforcement and judicial authorities and their staff; and
  • a lawyer who serves as defence counsel or legal representative.

擔任辯護人或者訴訟代理人的律師應當保守在執業活動中知悉的國家秘密、商業秘密和個人隱私。

A lawyer who serves as defence counsel or legal representative shall keep confidential State secrets, trade secrets or personal information which he or she comes to know in the practice of law.

 

配合辦案的有關機構、組織和個人應當對案件有關情況予以保密。

The relevant institutions, organisations and individuals who assist with the handling of a case shall keep confidential any information pertaining to the case.

Confidentiality of case information shall be kept by:

  • relevant institutions, organisations; and
  • individuals who assist with the handling of a case.

第六十四條

香港特別行政區適用本法時,本法規定的“有期徒刑” “無期徒刑” “沒收財產”和“罰金”分別指“監禁” “終身監禁” “充公犯罪所得”和“罰款”,“拘役”參照適用香港特別行政區相關法律規定的“監禁” “入勞役中心” “入教導所”,“管制”參照適用香港特別行政區相關法律規定的“社會服務令” “入感化院”,“吊銷執照或者營業許可證”指香港特別行政區相關法律規定的“取消註冊或者註冊豁免,或者取消牌照”。

Article 64

In the application of this Law in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the terms “fixed-term imprisonment” , “life imprisonment” , “confiscation of property” and “criminal fine” in this Law respectively mean “imprisonment” , “imprisonment for life” , “confiscation of proceeds of crime” and “fine”; “short-term detention” shall be construed, with reference to the relevant laws of the Region, as “imprisonment” , “detention in a detention centre” or “detention in a training centre” ; “restriction” shall be construed, with reference to the relevant laws of the Region, as “community service” or “detention in a reformatory school” ; and “revoke licence or business permit” means “revoke registration or exemption from registration, or revoke licence” as provided for in the relevant laws of the Region.

Fixed-term imprisonment, life imprisonment, confiscation of property, and “criminal fine.”

Confiscation of proceeds of crime and “fine.”

Short-term detention.

 

Restriction.

 

Revocation of licence or business permit.

第六十五條

本法的解釋權屬於全國人民代表大會常務委員會。

Article 65

The power of interpretation of this Law shall be vested in the Standing Committee of the National People’ s Congress.

NPCSC has power of interpretation of this Law.

第六十六條

本法自公佈之日起施行。

Article 66

This Law shall come into force on the date of its promulgation.

Entry into force upon promulgation.

 


[1]All emphases added.

 

附件B:香港国家安全机构及主要任命人员的背景
  1. 维护国家安全委员会
  2. 中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区维护国家安全公署
  3. 香港警务处维护国家安全处
  4. 专门的国家安全犯罪案件检控科

 

1. 维护国家安全委员会(香港国安法,第12-15条、第43条)

 

委员会

主席

Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor
林郑月娥
香港特区行政长官
(被美国制裁)

林郑月娥是香港特别行政区第四位和现任行政长官(从2017年起)。先前,她曾担任发展局局长(2007-2012年)和政务司司长(2012-2017年)。自香港大学毕业后,林郑月娥在1980年加入香港政府政务职系,在各种政府机构服务。林郑月娥是美国制裁的11名中港官员之一, 因为他们“削弱了香港的自治”和“限制了香港公民的言论自由和集会自由”。来源:“财政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士”,美国财政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

 

委员会其他成员

Matthew Cheung Kin-chung
张建宗
政务司司长

张建宗自2017年1月起出任政务司司长至今。他于1972年7月加入香港特别行政区政府,任新闻主任,后曾担任劳工处处长(1999-2000年)、教育署署长(2000-2002年)、经济发展及劳工局常任秘书长(2002-2007年),以及劳工及福利局局长(2007-2017年)。

Paul Chan Mo-po
陈茂波
财政司司长

陈茂波于2017年1月获任财政司司长。先前,他曾担任发展局局长(2012-2017年), 也是香港会计师公会前任会长。

Teresa CHENG Yeuk-wah
郑若骅
律政司司长
(被美国制裁)

郑若骅于2018年1月6日获任律政司司长。在加入香港特别行政区政府之前,郑若骅是私人执业资深大律师,具特许工程师和特许仲裁员资格。郑若骅是伦敦大学皇家学院院士,也是北京清华大学法学院国际仲裁与争端解决项目前任专案主任。郑若骅是美国制裁的11名中港官员之一, 因为他们“削弱了香港的自治”和“限制了香港公民的言论自由和集会自由”。来源:“财政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士”,美国财政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

John Lee Ka-chiu
李家超
保安局局长
(被美国制裁)

李家超于1977年加入香港警队,任见习督察,2010年晋升为副处长。他于2012年就任保安局副局长,2017年晋升为保安局局长。李家超是美国制裁的11名中港官员之一, 因为他们“削弱了香港的自治”和“限制了香港公民的言论自由和集会自由”。来源:“财政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士”,美国财政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

Chris Tang Ping-keung
邓炳强
警务处处长
(被美国制裁)

邓炳强于2019年11月获任警务处处长。他于1987年加入香港警队,任职督察。邓炳强曾担任高级助理警务处长、行动处处长 (2017-2018年)和警务处副处长(行动)(2018-2019年)。邓炳强是美国制裁的11名中港官员之一, 因为他们“削弱了香港的自治”和“限制了香港公民的言论自由和集会自由”。来源:“财政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士”,美国财政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

Edwina Lau Chi-wai
刘赐蕙
警务处副处长(国家安全)和警务处维护国家安全部门负责人
(被美国制裁)

刘赐蕙于1984年加入香港警务处。2019年她晋升为监管处处长,负责监督资讯系统部和服务质素监察部的工作。2020年7月,刘赐蕙获任命为副处长(国家安全),担任警务处维护国家安全部门的负责人。

刘赐蕙是美国再次将中港官员指定为制裁对象的4人之一,因其“与执行中国制定的香港国安法和威胁香港的和平、安全与自治有关”。这4名官员“将被禁止前往美国,其资产在美国管辖范围内或在美国人拥有或控制下的资产将被冻结”。来源:“指定4名威胁香港和平、安全与自治的中港官员”,美国国务院,2020年11月9日,https://www.state.gov/designations-of-four-prc-and-hong-kong-officials-t...;“对叙利亚的指定;对与叙利亚有关的指定;对与香港有关的指定”,美国财政部,2020年11月9日,https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/financial-sanctions/recent-actio...

Au Ka-wang
区嘉宏
入境事务处处长

区嘉宏于2020年7月2日获任入境事务处处长。他于1988年加入入境事务处,任职助理入境事务主任。他于1992年晋升入境事务主任,2003年晋升高级入境事务主任,2009年晋升总入境事务主任,2014年晋升助理首席入境事务主任,2015年晋升首席入境事务主任。他于2018年晋升入境事务处助理处长,并于2019年晋升入境事务处副处长。

Hermes Tang Yi-hoi
邓以海
海关关长

邓以海于2017年7月获任海关关长。他于1985年加入前人民入境事务处,任职入境事务助理员,1987年转职香港海关,任职见习海关督察,2006至2007年间借调保安局。他于2009年1月晋升海关监督,2011年8月晋升海关高级监督,2013年5月晋升海关总监督,2015年5月晋升海关助理关长,2016年8月晋升海关副关长。

Eric Chan Kwok-ki
陈国基
行政长官办公室主任
(被美国制裁)

陈国基于1982年加入入境事务处,任职助理入境事务主任,之后曾担任副主任(2010-2011年)、主任(2011-2017年)。2017年7月,陈国基成为纪律部队第一位被任命为行政长官办公室主任的高级官员,因为这个职位通常是公务员行政人员所担任。陈国基是美国制裁的11名中港官员之一,因为他们“削弱了香港的自治”和“限制了香港公民的言论自由和集会自由”。来源:“财政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士”,美国财政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

 

秘书处

秘书长

Eric Chan Kwok-ki
陈国基
(被美国制裁)

见上“委员会其他成员”中介绍。

 

国家安全事务顾问

Luo Huining
骆惠宁
中央人民政府驻香港特別行政区联络办公室(中联办)主任
(被美国制裁)

骆惠宁是中国共产党的高级官员,2020年1月获任中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区联络办公室(中联办)主任。骆惠宁是首位具省级地方行政工作经验、首位无港澳工作经历的香港中联办主任。骆惠宁,籍贯浙江,生于安徽,49岁调任青海前一直在安徽生活和任职。曾任安徽省委常委、青海省省长、青海省委书记、山西省委书记。骆惠宁是美国制裁的11名中港官员之一,因为他们“削弱了香港的自治”和“限制了香港公民的言论自由和集会自由”。来源:“财政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士”,美国财政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

 

2. 维护国家安全公署 (香港国安法,第48-60条)

Zheng Yanxiong
郑雁雄
署长
(被美国制裁)

郑雁雄在被任命为驻港国安公署署长之前担任中共广东省委委员、常委。他因在2011年任汕尾市市委书记期间镇压乌坎村村民要求政府对征用土地进行补偿的抗议活动而闻名。郑雁雄在2018年5月至10月任中共广东省委常务副秘书长、省委政研室主任,同年10月任中共广东省委秘书长、省委政研室主任。郑雁雄是美国制裁的11名中港官员之一,因为他们“削弱了香港的自治”和“限制了香港公民的言论自由和集会自由”。来源:“财政部制裁削弱香港自治的人士”,美国财政部,2020年8月7日,https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1088

Li Jiangzhou
李江舟
副署长
(被美国制裁)

李江舟于2016年获任公安部驻香港中联办警务联络部部长,之前任公安部港澳台办主任。

李江舟是美国再次将中港官员指定为制裁对象的4人之一,因其“与执行中国制定的香港国安法和威胁香港的和平、安全与自治有关”。这4名官员“将被禁止前往美国,其资产在美国管辖范围内或在美国人拥有或控制下的资产将被冻结”。来源:“指定4名威胁香港和平、安全与自治的中港官员”,美国国务院,2020年11月9日,https://www.state.gov/designations-of-four-prc-and-hong-kong-officials-t...;“对叙利亚的指定;对与叙利亚有关的指定;对与香港有关的指定”,美国财政部,2020年11月9日,https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/financial-sanctions/recent-actio...

Sun Qingye
孙青野
副署长

孙青野是国家安全部高级官员。

 

3. 香港警务处维护国家安全处 (香港国安法,第16、第18条)

Edwina Lau Chi-wai
维护国家安全处负责人
刘赐蕙
警务处副处长(国家安全)

见上“委员会其他成员”中介绍。

 

4. 专门的国家安全犯罪案件检控科 (香港国安法,第18条)

香港特区政府律政司司长郑若骅表示,律政司已按照《香港国安法》设立专门的国家安全犯罪案件检控科。(见郑若骅文章:《香港国安法》为成功实践“一国两制”开创新格局,原文载于《中国法律》杂志2020年第4期)

专门的国家安全犯罪案件检控科负责人:截至2020年10月15日,没有关于该职务任命的公开信息。

 

附件C:相关资源
  1. 主要政府文件
  2. 香港大律师公会声明
  3. 国际人权专家的声明
  4. 说明和时间表
  5. 书籍和书籍章节
  6. 网站和博客

1. 主要政府文件

中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法:
英文:https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20202448e/egn2020244872.pdf
中文:https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/A406

中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法第四十三条实施细则,2020年7月6日
英文:https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/06/P2020070600784.htm
中文:https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/06/P2020070600748.htm

关于进行截取及秘密监察的授权申请的运作原则及指引——依据《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法第四十三条实施细则》附表6第20条而发出:
英文:https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20202450e/egn2020245074.pdf
中文:https://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette/pdf/20202450e/cgn2020245074.pdf

中华人民共和国香港特别行政区基本法:
英文:https://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/index.html
中文:https://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/tc/basiclawtext/index.html

终审法院首席法官声明(关于《香港国安法》第44条),2020年7月2日
英文:https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/02/P2020070200414.htm?fontSize=1
中文:https://sc.isd.gov.hk/TuniS/www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/202007/02/P2020070200412.htm?fontSize=1

终审法院首席法官马道立指出:“根据《国家安全法》第44条,行政长官应当在各级法院指定法官,负责处理与《国家安全法》有关的案件和上诉……指定法官及相关的法庭运作必须符合《基本法》的规定,这一点至为重要……按照《基本法》第88条而任命的法官,都是根据由终审法院首席法官担任主席的司法人员推荐委员会的推荐,由行政长官作出任命。这个安排在香港一直沿用已久。”

2. 香港大律师公会声明

香港大律师公会关于香港政府决定推迟立法会选举的声明,2020年8月2日

香港大律师公会对香港政府以公众健康风险为由推迟立法会选举这一决定的有关法理及证据基础提出了严重质疑,因为该决定将立法会选举推迟一年而不是更短的时期,并且未咨询民间社会。声明强调:“国际人权专家多次警告各国政府不得以新冠肺炎为借口压制人权。”

香港大律师公会就《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法》的声明,2020年7月1日

香港大律师公会对《国家安全法》表示深切关注:与《基本法》不符的规定;在颁布前缺乏有意义的公众咨询;以及没有具法律权威的英文版。香港大律师公会指出,这些以及其他《国安法》条文的“施行将损害《基本法》及《中英联合声明》承诺给予香港特别行政区的高度自治,亦削弱维系一国两制的基石“。

3. 国际人权专家的声明

7位联合国专家向中国发出函件,敦促审查并重新审议《香港国安法》以符合国际法,2020年9月1日
英文:https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=25487

7位联合国特别程序任务负责人强调了《香港国安法》的规定模糊不清和过于宽泛,以及其安全实体部门缺乏透明度和问责制。他们敦促中国政府审查并重新考虑《香港国安法》,以确保中国遵守《世界人权宣言》、《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》、1984年的《中英联合声明》和《基本法》规定的香港国际人权义务。

联合国人权事务高级专员发言人关于《香港国安法》的声明,2020年7月3日
英文:https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26033&LangID=E,
中文:https://www.ohchr.org/CH/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26033&LangID=C

发言人指出:“令我们感到震惊的是,在其中所述罪行的范围没有得到充分了解和认识的情况下,马上就出现了根据该法的逮捕行动。”所表达的关切包括对罪行的模糊不清且过于宽泛的定义“有可能导致歧视或任意释法和执法”,以及“勾结”罪的条文“可能限制公民空间,并可能会扼杀民间社会活动者行使参与公共事务权利的可能性”。

4. Explainers and timelines说明和时间表)

Transforming Hong Kong: 100 days of the National Security Law
Mercator Institute for China Studies, October 7, 2020.
https://merics.org/en/graphic/transforming-hong-kong-100-days-national-security-law

A brief timeline that maps the developments during July 1–October 1, highlighting the actions of governments of the People’s Republic of China and the Hong Kong SAR as well as those in the opposition movement, civil society, courts and the legal sector, diplomatic and international community, and the business and financial sector.

Explainer: How Beijing’s security law transformed Hong Kong – month 3
Hong Kong Free Press, September 30, 2020.
https://hongkongfp.com/2020/09/30/explainer-how-beijings-security-law-transformed-hong-kong-month-3/

Maps key developments including the detention of the “Hong Kong 12,” UN human rights experts’ communications expressing concerns about the NSL’s violations of international legal obligations, and the NSL’s impact on press freedom.

Hong Kong national security law: 26 arrests so far, resignation of a foreign judge, and suspension of a middle school pupil mark third month
South China Morning Post, September 30, 2020.
https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3103600/hong-kong-national-security-law-26-arrests-so-far

In the third month of the NSL, Justice James Spigelman, a non-permanent foreign judge on the Court of Final Appeal, resigned two years before schedule due to “the content of the national security legislation”; while a middle school pupil was suspended after using a profile picture with the protest slogan “Liberate Hong Kong; revolution of our times” in an online class.

How Hong Kong’s national security law compares to Macau’s: different reasons, eras for legislation
South China Morning Post, July 8, 2020.
https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/3092215/national-security-tale-two-cities-how-different-reasons-and

Covers developments during September, including the resignation of an Australian veteran judge of the Court of Final Appeal, the arrest of activist Tam Tak-chi by the national security unit under the sedition law, and Chief Secretary Matthew Cheung Kin-chung’s defense of the NSL at the 45th Session of the UN Human Rights Council.

Arrests and trials of Hong Kong protesters
Compiled by author Kong Tsung-gan.
https://medium.com/@KongTsungGan/arrests-and-trials-of-hong-kong-protesters-2019-9d9a601d4950

Tracks the total number of protesters arrested and prosecuted since August 2019, with the names and brief information of those arrested. Updated frequently.

5. Books and book chapters(书籍和书籍章节)

Cora Chan and Fiona de Londras, eds., China’s National Security: Endangering Hong Kong’s Rule of Law?, Hart Publishing, March 2020.

A collection of 17 essays by legal experts including Albert Chen, Hualing Fu, Johannes Chan, Michael C. Davis, and Simon Young. In their introductory essay, “China’s National Security in Hong Kong: A Challenge for Constitutionalism, Autonomy and the Rule of Law,” Chan and de Londras articulate a vision for sustainable security in Hong Kong. They propose the construction of a new institutional architecture that is rights-based and addresses rule of law concerns aimed at achieving four key aims: effectiveness, accountability, transparency, and participation. In this new architecture, Chan and Londras urge the inclusion of features including limiting the National People’s Congress Standing Committee’s powers to interpret the , universal suffrage for election of Chief Executive and LegCo, a human rights institution for Hong Kong, and so on.

Michael C. Davis, Making Hong Kong China: The Rollback of Human Rights and the Rule of Law, Association for Asian Studies, October 2020. (Read opening chapter at: https://www.demdigest.org/making-hong-kong-china/)

The book traces the loss of Hong Kong's autonomy from the handover forward, highlighting the root causes, evolving erosion and eventual assault on the rule of law and basic freedoms, as reflected in the 2019 crackdown on protesters and the current imposition of the National Security Law.

Hualing Fu, “National Security Law: Challenges and Prospects,” in Johannes Chan and C.L. Lim, eds., Law of the Hong Kong Constitution, 3rd edition, Sweet & Maxwell Asia Ltd, forthcoming in 2021.

Fu examines the status of the NSL compared with that of the , the offenses it targets, and the new entities it created and their powers. Fu concludes: “It would be hard to overstate the constitutional significance of the NSL as regards the Basic Law for through this piece of legislation the CPG has gained bridgehead inside the Hong Kong legal system to exert a comprehensive control. . . . The NSL poses a challenge to Hong Kong with the potential to undermine the OCTS. Yet the NSL also creates the possibility of its own limitations, allowing it to operate under the constraints of the existing constitutional framework.”

Hualing Fu, “China’s Imperatives for National Security Legislation,” in Cora Chan and Fiona de Londras, eds., China’s National Security: Endangering Hong Kong’s Rule of Law?, Hart Publishing, March 2020

Fu discusses China’s new national security regime underpinned by legality and the creation of a new legal framework to securitize the Chinese state, including Hong Kong. Fu posits how Hong Kong is seen as a national security risk by China especially with the sudden rise of a secessionist movement and localism in recent times. Writing before the enactment of the NSL in Hong Kong, Fu highlights how the introduction of a national security legislation in Hong Kong is one of many options to address prevailing security concerns, but one that potentially has significant impact on rights and freedoms of Hong Kong.

6. Websites and blogs(网站和博客)

NPC Observer

Covering legislative developments of the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee with a summary of Hong Kong’s National Security Law.

Jerome A. Cohen’s blog

On recent developments on the rule of law in Asia and China, including a series of articles on Hong Kong under the National Security Law.

  • Credit: Studio Incendo
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