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HK Timeline 1984-2018: The Struggle for Democracy & Universal Suffrage

Updated: Jan 24, 2018


Jan 17

The Court of Final Appeal sentences sixteen participants of the Occupy Movement, including Raphael Wong, Joshua Wong, and Lester Shum to “contempt of court.” Raphael Wong receives four months and 15 days’ imprisonment, Joshua Wong three months, and Lester Shum one month with a one-year suspended sentence, plus a HKD 10,000 fine.

Jan 8

In interview with South China Morning Post, Professor Peter Mathieson, who will leave his post as vice-chancellor and president of the University of Hong Kong, says that Professor Arthur Li Kwok-cheung, head of HKU’s governing body and a pro-Beijing politician, has not discussed with him the possibility of a second term. Mathieson says during his tenure, he has received “pressure from everybody,” including representatives from China’s Ministry of Education and officials from Beijing’s liaison office in Hong Kong, as well as local officials.


Dec 27

NPC approves unprecedented co-location arrangement on Hong Kong Express railway link, subjecting part of the railway station—located in the heart of Hong Kong—to Chinese immigration checks and the enforcement of mainland laws. Critics argue that the arrangement sets a dangerous precedent due to its violation of Article 18 of the Basic Law, which places narrow restrictions on applying national laws in Hong Kong.

Dec 18

In second such ruling against police officers for using excessive force during the Occupy Movement in 2014, court finds former police superintendent Frankly Chu guilty of assaulting a bystander at a November 2014 protest.

Dec 15

LegCo changes its rulebook to further limit the power of lawmakers. The modifications were proposed after six lawmakers from the pro-democracy camp were disqualified and removed from office. New rules significantly check filibustering and give more power to the chairperson of LegCo, currently held by a pro-government lawmaker, to scrutinize legislative amendments from lawmakers.

Nov 27

LegCo seeks salary repayment of HKD 3.1 million each from four former lawmakers disqualified over oath-taking irregularities. The ousted lawmakers, Nathan Law Kwun-Chung, “Long Hair” Leung Kwok-hung, Lau Siu-lai, and Edward Yiu Chung-Yim protest the move as “political persecution.”

Nov 15

Li Fei, NPCSC deputy secretary general and Basic Law Committee chairman, says Hong Kong has “a duty… to defend the country’s sovereignty and safety” through enacting a national security law, and “adverse effects” are evident in the absence of such a law in Hong Kong. Li Fei stresses that implementing Article 23 of the Basic Law—which stipulates that Hong Kong SAR shall enact laws to protect national security—is a priority.

The US-China Economic and Security Review Commission says in its 2017 Annual Report to Congress that “Mainland China continues to either disregard or ignore Hong Kong’s rule of law and its related commitments to the international community.” (See full report.)

Nov 7

In a short hearing, the Court of Final Appeal grants leave to Joshua Wong Chi-Fung, Nathan Law Kwun, and Alex Chow Yong-Kang to appeal their prison sentences a final time. The three will remain on bail until the cases are heard again on January 16.

Nov 6

Two UN experts urge the Hong Kong court to consider the cases of three Umbrella Movement student leaders “in accordance with Hong Kong’s obligations under international human rights law,” and expressed concern about “the deterioration of freedom of expression and peaceful assembly in China, particularly Hong Kong.” (See HRIC statement, and HRIC translations of UN statement in Traditional and Simplified Chinese.)

Sep 22

Wang Zhimin replaces Zhang Xiaoming as the Director of the China Liaison Office in Hong Kong. Wang previously headed the Liaison Office’s youth work department.

Sept 19

Prosecution to Umbrella Movement organizers begins. Benny Tai, Chan Kin Man and Reverend Chu Yiu Ming, co-founders of the 2014 civil disobedient Occupy Movement, and six other activists, including two lawmakers and two former student activists, are charged with public nuisances before the District Court. These charges come with highest penalties of seven years’ imprisonment.

Oct 24

The Court of Final Appeal releases Joshua Wong Chi-fung and Nathan Law Kwun-chung on bail of HK$50,000 so that they can pursue their appeals. They were ordered to surrender their travel documents and report to the police once a week until their appeals applications are heard on November 7.

Oct 23

Rita Fan Hsu Lai-tai, Hong Kong’s sole representative on the NPCSC, says that no public consultation is needed on the retroactivity of the local National Anthem Law because retroactive application would be warranted if pan-democratic lawmakers resort to filibustering tactics over the passage of the legislation.

Oct 19

Li Fei, NPCSC's Basic Law Committee Chairman, states that the NPCSC will decide whether the local National Anthem Law in Hong Kong can be applied retroactively.

Oct 18

Chief Executive Carrie Lam comes under fire for comparing the National Anthem Law, a criminal law, to the retroactive Stamp Duty bill, a civil law. Her comments regarding the potential retroactive application of the National Anthem Law came hours after Secretary for Mainland Affairs Patrick Nip Tak-kuen said retroactive application of the law was unlikely. Legal scholars and practitioners criticize her comments, stating that the Basic Law, international law, and mainland China’s own criminal law all clearly prohibit retroactivity.

The National Anthem Law is set to be enacted locally in Hong Kong after its passage and enactment in the NPCSC last month.

Sept 12

Joshua Wong Chi-fung appeals his six-month jail sentence for “unlawful assembly.”  The sentence was handed down by the Court of Appeal on August 17, for Wong’s role in staging a sit-in in Civic Square in September 2014.

Sept 4

Nathan Law Kwun-chung lodges final appeal against his eight-month jail sentence for “inciting others to take part in unlawful assembly” and his role in staging a sit-in in Civic Square in September 2014.

Aug 31

Alex Chow Yong-kang lodges final appeal against his seven-month “unlawful assembly” jail sentence, for his role in staging a sit-in in Civic Square in September 2014.

Aug 25

The Court of Final Appeal dismisses Yau Wai-ching and Baggio Leung Chung-hang’s appeal applications against their disqualification from the Legislative Council, ruling that their grounds for appeal were not “reasonably argued.” The Legislative Council will request that the pair repay HK$1.86 million in wages and expenses from their time as legislators.

Aug 20

Thousands march to protest the jailing of three key leaders of the 2014 Umbrella Movement on August 17: Joshua Wong Chi-fung, Nathan Law Kwun-chung, and Alex Chow Yong-Kang. The demonstrators marched across Hong Kong island, from Wan Chai to the Court of Final Appeal in Central. Police estimate that 22, 000 protesters participated in the march.

Aug 17

Joshua Wong Chi-fung, Nathan Law Kwun-chung, and Alex Chow Yong-Kang are given jail sentences after a sentencing review by the Court of Appeal. The three were sentenced for their storming of government headquarters in Tamar in the lead up to the Occupy sit-ins of 2014. Joshua Wong and Alex Chow receive six and seven months, respectively, for “unlawful assembly,” while Nathan Law receives eight months for “inciting others to take part in an unlawful assembly.”

Aug 9

The last of the seven police officers convicted of assaulting activist Ken Tsang during the Occupy Movement is released on bail pending appeal, following the other six defendants who were granted bail in June and July also pending appeal.

July 25

Hong Kong officials release a proposal to lease to mainland China part of the terminal for a new railway that will connect Hong Kong with Guangzhou and Shanghai. The proposal also allows mainland officers to enforce mainland law in the leased area.

Ninety-four pro-democracy lawmakers, scholars, representatives from civic organizations, and student bodies set up a concern group in response to the government’s controversial joint checkpoint proposal. The group issues a petition citing four reasons for rejecting the proposal and calls for public signatories.

July 14

The Hong Kong Court of First Instance disqualifies four pro-democracy legislators—“Long Hair” Leung Kwok-hung, Nathan Law Kwun-chung, Lau Siu-lai, and Edward Yiu Chung-yim—from their positions over their oath-taking on October 12, 2016. The judge rules that they did not take their oaths solemnly, sincerely, and in their entirety as set out by precedent and in the NPCSC interpretation of the Basic Law on oath taking, and were not permitted to re-take their oaths.

Some 200 civil groups and 20,000 members of the public sign a petition opposing the disqualifications.

July 1

Xi Jinping oversees swearing-in of the new Chief Executive, Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor and her cabinet.

The annual July 1 democracy rally begins on the lawns of Victoria Park, ending at Tim Mei avenue. The slogan is: “One country, two systems—We’ve been deceived for 20 years; Democracy & autonomy, Retake Hong Kong.”

June 30

Xi Jinping reviews the local garrison of the People’s Liberation Army at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center and attends the “Grand Variety Show” there in the evening.

Hong Kong National Party plans to hold a “20 Years of Chinese Occupation” rally at the Clock Tower in Tsim Sha Tsui, but police issue formal prohibition on the grounds of public security ordinance violation and safety concerns. The rally was eventually cancelled.

June 29

Xi Jinping arrives in Hong Kong with wife Peng Liyuan. Xi attends an evening banquet hosted by outgoing Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying at the Government House in Central.

June 26

At approximately 6 a.m., a dozen activists, including Joshua Wong from Demosisto, cover the “Forever Blooming Bauhinia Sculpture” in Golden Bauhinia Square, Wan Chai, in black cloth to protest President Xi Jinping’s visit to Hong Kong. The statue was a gift from Beijing to Hong Kong to celebrate the handover of sovereignty in 1997.

June 23

CCTV airs 5-episode documentary on the 20-year anniversary of the Hong Kong’s handover titled “Bauhinia Blooms.”

June 22

Carrie Lam, incoming Hong Kong Chief Executive, states, with regard to the disappearance of five Hong Kong booksellers, Hong Kong should not challenge what happens on the mainland and  that “ultimately, we must respect the rule of law of the relevant judicial region.”

June 21

China's State Council appoints main officials of the fifth government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), in line with the Basic Law.

June 20

People’s Daily publishes interview with Zhang Xiaoming, Director of the Liaison Office of the PRC government in Hong Kong, who claims that “one country, two systems” principle is a successful political practice and governance model.

June 16

Meeting held at barracks on Stonecutters Island to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) being stationed in the Hong Kong SAR is attended by Tung Chee-hwa, Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and HKSAR Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying.

June 1

People’s Daily publishes scholars’ reactions to a speech by Zhang Dejian, Chairman of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee, on the 20th anniversary of the implementation of the Basic Law, titled “Emphasizing the Central Government’s Right to Comprehensively Govern Hong Kong.” A number of mainland academics expressed support for the Central government’s governance of Hong Kong, “one country, two systems,” and the Basic Law.

May 27

Zhang Dejiang, Chairman of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee, makes a speech on the 20th anniversary of the implementation of the Basic Law and states that the Central government is responsible for supervising whether [Hong Kong’s] public officers uphold the Basic Law, and whether they pledge allegiance to the country and [Hong Kong].”

May 26

Yau Wai-ching and Baggio Leung Chung-hang, and three of their assistants (Yeung Lai-hong, Chung Suet-ying, and Cheung Tsz-lung) appear in court over their role in trying to enter a conference room at the Legislative Council on November 2, 2016. They all plead not guilty to one joint count of “unlawful assembly” and a pre-trial review is set for July 14. All five are released on bail.

May 11

Civil Human Rights Front, organizers of the annual July 1 rally are denied permission to use Victoria Park, the starting point of all previous annual July 1 rallies. The authorities have granted the use of the park instead to a pro-Beijing organization.

May 9

During his 3-day visit to Macau, Zhang Dejiang, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, praised Macau for being the first to pass legislation in accordance with Article 23 of the Basic Law, setting a model for the protection of national security.

Apr 27

Police arrest at least nine activists for participating in the November 6, 2016 protest over Beijing’s decision to intervene in the controversy over the oathtaking by elected legislators Yau Wai-ching and Baggio Leung Chung-hang. Those arrested include Derek Lam Shun-hin and Ivan Lam Long-yin of pro-democracy party Demosisto, the chair and two members of the League of Social Democrats, two members of the Student Fight for Democracy group, one member of People Power, and the former chair of the Lingnan University student union. Most are charged with unlawful assembly or disrupting order in a public place. Source.

Apr 26 

At around 7am, Yau Wai-ching and Baggio Leung Chung-hang are arrested at their homes and charged with unlawful assembly over their attempts to re-enter the Legislative chamber after they were banned from re-taking their oaths in November 2016. Source.

Mar 27

One day after the selection of Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor as Hong Kong’s next Chief Executive, leaders of the 2014 pro-democracy Occupy protests are informed by police that they will be charged with public nuisance. The leaders are: Chan Kin-man, Tanya Chan, Tommy Cheung, Chu Yiu-ming, Eason Chung, Lee Wing-tat, Shiu Ka-chun, Benny Tai, and Raphael Wong. Source.

Mar 26

Carrie Lam received 777 votes from the 1,194-member largely pro-Beijing Election Committee to become Hong Kong’s next Chief Executive. Lam, the candidate favored by Beijing, is the former deputy to outgoing Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying. She will take office on July 1, 2017. The demand for universal suffrage to elect the Chief Executive triggered the 2014 pro-democracy Occupy Movement. Source.

Mar 25

Hundreds protest on eve of the selection of the next Hong Kong Chief Executive by the largely pro-Beijing Election Committee. Source.

Mar 19

Candidates for Hong Kong’s next Chief Executive—Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor, John Tsang Chun-wah, and Woo Kwok-hing—engage in final debate. Source.

Mar 3

Edward Yiu Chung-yim, Nathan Law Kwun-chung, Lau Siu-lai, and “Long Hair” Leung Kwok-hung request that the court dismiss the case to unseat them, claiming “abuse of process through selective prosecution.” Source.

Mar 1

Government lawyers request Hong Kong court to disqualify four pro-democracy legislators—Edward Yiu Chung-yim, Nathan Law Kwun-chung, Lau Siu-lai, and “Long Hair” Leung Kwok-hung—for embedding political messages in “theatrical oaths” that they read at their swearing-in on October 12, 2016. Source.

Feb 22

According to reports, 33, 000 serving and former police officers turn out to protest conviction of seven police officers for assaulting protester Ken Tsang after his arrest during the Umbrella movement. Source.

Feb 14

Seven police officers are convicted on one joint count of “assault occasioning actual bodily harm” for kicking and punching protester Ken Tsang after his arrest for assaulting officers during the Umbrella movement in 2015. One detective was also convicted of an additional charge of “common assault” for slapping Tsang at the police station. Source.


Dec 28

Yau Wai-ching and Sixtus Baggio Leung Chung-hang launch final appeal against High Court decision that vacated them from their Legislative Council seats, requesting that the Court of Final Appeal decide whether Hong Kong courts have the authority to determine if Beijing exceeded its authority by interpreting the Basic Law. Source.

Nov 30

The Court of Appeal upholds the High Court’s decision to disqualify Yau Wai-ching and Baggio Leung Chung-hang from taking office.

Nov 29

Hong Kong government plans to mount legal challenge to disqualify lawmaker Lau Siu-lai, who took ten minutes to read her oath on October 12, from taking her seat in LegCo.

Nov 15

The High Court rules against Yau Wai-ching and Baggio Leung Chung-hang. Judge Thomas Au Hing-cheung says the pair had “declined” to take their oaths and must therefore be disqualified. He also says LegCo president Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen should not have invited them to retake their oaths, and that the decision was made independent of the NPCSC interpretation of the Basic Law.

Nov 13 

Thousands protest outside government headquarters in support of Beijing’s decision to interpret the Basic Law; some protesters state they are being paid to attend.

Nov 8

Hong Kong lawyers and activists march silently from the Hong Kong High Court to the Court of Final Appeal to protest the NPCSC interpretation and Beijing’s interference in Hong Kong courts, and demonstrate their commitment to rule of law.

Nov 7

NPCSC issues interpretation of Article 104 of the Basic Law of Hong Kong SAR, stating that “oath taking must comply with the legal requirements in respect of its form and content. An oath taker must take the oath sincerely and solemnly, and must accurately, completely and solemnly read out the oath prescribed by law.” (Source: EN, CH)

Nov 6

Thousands protest Beijing’s decision to intervene in row over Yau Wai-ching and Baggio Leung Chung-hang’s legislative oaths. Protesters march from Wanchai to the Court of Final Appeal, and later to the PRC government’s Liaison Office, where clashes with police occur. Police deploy pepper spray; four people are arrested and two police officers are injured.

Nov 4

Hong Kong government confirms that Beijing’s National People’s Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) will hand down an interpretation of Article 104 of the Hong Kong Basic Law over the oath-taking issue before the High Court announces its decision in the judicial review.

Nov 3

The High Court hears the case of the two lawmakers. The judge says he will deliver his ruling “as soon as practicable.”

Nov 2

Baggio Leung Chung-hang and Yau Wai-ching again try to enter the chamber to retake their oaths; security guards try to physically carry them out but are prevented by pro-democracy legislators who surround them. Police are called in and clashes occur. At least three security guards are injured.

Oct 26

Baggio Leung Chung-hang and Yau Wai-ching charge into Legislative chamber despite ban, while pro-democracy legislators form a human chain around them to enable them to enter. The session is adjourned.

Oct 25

Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen delays swearing in of both of the Youngspiration lawmakers and temporarily bans them from meetings, in an unprecedented move.

Oct 19

LegCo president Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen invites Sixtus “Baggio” Leung Chung-hang and Yau Wai-ching back to retake oaths, but pro-Beijing legislators walk-out in protest and to prevent quorum; the parliamentary session is cancelled.

Oct 18

Hong Kong government mounts legal challenge against Baggio Leung Chung-hang and Yau Wai-ching to invalidate their LegCo status; the application, for a judicial review, is accepted by the court. Hong Kong government also seeks an interim injunction to prevent the two from retaking oaths on October 19, 2016, but this was rejected by the court.

Oct 12

Elected legislators take oath of office to be sworn into LegCo. Some pro-democracy lawmakers intersperse their oaths with protest language. Baggio Leung Chung-hang, founder of Youngspiration, wears a banner with the words “Hong Kong is not China” as he takes his oath and alters the pledge to say “Hong Kong nation” rather than “Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.” Yau Wai-ching, also of Youngspiration, replaces the “People’s Republic of China” with a derogatory phrase.

Sept 4

A record 58% of registered voters turn out to vote in the Legislative Council election, with some people queuing for hours outside polling stations. Six pro-democracy young newcomers are elected: Nathan Law Kwun-chung of Demosisto Party, Sixtus “Baggio” Leung Chung-hang and Yau Wai-ching of Youngspiration, Polytechnic University lecturer Lau Siu-lai, and Eddie Chu Hoi-dick and Cheng Chung-tai of Civic Passion. The new entrants help the opposition camp maintain veto power, which now has 19 of 35 seats in the geographical constituencies.

Aug 5

About 2,500 people attend the “first pro-independence rally in Hong Kong” in response to the barring of localist candidates from running in the 2016 LegCo election.

Jul 14

The Electoral Affairs Commission (EAC) announces that all candidates for the Legislative Council are required to sign a new form to confirm that they understand that Hong Kong is an inalienable part of the PRC, under the relevant articles of the Basic Law. The majority of pro-democracy candidates refuse to sign the form. Six of them—including Edward Leung Tin-kei of Hong Kong Indigenous, Alvin Cheng Kam-mun of Civic Passion, and Andy Chan Ho-tin of the Hong Kong National Party, who all advocate for independence—are eventually barred from running in the 2016 LegCo election.


Apr 22

Hong Kong government introduces proposal for the 2017 Chief Executive election that allows the public to vote on two or three candidates pre-selected by a 1,200-member pro-Beijing nominating committee. The proposal is substantially the same as the plan outlined in the August 31, 2014 Decision issued by the National People’s Congress Standing Committee that triggered the massive protest in fall 2014.


Dec 17

The Clean Air Network finds pollution in areas previously blocked by Occupy Central has risen by as much as 83 percent. They say that the findings back their call for more pedestrian zones to be set up in busy districts.

Lai Tung- kwok, Secretary for Security, outlines the damage inflicted upon public property during the occupation of Admiralty, Mong Kok, and Causeway Bay in a Legislative Council session. He states that, “I maintain that all involved parties, particularly OC instigators and propagators, should ponder hard and account for it.”

Dec 16

Andy Tsang Wai-hung, Hong Kong Police Commissioner, announces that police will seek arrests of the movement’s "principal instigators," and aim to finish all their investigations within three months.

The House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee invites two student protesters, Tang Chi Tak of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Hui Sin Tung of the University of Hong Kong, along with C.Y. Leung, to an evidence session on the implementation of the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Chief Executive C.Y. Leung snubs the invitation.

In an interview with Elite Daily, Alex Chow of HKFS urges young people to continue the fight for democracy, as it will dictate their future and the rights they enjoy in years to come.

Dec 15

Clearance of last protest sites. Hong Kong police clear one of the last protest site in Causeway Bay, and arrest 17 demonstrators. Chief Executive C.Y. Leung declares the 78-day “illegal occupation” over, and urges Hong Kong to pursue “democracy with the rule of law.” Protesters say the clearance is “just the beginning.”


The Guardian reports that many Hong Kong activists, including Lester Shum of HKFS, fear they are being monitored by Beijing. Michael Vidler, who is representing several of the arrested democracy protesters, including Joshua Wong, also believes he is being monitored.

Dec 13

South China Morning Post reports: Police plan to clear final occupy Central protest site in Causeway Bay on December 15. A source tells SCMP that the clearance will begin after 9am and those who refuse to leave will face arrest for “unlawful assembly.”

Student groups plan “non-cooperation movement” as a follow-up to Occupy Central, which urges people to delay paying their public-housing rent, and to pay tax bills in small and symbolic amounts. Alex Chow of HKFS says the “actions are legal” and will allow for more “busy workers” to take part.

Dec 12

Many discuss next stage in campaign for “genuine universal suffrage,” as protesters promise they “will be back” after clearance.

Former Chief Secretary Henry Tang urges Chief Executive C.Y. Leung “to reflect on how to do a better job” before he leaves office on June 30 2017.

Traffic resumes after clearance of Admiralty. Commuters return to roads previously closed off by the occupied site. “Shopping tours” of Mong Kok and occupation of Causeway Bay area continue.

Dec 11

Police enter occupied areas and call for protesters to vacate or be arrested for “illegal assembly.” Many protesters remain and await arrest. Protesters maintain their overall message of peaceful defiance and pledge to develop new tactics during clearance.

10:30am: clearing of the far western end of protest area, closer to City Hall, begins—bailiffs read out injunction as workers dismantle barricades.

2:30pm: clearing of Admiralty protest site begins—police take away barriers, tents, and art installations.

4:20pm: police arrest and take away protesters.

9:00pm: more than 200 people were arrested as police finish clearing the protesters.

High Profile Arrests:

Student Leaders:

  • Alex Chow, Ivan Law, Lily Lai, Mio Chan, Nathan Law and Christine Leung (members of the Hong Kong Federation of Students)

Hong Kong Shield:

  • Singer Denise Ho 


  • Audrey Eu Yuet-mee (Civic Party boss)
  • Claudia Mo (Civic Party member)
  • Martin Lee (Democratic Party founding chairman)
  • Emily Lau (Democratic Party)
  • "Long Hair,” Leung Kwok-hung (League of Social Democrats)
  • Albert Ho (Democratic Party)


  • Jimmy Lai (Chairman of Next Media)
  • Lee Cheuk-yan (Chairman of the Hong Kong Alliance)

People Arrested Off Site:

  • Other key Occupy supporters were arrested at or near their homes on suspicion of unlawful assembly, including: 
  • Civic Passion's Wong Yeung-tat, arrested at home
  • Raphael Wong (League of Social Democrats)
  • Anthony So (Assistant of a People's Power legislator)
  • Alvin Cheng, leader of Student Front

South China Morning Post reports that roughly 7,000 officers are deployed in two shifts for the clearance operation.

During the police's evening press conference, Assistant Commissioner of Police (Operations) Cheung Tak-keung says, during the day's actions, 909 individuals were allowed to leave after showing their identity documents, and 209 people were arrested (South China Morning Post reports 247 were arrested).

Hong Kong government press release:  “illegal occupation” has dealt a severe blow to Hong Kong's economy, politics, society and people's livelihood.

Dec 10

RTHK reports police plan to clear whole Admiralty protest site on December 11, despite only being granted a court injunction to clear part of the area. Alex Chow of HKFS calls on protesters to return to the area to “show willingness to accept legal consequences of civil disobedience.” Joshua Wong of Scholarism urges protesters to remain peaceful during the clearance.

Hong Kong government press release: police urge the “illegal” road occupiers to respect the law and leave protest area in a peaceful and orderly manner immediately.

Thousands gather in Admiralty for what is expected to be the last day of the occupation; Joshua Wong apologizes for not standing on the “frontline,” as he is on bail, but says others from Scholarism will be present.

In the evening, over 10,000 visit Admiralty; student leaders, politicians, and movement participants share experiences on the main stage. Lester Shum of HKFS vows that “the civil disobedience campaign for full democracy would not end with the clearance, but will take on new forms.” Alex Chow, also of HKFS, urges everyone to return the following morning, December 11, in an act of civil disobedience.

Mainland poet, Meng Lang, visits protest areas, says he “is not scared.”

Lawmakers including Martin Lee and Emily Lau hold sit-in in protest site, prepare to be arrested.

Hong Kong University survey shows popularity of the police has dropped to a record low. Robert Chung, Director of the University's Public Opinion Program, says drop is obviously due to the Occupy movement.

British MPs claim the British government’s response has been too weak following China’s refusal to allow them to visit Hong Kong and call on Prime Minister David Cameron to summon Liu Xiaoming, Chinese ambassador to the UK.

Dec 9

Clearance of protest sites. Lawmaker Paul Tse Wai-chun urges protesters to vacate the main Occupy camp in Admiralty before a clearance begins on December 11. Occupy co-founder Benny Tai Yiu-ting says it’s time to think of new ways to pursue democracy for Hong Kong as he calls on protesters to leave the occupied zones.

Members of Scholarism, Eddie Ng Man-him and Gloria Cheng, end their hunger strike after 120 hours and 142 hours, respectively.

China-Australia Legal Exchange Foundation claims Britain’s attempt to send its Foreign Affairs Committee to Hong Kong to examine the UK's relations with the city is in violation of international law.

Some protesters call for a “Saturday Movement, to continue the Umbrella Movement by gathering every Saturday at Central.

Civil servants are notified that they do not need to work at Central Government offices on December 11, as police prepare to clear Admiralty site.

Over 5,000 individuals and 30 civil society groups (as of Dec. 10, at 22:07) sign joint appeal calling for police to “remain calm and restrained and not hurt the innocent” during the clearance.

Dec 8

Police officers likely to remove remaining protesters from Admiralty and Causeway Bay on December 11, after 72 days of occupation.

Joshua Wong says members of Scholarism will “maintain the principle of peace and non-violence during the clearance of the Admiralty protest site.”

Yvonne Leung, of HKFS, states that “no retreat at this stage is our decision now,” despite proposed clearance of protest sites.

Dec 7

According to Twitter posts, thousands, mostly parents, march in Wanchai to protest police brutality on students; some hold “I can’t breathe” signs in solidarity with New York protesters.

Founding chairman of the Democratic Party, Martin Lee, urges Chinese President Xi Jinping to clear up confusion over the Sino-British Joint Declaration that settled Hong Kong's future, by saying “China's basic policy on Hong Kong has never changed and the Joint Declaration remains valid.”

Clearance of protesters to be announced. According to the Hong Kong government, Chief Executive C.Y. Leung says “an announcement will be made at an appropriate time” on clearing the occupied areas in Causeway Bay and Admiralty.

Dec 6

South China Morning Post reports that Hong Kong government officials pledge to start a second round of public consultation on the 2017 election "soon after Occupy ends".

New splinter protest groups form in anticipation of Admiralty clearance. Student Front, one of the new groups, says “movement can no longer be restricted to the idea of non-violence” and urges protesters to “defend against clearance.”

Liu Xiaoming, Chinese ambassador to the UK, in an article in The Telegraph, defends the banning of the UK’s Foreign Affairs Committee from entering Hong Kong and states that it was not intended as an insult but to ensure the maintenance of China’s sovereignty and security in the area.

Dec 5

Three pro-Beijing lawmakers from the Liberal Party, its new head Chung Kwok-pan, James Tien Pei-chun, and Paul Tse Wai-chun, vow to arrange a meeting between protesters and Chief Executive C.Y. Leung after paying surprise visit to students on hunger strike in an attempt to end the political deadlock. Mr. Tien tells RTHK that private meeting, rather than public discussion as requested by students, may be more appropriate.

Hunger strikers stable but very weak says Dr. Au Yiu-Kai; Joshua Wong visits protest site in wheelchair.

High Court judge rejects bid to stall an injunction that will stop protesters from obstructing roads connecting Central and Admiralty. Bailiffs could take action to clear a section of the main Occupy site next week.

Apple Daily reports nearly a dozen protesters are planning class-action lawsuit over police brutality. The protesters allege that police used excessive force during clashes on the night of November 30 outside government headquarters, and they were treated harshly after being taken to the police station.

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Following Mong Kok’s clearance on November 27, protesters have begun nightly “shopping- tours” in the area—roaming crowded footpaths and conveying their political message, while obstructing commerce.

Dec 4

Hunger striking students go through a difficult time. Head of the Occupy Central medical team, Dr. Au Yiu-Kai, tells RTHK that this is a “crucial time” for Joshua Wong of Scholarism and two other students, Prince Wong and Isabella Lo. Wong apologizes for drinking glucose in the morning after his blood sugar levels reach a low.

Yvonne Leung of HKFS says that a decision on Occupy withdrawal could take place within a week.

Hong Kong government reportedly will speed up clearance of protest zones in Admiralty and Causeway Bay in "near future" due to growing security risks after clashes between police and protesters.

Hong Kong government denies “blacklist” of social activists.

Hong Kong top court judge urges that Occupy protesters who have turned themselves in should be punished leniently.

Dec 3

Daniel Russel, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia, calls for “competitive” elections in Hong Kong, denies U.S. interference, and says the “two systems” policy that gave the Hong Kong people more freedom is “eroding.”

The three initiators of Occupy Central, the Reverend Chu Yiu-ming and academics Benny Tai Yiu-ting and Dr. Chan Kin-man, turn themselves in to the Central Police Station, along with 63 other protesters. They claim their crime is “illegal assembly” but leave without being charged less than an hour later with no formal arrest. Alex Chow of HKFS states that student leaders will not turn themselves in to police but also tells RTHK that “everyone agrees that continuing to occupy will not help exert pressure on the government.”

Emily Lau, Democratic Party chairwoman, tells reporters at CNN “we are not going to go away. Like a bad penny, I'll keep turning up.”

South China Morning Post reports that Beijing has dismissed the notion that Britain has any moral responsibility for Hong Kong. Hua Chunying, a spokeswoman of the Chinese Foreign Ministry, says that “Britain has no sovereignty over Hong Kong that has returned to China, no authority and no right to oversight.” Richard Ottaway, chairman of the British Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee, said during an emergency debate on Dec. 2, that Ni Jian, the Chinese Deputy Ambassador to the UK, had conveyed the message on Nov. 28 that the Joint Declaration "is now void and only covered the period from the signing in 1984 until the handover in 1997."

According to Martin Cubbon, chief executive of Swire Properties Ltd., a property developer in Hong Kong and mainland China, the “pro-democracy protests have had very limited impact on foreign investors coming to Hong Kong.”

Dec 2

The three founders of Occupy Central, the Reverend Chu Yiu- ming and academics Benny Tai Yiu-ting and Dr Chan Kin-man, announce in press conference that they will turn themselves in to police at 3:00 p.m., Wednesday, December 3, to shoulder the legal consequences of the civil disobedience movement and to bring an end to the protests. They urge protesters to retreat.

Some democratic party members will turn themselves in tomorrow with OCLP trio, according to Democratic Party chairwoman Emily Lau, who also says she will turn herself in after movement is over.

South China Morning Post reports: Pan-democratic lawmakers distance themselves from students after coming out against the student-led escalation, urge student leaders not to escalate the campaign to avoid further injuries. Report states:

  • 23 of the 27 pan-democrats on the Legislative Council [signed] a joint statement urging student leaders not to escalate the campaign to avoid further injuries. They also condemned police "brutality"
  • Democratic Party lawmaker Albert Ho Chun-yan said students should "reflect deeply" on Sundays events, which saw arrests as well as injuries to both protesters and police officers moving in to prevent the blockade. Further escalation would be "meaningless and would only trigger more injuries".
  • Labour Party stalwart Lee Cheuk-yan, who was in Admiralty on Sunday to urge protesters to avoid violence, said the cost of escalation was too high.
  • Professor Lau Siu-kai, vice-chairman of mainland think tank the Chinese Association of Hong Kong and Macau Studies, said the attempt to escalate showed that the movement was losing steam. He warned of an "authoritarian backlash" that would harm democratic development.

Joshua Wong quoted in Apple Daily responding to “split” talk in the media: “Harmony does not mean 100 people saying the same thing.”

The House of Commons holds emergency debate on the ban by China on the Foreign Affairs Committee visit to Hong Kong, made by the Committee’s Chair, Sir Richard Ottaway.

Joshua Wong of Scholarism reveals the reasons behind his hunger strike in a letter to his mother on her birthday, saying “the purpose of the hunger strike is to try every means to bring some outcome with all others in this movement.”

Lester Shum and other protestors have fail to change their bail conditions which prohibit them from entering Mongkok in the wake of ongoing protests.

Dec 1

Hunger strike begins. Joshua Wong of Scholarism announces late in the evening that he and two other group leaders will not eat until the city’s chief executive restarts dialogue. The hunger strike is announced one night after protesters’ failed attempt to take over government buildings led to violent clashes with police.

In the morning, police clear barricades on Lung Wo Road, walkways joining the Central Government offices, and some tents at Tamar Park. Clashes with police continue throughout the day. Some government workers return to work in the afternoon after the previous night’s siege on government offices by protesters.

HKFS leader Alex Chow, having earlier called the action a success, later tells press that the action “was a failure … The whole plan did not achieve its objective of paralysing government.”

Police arrest 40 people in Admiralty and 12 people in Mong Kok during the violent clashes overnight and in the morning, and 17 police officers were injured.

Chief Executive C.Y. Leung hints of clearing Admiralty in comments to reporters: "I have pointed out before that Occupy Central is not only illegal but it will also be in vain. . . Now the [public] demand for police clearance is increasing. From now on, police will enforce the law without hesitation."

Hong Kong’s High Court grants a temporary injunction against pro-democracy protests in Admiralty District, after intense clashes broke out in the area the night before. TVB reports: the injunction application was from transport company All China Express, and will prohibit protests in the district including Connaught Road and Harcourt Road, but does not cover an area just outside the government headquarters.

Vince Cable, Britain’s Business Secretary, says it would “reopen a review into the sale of tear gas to Hong Kong and seek to block exports” if it is used on protesters again, after 87 canisters were deployed on pro-democracy protesters on September 28.

Nov 30

HKFS announces it will escalate its actions by taking over government buildings and preventing Chief Executive C.Y. Leung and other government officials from going to work on December 1. Police warn they will take action against anyone surrounding government headquarters.

Police use water cannons, pepper spray, dogs, and batons to repel protesters who try to take over the Admiralty compound and lay siege to Chief Executive C.Y. Leung's office, leaving some protesters bloodied and requiring medical treatment. Key areas of violence include Lung Wo Road, Tamar Park, and the walkways from Harcourt Road to government headquarters.

Clashes continue throughout the evening and into the morning of December 1; 40 people are taken to hospital with injuries.

The Guardian reports: UK officials are refused entry to Hong Kong. Sir Richard Ottaway, chairman of the House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, says he and his fellow committee members were told by the Chinese embassy they would be turned back if they tried to enter. The MPs were planning to visit Hong Kong as part of an inquiry into its relations with the U.K. 30 years after the 1984 Joint Declaration that led to the handover of Hong Kong’s sovereignty to China in 1997.

Nov 29

Fresh clashes erupt in Mong Kok after police try to clampdown the area. Protesters pelted police with eggs, bottled water, and wooden boards, and police, some bleeding, lashed back with batons and pepper spray.

Police condemn protesters who illegally assembled in Mong Kok on Friday, November 28, blocking roads and endangering public order and safety.

Nov 28

At an evening rally, HKFS calls on people to bring supplies, such as umbrellas, goggles, and masks, ahead of a major announcement in Admiralty on Sunday, November 30.

Joshua Wong of Scholarism considers filing charges against Hong Kong police for excessive force.

Nov 27

Clashes intensify as police continue to clear streets of Mong Kok, allegations of police brutality increase.

Mong Kok protesters begin using a three fingered salute to express their aspirations for freedom; see the videos on Vine.

Yvonne Leung of HKFS announces possible further actions by the students, such as targeting government buildings in retaliation of the police clearance of Occupy sites in Mong Kok.

According to reports, more than 100 people have been arrested in Mong Kok over past two days.

The streets of Mong Kok remain clear of protesters as some 6,000 police are deployed there.

Student leaders Joshua Wong and Lester Shum, and lawmaker Leung Kwok-hung are released from police custody, bail condition bans them from entering a large area of Mong Kok. They are due back in court January 14, 2015.

Nov 26

The “Shopping Revolution” gains popularity as protesters heed Chief Executive C.Y. Leung 's call for shoppers to return to Mongkok

Student leaders Lester Shum and Joshua Wong arrested; when he was taken away, Wong is allegedly struck in his groin area by police.

Seven police officers caught beating Ken Tsang on October 15 in Admiralty are arrested on charges of “assault occasioning actual bodily harm.”

Nov 20

Views on how to move forward differ among protest leaders after a group of masked individuals tried to crack open one of the doors of the LegCo building on Nov 18, and public support for the movement appears to be waning.

In an interview with RTHK, Joshua Wong of Scholarism says Occupy protests should continue despite opposition.

Chris Patten speaks at Congressional-Executive Commission on China hearing on: The Future of Democracy in Hong Kong.

Syed Kemal Shah Bokhary, a top Hong Kong judge, breaks his silence over the protests, says “the student activists who are driving them are the future of Hong Kong.

Nov 19

1:00 am: Hong Kong protesters clash with police outside Legislative Council building.

South China Morning Post reports that a group of masked individuals used “metal barriers and various objects including broken bricks” to try to crack open one of the doors of the LegCo building.

OCLP issues statement after the November 18 clashes at the LegCo building, urging protesters to “persist in non- violence, exercise calm judgment.”

Canadian House of Commons adopts New Democratic Party motion supporting democracy in Hong Kong.

Nov 18

Bailiffs and police peacefully clear a protest area in Admiralty, with the help of protesters.

Nov 17

Dr. Chan Kin-man, one of the co-founders of the Occupy Central movement, says “pro-democracy protesters should consider ending road blockades and refocus on winning the long-term support of the public.”

Protesters create public opinion wall directed at the Chinese government after more HKFS members are blocked from entering mainland China.

Hong Kong government press release: Police are ready to support bailiffs in enforcing a court injunction that orders people to stop blocking access to the Citic Tower in Admiralty.

According to sources, protestors in Admiralty will not resist the clearance, but will relocate.

After HKFS representatives are blocked from flying to Beijing, protesters question how they are supposed to “love” their country without being allowed in and also challenge the very idea of “One Country.”

Nov 15

HKFS representatives Alex Chow, Eason Chung, and Nathan Law are not allowed to board plane to Beijing and told that their “Home Return Permits” have been revoked. The student leaders had hoped to meet with central government leaders to discuss genuine universal suffrage in Hong Kong.

Nov 14

South China Morning Post reports: High Court rejects appeal bid against Occupy site clearance order.

Students take turns pedaling stationary bikes connected to batteries at the study center to power lighting.

Nov 13

Civil Human Rights Front will hold a rally at police headquarters to protest the police's selective law enforcement. The group demands that police apologize to and cancel charges against Kwok Siu-kit and Or Yiu-lam, two protesters who helped restrain individuals suspected of throwing rotten pig intestines at Jimmy Lai in Admiralty on November 12.

Three to four members of HKFS, including the Secretary-General Alex Chow, tentatively decide to go to Beijing on Saturday, November 15, to request a meeting with central government leaders.

U.S. legislators announce congressional bill to support Hong Kong’s human rights and political development.

Nov 12

Admiralty at 5:00 pm: Three men reportedly throw bags of rotten pig intestines at Jimmy Lai, president of the pro-democratic Next Media group. They were subdued by occupiers and arrested by police. Later in the evening, police arrest and charge two occupiers with “fighting in a public place”: Democratic Party's Or Yiu-lam and Labour Party's Kwok Siu-kit, who assisted in subduing the attackers. In contrast, according to sources, seven officers show on film to be beating protesters on October 15 have yet to be arrested.

Three Occupy Central leaders, Reverend Chu Yiu-ming, Professor Benny Tai, and Chan Kin-man, along with some volunteers of the civil disobedience movement, prepare to “surrender to police in an attempt to show that they were willing to accept the legal consequences of joining the ‘unlawful’ pro-democracy protest.”

LegCo to debate motion on devising constitution by all people, making new covenant, and realizing genuine "Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong."

Protesters in Mong Kok wear hand-made face masks for protection.

Pro-democracy supporter “Benny” ends his 40-day hunger strike after losing 30 pounds.

Joshua Wong says he will stay in occupied areas and is ready to be arrested when the police clear the protest.

Nov 11

Hong Kong Chief Secretary Carrie Lam says “there was no more room for dialogue with the students” and calls on them to leave protest sites peacefully. Lam claims that Hong Kong government showed its sincerity during the previous meeting with student leaders to discuss political reform, but that the students only toughened their stance.

According to sources, 7,000 police may be deployed to help bailiffs enforce court injunctions ordering Occupy protesters off designated roads. RTHK reports that previously, the High Court “ordered bailiffs to enforce injunctions to remove barricades at the various areas, and police have been authorised to remove or arrest anyone who tries to obstruct them.”

Nov 10

Hong Kong’s High Court rules that police can arrest protestors who defy bailiffs trying to clear sit-in sites in Mong Kok and Admiralty, indicating a clearance could happen soon.

U.S. President Barak Obama gives careful statement on Hong Kong protests, offering support for “general human-rights freedoms” but also stressing cooperation between China and the U.S.

Former Hong Kong Chief Executive, Tung Chee-hwa, announces formation of a new think tank called "Our Hong Kong Foundation." Tung says top priority for the new group, which has 88 consultants, is to “create conditions for an early and peaceful end of the Occupy movement”; grooming political talent and future leaders is also a long term goal.

Nov 9

Hundreds of pro- democracy protesters wearing yellow ribbons march to the China’s Liaison Office in Hong Kong, in an event organized by Civil Human Rights Front. The protesters demand genuine democracy, dialogue with mainland officials, and withdrawal of the controversial Chief Executive election framework for Hong Kong.

Nov 7

HKFS seeks help from former Hong Kong Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa to arrange a meeting with Beijing leaders.

Member of the student group, Scholarism, accused of taking part in "activities against national security" and refused entry to mainland China.

Japanese novelist Haruki Murakami sends message of support to Hong Kong’s pro- democracy protesters during award speech.

Hong Kong Chief Executive C.Y. Leung says government owes the police too much, will be impossible to pay them back. Chief Secretary Carrie Lam says Occupy protest sites must be cleared, time is limited.

Nov 6

RTHK reports: HKFS abandons plans to visit Beijing during APEC summit to seek talks with state leaders over Hong Kong's political reform. Alex Chow says they changed their mind after realizing the unlikelihood of being able to meet with senior officials during the summit.

Rain in Mong Konk forces students under umbrellas to continue studying.

Civil Human Rights Front, an organization that focuses on issues of Hong Kong politics and livelihood, condemns police’s use of excessive force on the evening of November 5, when four protesters were injured and arrested during a clash with police in Mong Kok. One protester suffered a serious leg injury.

Nov 5

Two protesters are beaten in clashes between police and crowds in late evening in Mong Kok. Protestors claim the conflict is caused by police attempting to arrest a protester for using a flashlight on his phone. Blood stains can be found on the ground where the incident took place.

Channel News Asia reports: About 20 pro-democracy activists hold a protest march calling for Beijing to release the nearly 100 mainland Chinese who have been detained over the past month for supporting Occupy Central.

Police presence in Causeway Bay is low where a mobile “democracy classroom” has been set up by pro-democracy protesters since early October.

Nov 4

Five Hong Kong Federation of Students representatives plan to visit Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit on Friday, November 7. Apple Daily reports that the students hope to meet with central government officials to seek a response to their call for the withdrawal of the National People’s Congress’s decision on the framework for the 2017 election of the Hong Kong Chief Executive.

Chris Patten speaks at UK Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee meeting on: UK's relations with Hong Kong: 30 years after the Joint Declaration.

Prior to the meeting, the SAR government sends a letter to the chairman of the Committee, strongly urging it not to hold such an inquiry, citing that constitutional, economic, and social developments are “internal matters for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.”

Nov 3

Zhou Fengsuo becomes first leader from the 1989 Democracy Movement to arrive in Hong Kong in support of “Occupy Central.”  He tells the South China Morning Post that the scenes are “so familiar with what [happened] 25 years ago”

Oct 29

Liberal Party leader to resign for asking C.Y. Leung to Step Down. The People’s Political Consultative Conference discusses removal of pro-Beijing lawmaker James Tien from its membership, following his high-profile call for Chief Executive C.Y. Leung to resign. Source: RTHK (English) (Chinese). Update: SCMP (English)

Oct 28

Hong Kongers mark one month of protest. Thousands of protesters gather under a sea of umbrellas and observe 87 seconds of silence to mark the one month anniversary of the date when police fired 87 tear gas canisters against peaceful protesters.

Actor Chow Yun-fat reacts to his alleged ban from mainland Chinafor voicing support in early October for the pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong. “I’ll just make less money then,” says Chow, in response to reporters’ questions.

Hong Kong Federation of Students requests meeting with Chinese Premier Li Keqiang. In an open letter to Chief Secretary Carrie Lam, HKFS demands that the HK government arrange for HKFS to meet with Premier Li Keqiang if it fails to request the withdrawal of the NPCSC August 31 decision and set a timetable and plan for abolishing the functional constituency.

Oct 26

HKFS, Scholarism, Occupy Central with Peace Love, Pan- democracy Legislators, and other representatives of the Umbrella Movement announce the adjournment the referendum in Umbrella Square, set for Oct 26 and 27, in light of differing opinions regarding its "format, motions and effectiveness." The groups apologize for "the lack of discussion among the participants” prior to scheduling the poll, and encourage citizens to go to the occupied areas to "exchange ideas on the future directions of the movement and how we can gather and consolidate the opinions of the supporters in order to strive for genuine universal suffrage together."

Oct 25

HKFS, Scholarism , Occupy Central with Peace Love announce referendum on Sunday, October 26 and Monday, October 27, each day at 7-11pm, at the occupied areas in Admiralty, Causeway Bay, and Mong Kok. On Twitter, Occupy Central states the following:

Aim: The vote in the square is being held so Umbrella Movement supporters can express their views about the two proposals made by the SAR government, and to put pressure on the government.

Motion 1:

In the report to be submitted by the HKSAR government to the HK and Macao Affairs Office of the State Council, it must include as suggestion that the Standing Committee of the NPC reviews its August 31 decision.

Motion 2:

The multi-party platform for handling political reform controversies must handle the methods of the Legislative Council election in 2016 and the Chief Executive election in 2017.

Choices on both motions: Agree, Disagree, Abstain

See more.

 At a candlelight event in Tsim Sha Tsui organized by the blue ribbon (anti-occupy) group, one RTHK news reporter and two cameramen are attacked. The RTHK programme staff union announces that, with the approval of RTHK deputy director, RTHK will stop covering any blue ribbon events protest the safety of the reporters.

Oct 24

South China Morning Post reports: Shortly after 3pm, at least 10 men, many wearing face masks storm a pro-democracy camp in Mong Kok, dismantling barricades Nathan Road near Shantung Street and attacking people, including a prominent pro-democracy activist.

Oct 23

Yellow banner saying “I want real universal suffrage” is unfurled on Lion Rock, inspiring memes. It is later taken down by Hong Kong authorities.

Oct 22

About 60 people marched from Admiralty to the Government House to protest C.Y. Leung's statement to the press that holding open elections would give poorer residents a voice in politics, and “you would end up with that kind of politics and policies,” he was quoted in the New York Times as saying.

Excrement bombs thrown off building in Mong Kok, a young boy is hit.

Protesters brave heavy rainstorm in evening hours; they find shelter under tarps and tents, and continue to clean up protest areas despite pounding rain. Police camp out in tents at Nathan Road junction, in the same place where protestors’ tents were removed by the police last week.

Man at Mong Kok protest site tries to light flammable liquid, is subdued by protesters.

Bloomberg reports: Hong Kong Stocks Defy Protests to Post World’s Best Gain

China warns foreign artists against supporting “Occupy Central” after Kenny G visits Hong Kong protest site.

Oct 21

In the first dialogue between the Hong Kong government and students, government representatives, led by Chief Secretary Carrie Lam, maintain the position that the 2017 election for the next Chief Executive by universal suffrage must be based on the Basic Law and the August 31, 2014 decision by National People’s Congress Standing Committee which requires candidates to be vetted by a majority of the Nominating Committee, which is pro- Beijing. The student representatives stress that in three weeks of protests, hundreds of thousands of Hong Kong people have voiced their objection to an universal suffrage with obstacles and their demand for civic nominations of the candidates. Alex Chow, Secretary-General of the Hong Kong Federation of Students says that if the Basic Law fails to protect the interests of the people, then it should be amended. Among the other key points articulated in the dialogue are:

Hong Kong SAR Government

  • The NPCSC based its Aug 31 Decision on careful consideration of its right and authority to rule over reform and should not be questioned.
  • Getting the required 2/3 votes of the Legislative Council to approve civic nomination is unrealistic.
  • In the 2017 election, we will not limit candidates because of their political stance, as per Article 25 of the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights.
  • Closing 4 points: 
  1. There is still ample room under the August 31 NPCSC Decision to work out a nomination procedure and election method for 2017. This will be the goal for the second round of public consultation.
  2. The framework for 2017 is not the ultimate plan—we can improve on it.
  3. We hope to further explore a broad platform for reform, focused on after 2017 
  4. HKSAR government will reflect to Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office of the State Council the opinions of the HK people and the events since late August.

Hong Kong Federation of Students

  • The consultation reflect in the HK government report (July 2014) to the NPC was completely different from reality.
  • The NPCSC condition that a chief executive candidate must "love the country and love Hong Kong" strips some people of their rights to stand for election.
  • From the class boycott to protests, we haven’t seen the SAR Government try to solve this political problem, just the use of force.
  • We hope the SAR government will not be a barricade in the road of people fighting for democracy, but will lead the people to it.

In a video message, Joshua Wong, convenor of Scholarism, appeals for the support of international Community.

After conclusion of the student-government dialogue, thousands of protestors continue to occupy the main protest area in Admiralty.

Oct 20

The New York Times reports that in an interview with a small group of journalists from American and European news media organizations, Chief Executive C.Y. Leung states that it is unacceptable to allow his successors to be chosen in open elections, in part because doing so would risk giving poorer residents a dominant voice in politics. “Then you would end up with that kind of politics and policies,” he says. In addition, he states the following:

“Foreign forces” have played a role in the street protests: “I didn’t overhear it in a teahouse, and it’s something that concerns us. . . . It’s something that we need to deal with.”

“Challenging the Hong Kong government, at these difficult times will do no one any service, will do Hong Kong’s high degree of autonomy no service.”

The way to remedy social grievances is to expand the supply of housing and spur economic growth.

It is importance to maintain the confidence of Hong Kong’s corporate elite, which is one of the goals of the Basic Law.

C.Y. Leung’s statements in the New York Times article draws widespread criticism, including that of an alliance of social welfare concern groups. In a statement, the alliance says: “We express our strong discontent and regret on the chief executive’s blatant neglect of the contributions made by Hong Kong’s lower income classes—which constitute the majority of the population—to the society and economy.”

Supreme Court of Hong Kong (Court of First Instance) enacts a preliminary injunction to ban demonstrators from occupying roads in Mong Kok, after groups of mini-buses and taxi operators filed for an injunction to reopen roads that have been occupied for over three weeks.

In statement, Hong Kong Federation of Students says: "HKFS respects the decision made by the court, but we will not retreat. We will take up all the legal responsibility after the movement has ended to protect the rule of law."

Talks between HK government and students, to be televised by RTHK, are scheduled for 6-8pm, Tuesday, October 21, at the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine in Wong Chuk Hang, with five student representatives and five official representatives. Moderated by Lingnam University president Cheng Kwk-hon.

Hong Kong Government representatives:

  • Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-Ngor (林鄭月娥), Chief Secretary for Administration
  • Rimsky Yuen Kwok-Keung (袁國強), Secretary for Justice
  • Raymond Tam Chi- Yuen (譚志源), Secretary of the Constitutional and Mainland Affairs
  • Lau Kong-Wah (劉江華), Undersecretary of the Constitutional and Mainland Affairs
  • Edward Yau Tang-Wah (邱騰華), Director of the Chief Executive's Office

HKFS representatives (tentative):

  • Alex Chow Yong-Kang (周永康), Secretary- general
  • Lester Shum Ngo-Fai (岑敖暉), Deputy Secretary-general
  • Eason Chung Yiu-Wah (鐘耀華), Permanent Secretary
  • Yvonne Leung Lai-Kowk (梁麗幗), President
  • Nathan Law Kwun-Chung(羅冠聰), Standing Committee

Alex Chow, General Secretary of Hong Kong Federation of Students says Leung’s accusation that foreign forces were behind the protests “a complete fabrication.”

Talks between HK government and students, to be televised by RTHK, are scheduled for 6-8pm, Tuesday, October 21, at the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine in Wong Chuk Hang, with five student representatives and five official representatives. Moderated by Lingnam University president Cheng Kwk- hon.

Alex Chow, General Secretary of Hong Kong Federation of Students says Leung’s accusation that foreign forces were behind the protests “a complete fabrication.”

High Court issues an injunction ordering people to clear areas in Mong Kok “after a taxi drivers’ association and a minibus company brought complaints.”

Oct 19

People’s Daily article says Occupy Central’s ultimate aims are for "self-determination" and even Hong Kong's "independence," not just democratic elections and a "high degree of autonomy.”

In interview with Asia TV (Hong Kong), Chief Executive C. Y. Leung says “there are external forces … from different parts of the world” involved in the protests, and that protesters’ demand for civic nomination of candidates for the Chief Executive is not the only view in Hong Kong.

Violent clashes break out just after midnight in Mong Kok, after some protesters attempt to remove some barricades at the junction of Nathan Road and Argyle Street. Policemen use batons and pepper spray against protesters. Eyewitnesses report seeing police hit protesters. Dozens are injured.

Oct 18

Police in full riot gear take position in Mong Kok as large crowds of protesters begin gather at nightfall.

Chief Secretary Carrie Lam announces talks with students are scheduled for Tuesday, October 21.

Police said they arrested a 23-year old man in Tin Shui Wei for posting messages onling urging protesters to charge police cordons and to paralyze the railway.

Oct 17

Mingpao reports that Chen Jingxiang (陈景祥), Vice President of Hong Kong Economic Journal, resigns. Chen claims that he and the journal are on “different paths” but did not reveal the specific reason for his resignation.

Police clear occupied area in Mong Kok in early morning hours, using power tools to cut protester barricades and carting away tents, canopies, supplies, and other materials.

Protesters begin to return to Mong Kok in late morning. By nightfall, protesters, numbering 9,000 reclaim the main thoroughfare of Nathan Road between Argyle and Dundas Streets. In violent clashes, riot police attack protesters with pepper spray and batons. Scenes captured on video and in photos include a tense face-off between phalanxes of police with shields and masks and protesters with open umbrellas, and police beating down on and pulling out protesters’ umbrellas.

War photographer Paula Bornestein working for Getty Images is taken away by police in early evening and released in early morning October 18.

Police says 26 individuals are arrested and 15 officers injured. It is not known how many protesters are injured.

Oct 16

South China Morning Post reports that at an evening rally on Harcourt Road, Ken Tsang Kin-chiu, Civic Party member who was beaten by police on Wednesday, tells protesters not to be hostile to police officers, and Joshua Wong of Scholarism calls on protesters to stop swearing and clashing with police

At afternoon press conference, C.Y. Leung states:

  • Talks between top officials and student leaders could start as early as next week
  • Hopes protesters understand that Beijing's decision cannot be altered
  • Wants to explore ways that the protesters and government can work together within the limits of the Basic Law and the NPC's decision

At a press conference, Senior Superintendent Kong Man-keung says that the police officers alleged to have beaten protester Ken Tsang Kin- chiu are suspended.

Occupy Central issues a statement: urges speedy investigation into alleged police abuses

Jen Psaki, State Department spokeswoman: US is “deeply concerned” by reports of Ken Tsang’s alleged beating by police, and calls for a “swift, transparent and complete” investigation. “We renew our call for the Hong Kong government to show restraint and for protesters to continue to express their views peacefully.”

Apple Daily is able to deliver newspapers on time after several days of blockage by pro-Beijing protesters objecting to its coverage of protests in the city.

The BBC reports that its English-language website is blocked by Chinese authorities.

Oct 15

In the early hours of October 15, Ken Tsang Kin-chiu, a member of the Civic Party, is among 45 people who are arrested and beaten when police, using pepper spray, move to clear the area near the Chief Executive's office on Lung Wo. The incident is captured in footage shot and aired by TVB, the pro-government broadcaster, showing a group of police officers leading a handcuffed protester to a dark corner of Tamar Park and beating, kicking, and stepping on him for several minutes while he was lying on the ground.

The beating of Ken Tsang sets off strong reactions, including protesters—mostly social workers—surrounding the police headquarters to file complaints and statements of protest by the Hong Kong Federation of Students and Amnesty International.

A group of 27 TVB journalists issue a statement on Facebook protesting the deletion from the report for a number of hours of a voiced-over sentence: "Officers are putting [the protester] on the ground, hitting him with their fists and kicking him." The journalists say, “We hope that the society can treasure the little press freedom in Hong Kong, support journalists’ independent reporting and not obstruct journalists from reporting facts."

Reuters: British Prime Minister David Cameron says Britain should stand up for Hong Kong rights.

While answering a question in parliament, Cameron says it is important that people in Hong Kong are able to enjoy freedoms and rights set out in an Anglo-Chinese agreement before Britain handed Hong Kong back to China in 1997.

“It is important that democracy involves real choices.

“[The agreement] talks about rights and freedoms, including those of person, of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of travel, of movement, and, indeed, of strike.

"These are important freedoms, jointly guaranteed through that joint declaration and it's that which, most of all, we should stand up for."

In a statement in to the British Parliament, British minister of state Hugo Swire says that the UK remains “fully committed to the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration,” adding that  “Hong Kong’s future is best served by a transition to universal suffrage, in line with the Basic Law . . . .”

South China Morning Post: Hong Kong’s Democratic Party will send a delegation to a UN Human Rights Committee meeting in Geneva on October 23 to discuss how Beijing's decision on Hong Kong election reform fails to comply with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The delegation will also attend the UN's hearing on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, where they will discuss alleged sexual violence against women protesters.

Oct 14

Soccer fans going to watch the Hong Kong vs Argentina match were barred from entering the Hong Kong Stadium with pro-Occupy Central placards.

Admiralty, around 10 pm, police moved to arrest one protester. As more officers came for back-up, protesters rushed onto Lung Wo Road. Police used pepper spray and batons to stop protesters from taking over both west and eastbound lanes causing clashes between them. Protesters were able to hold Lung Wo Road and police were forced to retreat.

Oct 13

Police in early morning before rush hour remove some metal barricades in the main protest areas in Admiralty set up by protesters. At around 1:30pm, about 100 men, mostly middle age and some with masks, begin to forcibly remove more barricades. Their action is supported by taxi drivers. Police also remove some barricades in Mong Kok in early morning.

During the day, protesters build reinforcement using bamboo poles in Admiralty, which by the early morning hours of Tuesday, October 14, have become stories-tall scaffolding. Bamboo barricades are also erected in Mong Kok.

Occupy Central issues statement calling upon the Hong Kong government to stop the removal of the barricades: "What must be removed are the fundamental barriers which cause the present crisis: the collusion of political and business interests and small circle monopoly of the legislature and the office of the Chief Executive," the statement says.

The student group Scholarism calls on Occupy supporters to reinforce the protest sites at Admiralty, Causeway Bay and Mong Kok and bring with them large objects to strengthen the roadblocks.

Apple Daily, supporter of Occupy Central, tweets that it has been hit by a cyberattack.

Joshua Wong of Scholarism celebrates his 18th birthday. He posts three wishes on his Facebook page:

*Protests continue to be peaceful.

*Demonstrators maintain willpower to continue their protest.

*National People's Congress revokes its decision on electoral reform.


Oct 12

In statement, Hong Kong Federation of Students, Scholarism, Occupy Central with Love and Peace respond to Chief Executive C.Y. Leung’s characterization of the movement as “out of control,” saying that in firing tear gas on unarmed citizens and terminating dialogue with students, “it is our government that is out of control.” The groups attribute the Hong Kong government’s failure—in its report to the central leadership that no change to the electoral reform is needed—to reflect accurately the result of the consultation with the Hong Kong public regarding universal suffrage as the root cause of the protest. The statement also calls for Leung to step down if he has the interest of the Hong Kong people at heart.

In interview on TVB, Chief Executive C. Y. Leung calls the Occupy movement a "mass movement that has spun out of control." He says the protesters have "zero chance" in getting the National People’s Congress to retract its decision.

Oct 11

5,000 protesters gather on Harcourt Road, in Admiralty, the main protest area.

Students groups HKFS and Scholarism issue open letter to Chinese President Xi Jinping.

The letter asks why the Hong Kong people’s call for an equal system are not heard, given that Xi himself once said, “We shall always listen to the people, respond to their expectations and ensure equal rights of participation and development, so as to maintain social justice.” It states that the Occupy movement is not a color revolution, but a movement for democracy, and that “If the Central Government is confident of her governance, she need not be fearful of a Chief Executive elected by Hong Kong citizens.”

The letter puts forth three demands:

1) The HKSAR government must bear the sole responsibility, be accountable to Hong Kong citizens and rectify herself
2) To establish a democratic system that affirms equal rights
3) To uphold the principle of “One Country, Two Systems”: Hong Kong problems be settled in Hong Kong; Politics to be settled by Politics.

Chief Secretary Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor, speaking to journalists in Guangzhou where she is attending a conference, reiterates the government’s position on the talks with students: “For the SAR Government, the meeting must be held on the basis of the decision by the National People’s Congress Standing Committee on August 31…”

Oct 10

An estimated 100,000 people turn up Friday night in the newly dubbed Umbrella Square (Harcourt Road in Admiralty) in protest after government canceled talks with students. Many pitched tents, some bringing folding beds. Many large screens are set up to project speeches. Student leaders vow to continue the protest

Legco member “Emily Lau is going to Geneva to attend conference on human rights and she shall report to the UN committee the cases of rights violations in Hong Kong”

Legco sets up committee to investigate Occupy Central’s organizational structure and finances.

More than 140 Scholars from HK’s universities and tertiary education institute signed petition requesting the government to resume an “open and honest” dialogue with students on political reform.

South China Morning Post: Chief Secretary Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor heads to Guangzhou on Saturday to attend a forum and trade fair jointly organised by Hong Kong, Guangdong and Macau; Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying will also travel there on Sunday to attend a conference with leaders of Macau and the Pearl River Delta provinces.

Guardian: Taiwan Ma Ying-jeou calls on Beijing to “convert crisis into opportunity” by allowing Hong Kong reforms.

Oct 9

21 bipartisan US senators send joint letter to President Obama expressing strong support for Hong Kong people’s aspirations for universal suffrage and full democracy, urging him to speak out personally to voice the same support. Letter notes that a 1992 law "authorizes you to suspend trade and economic provisions should Beijing not provide sufficient autonomy for Hong Kong as outlined by the Joint Declaration."

Associated Press: At a commemoration of the October 9, 1989 demonstration in Leipzig, German President Joachim Gauck praised the bravery of the Hong Kong protesters: “tens of thousands overcame their fear of their oppressors, because their longing for freedom was greater.” Glauck’s remark came a day before his meeting with Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and other officials at a Sino-German summit in Berlin.

From Hong Kong Federation of Students press conference on Harcourt Road before crowd of estimated 5,000 protesters:

HKFS Vice-Secretary: Lester Shum of the Hong Kong Federation of Students calls for a mass rally, Friday, at 7:30pm HK time (7:30 am, ET) at Harcourt Road—dubbed “Umbrella Square”— in Admiralty.

Lester Shum: govt disrespects #HK ppl, never said what would be basis for calling off talks, now unilaterally announce cancellation

— Occupy Central 和平佔中 (@OCLPHK) October 9, 2014

Alex Chow: the students are always willing to have dialogue with the govt, if govt is sincere, we could still have meeting tomorrow

— Occupy Central 和平佔中 (@OCLPHK) October 9, 2014

At 7:30pm press conference Chief Secretary Carrie Lam says Hong Kong government is canceling the scheduled talks with students. Lam says: “The talk is based on two conditions: First the discussion must be within the framework of the decision made by the National People’s Congress Standing Committee. Second it must not be linked to the Occupy movement. Unfortunately, the protesters rejected the rational proposal and went back to their old position.”

OCLP press release: "The Hong Kong Federation of Students, Scholarism, Occupy Central with Love and Peace, and Pan-democracy Legislators are going to announce the new wave of civil disobedience movement regarding the students, the democracy squares and the Legislative Council at 5:00pm today at the stage “Fate in Our Own Hands” next to the Civic Square."

Venue: At the stage “Fate in Our Own Hands” next to the Civic Square

Oct 8

South China Morning Post reports that pan-democratic lawmakers want to impeach Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying over payment he received from a Australian firm that he failed to declare prior to becoming chief executive.

Sydney Morning Herald reports C.Y. Leung took secret $6.14 million (7m AUD, 3.82m GBP) on Dec 2, 2011 (before he became HK Chief Executive), from Australian engineering company UGL “in return for supporting its Asian business ambitions.”

Oct 7

NYC Bar President Writes Open Letter to Hong Kong’s Chief Executive to urge government to protect freedom of expression and ensure electoral reform for 2017 to provide for meaning universal suffrage in accordance with the Basic Law, the 1984 Joint Declaration, the aspirations of the Hong Kong people, and international legal principles.

The date of the first dialogue session between leaders of the Hong Kong Federation of Students and HK Chief Secretary Carrie Lam is set: 4:00p.m. Friday, October 10. Location of the session has not been announced.

South China Morning Post reports disappointment among representatives of the Hong Kong Federation of Students after their third preparatory meeting with Lau Kong-wah, HK Undersecretary for Constitutional and Mainland Affairs, and cites Lester Shum, HKFS deputy secretary general, as saying that the protests would continue despite the upcoming dialogue. The report quotes Shum: “If they [government officials] do not try to face our demands or propose ways to solve the political problems directly, we may end the dialogue."

Radio France Internationale reports that Tsang Yok-sing, President of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong announces postponement of the opening session of Legco scheduled for Wednesday, October 8. The new date is set for October 15. Legco pan democrats had planned to, in the opening session, discuss the role of the government and the police in handling the Occupy Central civil disobedience actions.

Joshua Wong of Scholarism posts statement on his Facebook page criticizing the government for putting the blame on the powerless—the students, and urging students to demand that the government rescind its decision [on election] before they withdraw.

Oct 6

Radio Free Asia reports that 50 mainland lawyers, scholars, and other citizens have issued a statement in  support of the Occupy Central movement and to appeal for the release of individuals on the mainland who are detained for their support for Hong Kong people’s.

South China Morning Post senior editor Cliffe Buddle is physically attacked during his lecture at the University of Hong Kong by a 26-year-old mainlander.

In the morning hours, the number of protesters in Admiralty thins to open way for government employees to return to work. South China Morning Post reports that between 100 and 200 protesters remain In Mong Kok, and around 100 are present in Causeway Bay.

Middle schools in Wan Chai resume classes.

OCLP press release: “Address the appeal for democracy.  Stop the threat of violence.” - an open appeal to the Government of Chief Executive C.Y. Leung

EXCERPT: “We call on the government to change its course before it is too late.  It must respond to the students’ appeal with concrete and substantive action.  We urge that it stop shying away from the core issue of Hong Kong’s electoral reform, which should form the basis of its dialogue with the students.  We are opposed to the use brutal force on our people whose pure intention is to seek rational dialogue with the government.  Any use of excessive force will only split the society further.  No doubt this will be deplored by the people of Hong Kong.”

Oct 4

Hong Kong Federation of Students issues statement demanding government investigation into violent confrontations between protesters and anti-Occupy individuals in Causeway Bay and Mong Kok and address accusations of police bias against protesters in handling these incidents. The group also says that because Chief Executive CY Leung has ignored popular opinion and used violent means to suppress peaceful protesters, it would accept dialogue with only Chief Secretary Carrie Lam.

Continued violent clashes between protesters and anti-Occupy individuals in Causeway Bay and Mongkok. Attacks, as shown in video footage, include a man beating up a reporter with a video camera, men bleeding in the head after being beaten, and police apparently letting go of a man who groped a young woman in a violent confrontation as an older woman snatched away the young woman’s phone.

Oct 3

SCMP reports: Federation of Students call off talks with Carrie Lam over attacks in Mong Kok 

Apple Daily reports that anti-Occupy Central individuals gathered in Mong Kok and Causeway Bay and used violence to drive away demonstrators. Article carries a picture of what appears to be a price list for actions:

Blue Ribbon Action
Mong Kok, Causeway Bay gathering areas: $200
Admiralty: $300
Dismantling supply stations: $500
Successfully creating chaos: $1000

Need photos as proof. When actions are carried out, please contact Mr. Li to get paid. Tel: [REDACTED IN ORIG. IMAGE]


OCLP press release: Stop the violence or we call off the talks

“HKFS, Scholarism and OCLP say that if the government does not immediately prevent the organised attacks on supporters of the Occupy movement, the students will call off dialogue on political reform with the government.”

Incidents of individuals attacking demonstrators in Mong Kok and Causeway are reported. Photos and videos of these actions are circulated widely on social media sites, including this scene posted by the HK-based website, Passion Times, showing what it calls a forced dismantlement of a supply station in Mong Kok.

Scholarism, Hong Kong Federation of Students, and OCLP call on the government to stop creating divisions among the protesters.

Oct 2

11:30pm, HK time: in press conference, HK Chief Executive C.Y. Leung states:

  • Hope Chief Secretary Carrie Lam’s dialogue with HKFS will begin process of electoral reform
  • I will not resign
  • If protesters don’t try to rush the police line, the police will use maximum tolerance to treat citizens
  • Only if we work within the framework of the provision of the Basic Law and the Decision of the NPCSC can we have universal suffrage in 2017

Students give midnight, October 2, Hong Kong time (Oct 2, noon, EST) as deadline for Chief Executive C.Y. Leung to resign, before they take actions to occupy government offices.

SAR government issues press release urging protesters to disperse and “stop all occupying activities immediately.”

Late afternoon, police are seen bringing anti-riot equipment, including rubber bullets and batons, into government headquarters.

Police Chief Superintendent Hui Chun-tak: "We stress that police will not tolerate any illegal surrounding of government buildings."

Oct 1

The official raising of the PRC national flag at 8:00 a.m. at the Golden Bauhinia Square in Wan Chai, part of the Oct. 1 National Day celebration, goes ahead without interruption, as student activists turn their backs toward the flag.

Protesters brave heavy rainstorm in early hours. Protests spread to other areas of Hong Kong including Tsim Sha Tsui.

Sept 30

President and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Hong Kong, Peter Mathieson, says in email to students, staff and alumni that HKU "profoundly regrets the escalation of events in recent days. We condemn violence of any kind by any party. We cannot understand the use of tear gas yesterday: the police and the government are accountable for that decision."

Sept 29

Protest spreads, centered in Admiralty (the government headquarters area), Causeway Bay, and Mong Kok in Kowloon.

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman says: “Hong Kong is China’s Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China; Hong Kong’ s affairs are purely China’s internal policies. We hope that those countries concerned will be careful in its words and actions, and not interfere in Hong Kong’s internal affairs in any manner, support any illegal activities such as Occupy Central, or send out any wrong signals.”

Sept 28

Occupy Central, a civil disobedience movement, joins existing students’ sit-in and moves up a civil action originally planned for October 1.

Police use tear gas against protesters.

Student leader Joshua Wong is released after 40 hours in custody.

Chinese Vice President Li Yuanchao (李源潮) stresses the National People’s Congress Standing Committee will not change its decision (on Hong Kong’s Chief Executive election) because of events in Hong Kong.

Sept 27

Students stage sit-in in front of government headquarters. Police arrests scores, including student leaders Joshua Wong, Alex Chow, and Lester Shum.

Sept 26

High school students join class boycott.

Sept 22-26

Week-long class boycott by university students, organized by the Hong Kong Federation of Students (HKFS).

Sept 22

HK Federation of Students issues open letter to Chief Executive C.Y. Leung requesting a public meeting.

Aug 31

The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress issues a formal decision on the 2017 election framework, stating that two to three candidates for the office of the Chief Executive will be selected by a nominating committee, which is pro-Beijing, and that each candidate must be endorsed by a majority of the 1,200-member committee.

Jul 15

Hong Kong Chief Executive C.Y. Leung submits a report to Beijing, stating that official public consultation shows that the mainstream opinion agrees with the view of universal suffrage advanced in the Beijing whitepaper.

Jun 20-29

In an online democracy “referendum,” with 792,808 Hong Kongers voting, 87.8 percent of the respondents believe that the HK Legislative Council (LegCo) should veto any [elections] proposal that does not comply with international standards.

Jun 10

China’s State Council releases white paper, stating that “The Hong Kong People Who Govern Hong Kong Should Above All Be Patriotic.”


Jan 16

Benny Tai Yiu-ting, Associate Professor of Law at University of Hong Kong, publishes article in the Hong Kong Economic Journal suggesting an occupation of Central District.


Dec 29


In a decision on Hong Kong's constitutional development, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress states that the election of the Hong Kong Chief Executive in 2017 “may be implemented by the method of universal suffrage.”


Apr 4

The National People’s Congress promulgates the Basic Law of Hong Kong, a “mini constitution,” in anticipation of the handover of sovereignty in 1997. Article 45 provides that the “ultimate aim” is for the Chief Executive to be selected “by universal suffrage upon nomination by a broadly representative nominating committee in accordance with democratic procedures.”


Dec 19

The United Kingdom and China release a joint declaration on the status of Hong Kong, generally referred to as the Sino-British Joint Declaration. China’s “basic policies” towards Hong Kong, set out in Article 3 and Annex I, included a “high degree of autonomy” for Hong Kong, the preservation of basic rights and freedoms, and appointment of the Chief Executive based on the results of “elections or consultations.”

Other Resources

Events Around the World


Update Sites

Protest Groups

Occupy Central with Love and Peace

Hong Kong Federation of Students:


What to Watch

Official Documents

Hong Kong related resources

2019 Anti-Extradition Protests

2014 Occupy Movement