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中國政府關於聯合國消除種族歧視委員會結論性意見後續行動的答覆材料

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2019年10月08日

中國政府關於聯合國消除種族歧視委員會
結論性意見後續行動的答覆材料

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 https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD%2fC%2fCHN%2fCO%2f14-17%2fAdd.1&Lang=en

中文原文

中國人權英譯文

消除種族歧視委員會結論性意見中提到的問題,中方在向委員會提交的履約報告和主題清單答覆材料中以及與委員會進行互動對話時已作出一定說明。中國政府現根據結論性意見有關後續行動的建議(第61段),就結論性意見第33段(b)、第42段(a)-(d)、第42段(f)-(h)和第44段(c)相關問題進行回應:

The issues mentioned in the Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination have been given certain explanations by China in the periodic reports on its implementation of the Convention and the list of themes to the Committee as well as in the interactive dialogue with the Committee. The Chinese government now responds, according to the Concluding Observations’ recommendation for follow-up (para. 61), and to the issues related to paragraphs 33 (b), 42 (a)-(d), 42 (f)-(h), and 44 (c) of the Concluding Observations:

一、關於在中國正式註冊就《消除一切形式種族歧視國際公約》有關問題開展活動的非政府組織的數位

I. Concerning the number of non-governmental organizations officially registered in China carrying out activities on issues related to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

中國政府一貫重視社會組織在消除種族歧視、保護少數民族權利方面的作用。目前,在民政部門登記的與民族有關的社會組織有近1800個。這些組織在教育衛生、文化體育、經濟貿易、對外交流、理論研究等領域積極開展活動,為保障少數民族合法權益,促進各民族平等、團結、互助、和諧發展發揮了重要作用。

The Chinese government has always attached importance to the role of social organizations in eliminating racial discrimination and protecting the rights of ethnic minorities. At present, there are nearly 1,800 social organizations related to ethnic groups registered with civil affairs departments. These organizations have actively carried out activities in fields including education and health, culture and sports, economics and trade, foreign exchanges, and theoretical research. They have played an important role in safeguarding the lawful rights and interests of ethnic minorities and promoting equality, unity, mutual assistance, and the harmonious development among all ethnic groups.

二、關於中國新疆維吾爾自治區有關問題

II. Concerning issues relating to China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

在對話會期間,有關委員關注新疆職業技能教育培訓中心(以下簡稱“教培中心”)問題,中方願在回答涉及新疆維吾爾自治區其他有關問題前,就教培中心問題作出說明。

During the dialogue, the relevant Committee members showed concern over the issue of vocational education and training centers in Xinjiang (hereinafter referred to as “education and training centers”). The Chinese government wishes to explain the issue of the education and training centers before answering other relevant issues involving the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

恐怖主義、極端主義是人類社會的共同敵人,反恐、去極端化是國際社會的共同責任。新疆是中國反恐、去極端化鬥爭的主戰場。一段時期,新疆深受恐怖主義、宗教極端主義之害,人民生命安全受到嚴重威脅。新疆堅持標本兼治,打擊與預防相結合,通過依法設立教培中心,開展職業技能教育培訓工作,著力消除恐怖主義、宗教極端主義滋生蔓延的土壤和條件,有效遏制了恐怖活動多發頻發勢頭,最大限度保障了各族人民的生命權、健康權、發展權等基本權利,取得了反恐、去極端化鬥爭重要階段性勝利。

Terrorism and extremism are the common enemies of human society. Counterterrorism and de-extremification are the common responsibilities of the international community. Xinjiang is the main battlefield for China's struggle against terrorism and extremism. For a period of time, Xinjiang has been deeply victimized by terrorism and religious extremism, and the security of people’s lives has been seriously threatened. Xinjiang perseveres in treating both the symptoms and the root causes, and combining attack and prevention; carries out vocational education and training through establishing education and training centers in accordance with the law; strives to eliminate the soil and conditions for the breeding and spread of terrorism and religious extremism; has effectively curbed the momentum of the frequent occurrences of terrorist activities; protects the basic rights of the people of all ethnic groups to the maximum extent, such as the rights to life, health, and development; and has achieved a major interim victory in the struggle against terrorism and extremism.

新疆依據《中華人民共和國反恐怖主義法》《新疆維吾爾自治區實施〈中華人民共和國反恐怖主義法〉辦法》《新疆維吾爾自治區去極端化條例》等法律法規,設立了教培中心,開展幫教等工作。目前進入教培中心的學員有三類:一是被教唆、脅迫、引誘參與恐怖活動、極端主義活動,或者參與恐怖活動、極端主義活動情節輕微,尚不構成犯罪的人員。二是被教唆、脅迫、引誘參與恐怖活動、極端主義活動,或者參與恐怖活動、極端主義活動,有現實危險性,尚未造成實際危害後果,主觀惡性不深,能夠認罪悔罪,依法不需要判處刑罰或者免除刑罰,自願接受培訓的人員。三是因恐怖活動犯罪、極端主義犯罪被定罪處刑,刑滿釋放前經評估仍有社會危險性,人民法院依法決定在刑滿釋放後進行安置教育的人員。對第一、第三類人員,根據《中華人民共和國反恐怖主義法》第二十九條、第三十條的規定,依法進行幫教或者安置教育。對第二類人員,則本著寬嚴相濟的刑事政策,打擊少數、挽救多數,對認罪悔罪、自願接受培訓的人員,在依法作出不起訴決定後對其進行幫教。對上述人員,通過“集中培訓、寄宿學習、實踐培養”等多種形式開展免費職業技能教育培訓,並在學員考核達標後頒發結業證書。學員結業後,可以自主擇業,也可以由有關部門協助安排就業。參加教育培訓的人數是動態的,有進有出。隨著教培工作的有效開展和推進,大多數學員已達到培訓要求順利結業。

In accordance with the Counter-Terrorism Law of the People's Republic of China, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Implementing Measures for the Counter-Terrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Regulation on De-Extremification, and other laws and regulations, Xinjiang has established education and training centers to carry out work such as mentoring.

There are currently three categories of students entering education and training centers: First is persons who are instigated, coerced, or lured into participating in terrorist or extremist activities, or persons whose participation in terrorist or extremist activities is minor and does not constitute a crime. Second is [those] who are instigated, coerced, or lured into participating in terrorist or extremist activities, or whose participation in terrorist or extremist activities poses a real danger but has not yet caused actual harmful consequences, whose subjective malice is not deep, who can plead guilty and repent, who do not need to be criminally sentenced or are exempt from criminal penalties, and who voluntarily accept training. Third is [those] who have been convicted of and sentenced for terrorist or extremist crimes and found through assessment before their release to still be dangerous to society at the completion of their sentence, and for whom post-release educational placement is ordered by the people's court in accordance with the law.

For the first and third categories of persons, according to the provisions in Article 29 and Article 30 of the Counter-Terrorism Law of the People's Republic of China, mentoring or placement education is conducted in accordance with the law. For the second category of persons, based on the criminal policy of “tempering justice with leniency” [and the principle of] striking a small number to save the majority, those who plead guilty and repent and voluntarily accept training, mentoring is provided after a decision is made, in accordance with the law, not to prosecute them.

For the above-mentioned persons, free vocational education and training are carried out in various forms including “centralized training, boarding studies, and practical cultivation,” and a completion certificate is issued after assessment showing that the student has met standards. After students complete their studies, they can choose their own employment, or be assisted by relevant departments to arrange for employment. The number of people attending education and training is dynamic, showing entrances and exits. With the effective development and promotion of education and training work, the majority of trainees have met training requirements and successfully completed their studies.

新疆教培工作符合國際社會有關公約、倡議中明確的基本原則。作為國際社會負責任的一員,中國積極支持聯合國在國際反恐合作中發揮主導和協調作用,堅決遵循《聯合國憲章》和其他國際法原則準則,支持聯合國安理會通過的一系列反恐決議,大力推動《聯合國全球反恐戰略》(60/288)全面實施。目前,中國已加入《制止恐怖主義爆炸的國際公約》《制止向恐怖主義提供資助的國際公約》《反對劫持人質國際公約》等國際反恐公約。新疆開展教培工作正是中國在借鑒國際社會反恐、去極端化經驗基礎上結合本國實際落實國際社會反恐、去極端化倡議及其理念的具體表現。

The education and training work in Xinjiang complies with the basic principles specified in relevant international treaties and initiatives. As a responsible member of the international community, China actively supports the United Nations in playing a guiding and coordinating role in international counterterrorism cooperation; resolutely adheres to the principles and standards in the Charter of the United Nations and other international law; supports the series of resolutions on counterterrorism passed by the United Nations Security Council; and vigorously promotes the comprehensive implementation of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy (60/288).

At present, China has joined international counterterrorism treaties including the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, and the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages. The education and training work carried out in Xinjiang is precisely a concrete demonstration of our country’s integration of the lessons that China has learned from the foundation of the international community’s experience in counterterrorism and de-extremification into our country’s domestic implementation of such initiatives and ideas.

教培中心屬於學校性質。針對新疆反恐、去極端化的實際需要,設置了以學習國家通用語言文字、法律知識、職業技能以及去極端化為主要內容的教學課程。第一,針對學員使用國家通用語言文字普遍水準低的問題,開展國家通用語言文字培訓。安排有教師資格的國家通用語言專業教師,使用專門為學員編寫的教材,按照普通學校授課方式,快速提升學員使用國家通用語言文字的能力。第二,針對學員普遍缺乏法治意識,開設法律知識課程。通過學習,使學員增強對公民權利義務的認識,建立平等享有權利、履行公民義務的觀念,自覺遵守國家憲法法律,按照憲法法律賦予的權利和義務行事。第三,針對學員缺乏職業技能、就業困難的問題,開展職業技能培訓。教培中心將學習職業技能作為提升學員就業能力的重要途徑,根據當地需求和就業條件設置培訓課程,對其中有願望有條件的學員進行多技能培訓,確保學員結業後能夠較為熟練地掌握1—2門職業技能。

The nature of the education and training centers is that of schools. Focusing on Xinjiang’s actual needs for counterterrorism and de-extremification, instructional courses are set up for the learning of standard national spoken and written language, legal knowledge, vocational skills, and de-extremification as their main contents.

First, [the education and training centers] tackle the issue that trainees have a generally low level in the use of standard national spoken and written language by conducting training on the standard national spoken and written language. Professional teachers qualified in the teaching of the standard national language are put in place, to use materials specifically written for trainees, and according to the general methods of school teaching, to rapidly improve trainees’ ability to use the standard national spoken and written language.

Second, [the education and training centers] tackle the trainees’ general lack of the concept of rule of law by setting up legal knowledge courses. Through study, trainees’ knowledge about citizen rights and duties is strengthened, and their concepts of equal enjoyment of citizen rights and the exercise of citizen duties are developed, [so that] they will, of their own volition, obey the country’s Constitution and laws and conduct themselves in accordance with the rights and duties conferred by the Constitution and law.

Third, [the education and training centers] tackle the issues of trainees’ lack of vocational skills and difficulties in obtaining employment by conducting vocational skills training. Education and training centers view the learning of vocational skills as an important way to raise trainees’ employability and, according to local demands and employment conditions, provide multi-skills training to trainees who show potential and capabilities, ensuring that trainees possess relative familiarity with the skills of 1-2 vocations after the completion of their studies.

新疆開展教培工作,是政府依法採取的一項社會治理措施,旨在保障人民生命安全,保障公民基本權利不受侵犯。在開展教培工作中,教培中心嚴格貫徹落實憲法和法律規定,保障參與培訓學員的基本權利不受侵犯。中國法律明文禁止任何基於地域、民族、宗教等理由的歧視性做法,這一規定在新疆得到了切實執行。教培中心確定教育挽救物件的唯一標準是是否有過恐怖主義、宗教極端主義違法或犯罪行為,與其所在的地區、所屬的民族和所信仰的宗教毫無關係。學員在教培中心學習過程中的人身自由得到依法保障。教培中心充分保障學員的人格尊嚴不受侵犯,嚴禁以任何方式對學員進行人格侮辱和虐待。教培中心實行寄宿制管理,學員可定期回家,有事請假,學員有通信自由。在教培中心,各民族的風俗習慣和使用本民族語言文字的權利都得到充分保障,尊重學員的宗教信仰自由和學員各方面精神文化生活需求。教培中心配備雙語教師、輔導員、醫生和後勤服務管理人員等,保障學員正常學習生活。為解除學員後顧之憂,新疆各級政府對教培學員家庭平等落實社會保障、教育醫療、脫貧攻堅等各項優惠政策,幫助學員親屬解決生產、生活、就業、就學、就醫等方面的實際困難,增強了學員參加學習培訓的動力。

The education and training work in Xinjiang is a social governance measure adopted by the government in accordance with the law, aimed at safeguarding the security of the lives of the people, and safeguarding the basic rights of citizens from violation. In the course of conducting education and training work, education and training centers strictly implement the provisions of the Constitution and laws, safeguarding the basic rights of trainees who participate in trainings from violation. Chinese law explicitly prohibits discriminatory conduct based on reasons including locality, ethnicity, and religion, and this provision is effectively executed in Xinjiang. The only standard used by education and training centers in choosing rescue targets is whether they have committed unlawful or criminal acts of terrorism or religious extremism, and is completely unrelated to the targets’ place of residence, ethnicity, or religion.

The personal freedoms of trainees throughout the learning process in education and training centers are safeguarded in accordance with the law. Education and training centers fully safeguard the personal dignity of trainees from violation, and strictly prohibit all manner of insulting or abusing trainees.

Education and training centers adopt a boarding system; trainees may visit home at designated times and request leave for cause, and trainees enjoy freedom of communication. In the education and training centers, the customs and practices of each ethnic group and the right to use one’s own ethnic spoken and written language are fully safeguarded, and trainees’ freedom of religion and faith, and the various needs of trainees’ spiritual and cultural lives are respected. Education and training centers are equipped with bilingual teachers, counselors, doctors, and logistical services management personnel, etc., to safeguard trainees’ daily life in normal learning.

To relieve the worries of trainees, Xinjiang’s authorities of all levels implement various preferential policies for all families of trainees equitably, including social security, education and medical services, and poverty alleviation, in order to assist trainees’ families in solving practical difficulties in production, daily life, and seeking employment, education, and medical services, thus strengthening trainees’ motivation to participate in education and training.

實踐證明,新疆開展教培工作,有效消除了恐怖主義、宗教極端主義滋生蔓延的土壤和條件,切實保障了新疆各族人民的生命權、健康權和發展權,不僅使新疆實現了社會穩定,也有力維護了地區安全和穩定。這一做法,完全符合國際社會反恐、去極端化的基本精神和基本原則,完全符合世界各國人民的根本利益和要求。

The practice has proven that education and training work in Xinjiang has effectively eradicated the soil and conditions for the breeding and spread of terrorism and religious extremism, and effectively safeguarded the right to life, right to health, and right to development of the people of different ethnic groups in Xinjiang, not only leading to the realization of social stability in Xinjiang, but also forcefully maintaining the security and stability of the region. This method completely complies with the international community’s basic spirit of and basic principles on counterterrorism and de-extremification, and fully complies with the fundamental interests and demands of citizens of countries all over the world.

(一)關於所謂“停止對因刑事犯罪未經依法起訴、審判和定罪的個人,在任何法外拘留設施實施拘留”“立即釋放目前屬於這種情況被拘留的人,並允許受到錯誤羈押的人尋求補救”以及“提供過去五年裡新疆維吾爾自治區所有法外拘留設施中違背本人意願關押的人數”

(1)    Concerning the recommendations to “halt the practice of detaining individuals who have not been lawfully charged, tried and convicted for a criminal offence in any extralegal detention facility”; “immediately release individuals currently detained under these circumstances, and allow those wrongfully held to seek redress”; and “provide the number of persons held against their will in all extralegal detention facilities in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in the past five years”

在包括新疆維吾爾自治區在內的中國領土範圍內,不存在任何法外拘留設施及法外拘留情況。中國《刑事訴訟法》《國家賠償法》等法律法規對刑事拘留作出嚴格規定,並賦予公民充分的救濟權利。

There do not exist any extralegal detention facilities or any instances of extralegal detention within the borders of China’s territory, including the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Laws and regulations such as the Criminal Procedure Law and State Compensation Law of China have strict provisions on criminal detention and confer citizens full right to remedy.

一是嚴格規定刑事拘留的適用範圍。刑事拘留是公安機關臨時限制犯罪嫌疑人人身自由,收押於看守所的一種刑事強制措施。只有在《刑事訴訟法》規定的情形下,公安機關對現行犯或者重大嫌疑分子才可適用。

One is the strict regulation of the applicable scope of criminal detention. Criminal detention is a criminal compulsory measure by public security organs to temporarily restrict the personal freedom of a criminal suspect by keeping him in custody in a detention facility. It is only in situations specified in the Criminal Procedure Law that public security organs may apply [criminal detention] to apprehended criminals or important suspects.

二是嚴格規定刑事拘留的決定機關和執行機關。除公安機關依法享有決定和執行刑事拘留的許可權以外,人民檢察院在直接受理的案件中,有權作出拘留決定,由公安機關執行。

Two is the strict regulation on the decision-making organ and execution organ for criminal detentions. Aside from public security organs enjoying the authority to decide on and execute criminal detention in accordance with the law, people’s procuratorates also have the authority to make decisions on detention in the cases they have accepted, to be executed by public security organs.

三是嚴格規定刑事拘留的程式。公安機關依法需要拘留犯罪嫌疑人,由縣級以上公安機關負責人批准簽發《拘留證》。人民檢察院決定拘留的案件,由檢察長決定。除無法通知或者涉嫌危害國家安全犯罪、恐怖活動犯罪通知可能有礙偵查的情形以外,應當在拘留後二十四小時以內,通知被拘留人的家屬。公安機關對被拘留的人,應當在拘留後的二十四小時以內進行訊問,在發現不應當拘留的時候,必須立即釋放,發給釋放證明。

Three is the strict regulation on the procedure of criminal detention. When a public security organ needs to detain a criminal suspect in accordance to the law, the head of the public security organ above county level approves and issues a detention warrant. For a case of criminal detention decided by a people’s procuratorate, the chief procurator makes the decision. With the exception of cases where there is no way to notify, or crimes involving endangering national security or terrorist activities where notification might obstruct the investigation, the family of the detained shall be notified within 24 hours. A public security organ shall conduct interrogation within 24 hours of detaining a person. When it is discovered that a person should not have been detained, he must be immediately released and given a proof of release.

四是賦予被刑事拘留人救濟措施。中國《刑事訴訟法》保障被刑事拘留人的辯護權、申訴權和控告權。犯罪嫌疑人自被採取拘留措施之日起有權委託律師作為辯護人,因經濟困難或其他原因沒有委託辯護人的,本人及其近親屬可以向法律援助機構提出申請。犯罪嫌疑人及其律師有權為其申請變更強制措施,對司法機關及其工作人員有違法情形時提出申訴、控告等。《國家賠償法》規定,違反刑事訴訟法的規定對公民採取拘留措施的,或者依照刑事訴訟法規定的條件和程式對公民採取拘留措施,但是拘留時間超過刑事訴訟法規定的時限,其後決定撤銷案件、不起訴或者判決宣告無罪終止追究刑事責任的,受害人有取得國家賠償的權利。

Four is the provision of remedial measures to persons under criminal detention. China’s Criminal Procedure Law protects a detainee’s right to defense, right to appeal, and right to file a lawsuit. Starting from the day of detention, a criminal suspect has the right to appoint a lawyer as his defender; in a case where the criminal suspect has not retained a defender because of economic hardship or other reasons, the criminal suspect and close relatives may apply to a legal aid institution. A criminal suspect and his lawyer have the right to apply for a change in the compulsory measures, and file appeals or lawsuits against judicial organs and their personnel for violation of the law.

The State Compensation Law provides that victims shall have the right to state compensation in cases of detention of citizens in violation of the Criminal Procedure Law, or cases of detention in accordance with the conditions and procedures provided in the Criminal Procedure Law but where the period of detention exceeds the limit under the Criminal Procedure Law and which cases are subsequently dismissed, where charges are dropped, or where innocence is declared at trial and criminal responsibility is not pursued.

刑事拘留有專門的羈押場所並受法律監督。《刑事訴訟法》第八十五條規定,“拘留後,應當立即將被拘留人送看守所羈押,至遲不得超過二十四小時。”《看守所條例》規定,看守所是羈押依法被逮捕、刑事拘留的犯罪嫌疑人的機關。根據國家法律對被羈押犯罪嫌疑人實行武警警戒看守,保障安全。看守所收押被拘留人,須憑送押機關持有的縣級以上公安機關簽發的刑事拘留證,沒有憑證,或者憑證的記載與實際情況不符的,不予收押。看守所的監管活動受人民檢察院的法律監督。

Criminal detention is conducted in specific detention facilities and is subjected to supervision by law. Article 85 of the Criminal Procedure Law provides: “After being detained, a detainee shall be immediately transferred to a detention facility within 24 hours.” The Regulations on Detention Facilities provides that detention facilities are organs for custody of criminal suspects arrested or under criminal detention in accordance with the law. Under national law, criminal suspects in custody are placed under the surveillance by armed police to ensure their safety. Detention facilities receive a detainee into custody on the basis of a criminal detention warrant presented by the escorted organ and is issued by a public security organ above the county level. Where there is no warrant or where the record of the warrant does not match the actual situation, detention is withheld. Detention facilities’ supervisory activities [of detainees] are under the legal supervision of people’s procuratorates.

(二)關於所謂的“以種族、族群和民族宗教劃線的指稱”

(2)    Concerning “allegations of racial, ethnic and ethno-religious profiling”

中國憲法和法律規定,中華人民共和國公民在法律面前一律平等。對任何人犯罪,在適用法律上一律平等,不分民族、種族、性別、職業、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、財產狀況、居住期限,都應受到追究,並承擔相應刑事責任,其訴訟權利和其他合法權益都同樣受到國家法律保護,禁止任何形式的歧視。

China’s Constitution and laws provide that citizens of the People’s Republic of China are equal before the law. Anyone who commits a crime shall be equal in the application of the law, regardless of nationality, race, gender, occupation, family origin, religious belief, education level, property status, or residency period, and shall be investigated and bear the corresponding criminal responsibility. Litigation rights and other legitimate rights and interests are equally protected by national laws, prohibiting any form of discrimination.

(三)關於個人資料和資訊的收集、分析和處理

(3)    Concerning the collection, analysis, and handling of personal data and information

中國依法保護公民個人資訊和隱私。中國頒佈了一系列法律法規、司法解釋及國家標準,不斷加大保護公民個人資訊和打擊侵犯公民個人資訊行為的力度。

China protects citizens' personal information and privacy in accordance with the law. China has promulgated a series of laws and regulations, judicial interpretations, and national standards, and has continuously increased the efforts to protect citizens' personal information and fight against infringement of citizens' personal information.

在民事法律方面,《民法總則》第一百一十一條規定,“自然人的個人資訊受法律保護。任何組織和個人需要獲取他人個人資訊的,應當依法取得並確保資訊安全,不得非法收集、使用、加工、傳輸他人個人資訊,不得非法買賣、提供或者公開他人個人資訊。”

In terms of civil law, Article 111 of the General Principles of the Civil Law provides, “the personal information of natural persons is protected by law. Any organization or individual that needs to obtain personal information of others shall obtain and ensure the security of the information in accordance with the law, shall not illegally collect, use, process, or transmit personal information of others, and shall not illegally buy and sell, provide, or disclose personal information of others."

在刑事法律方面,2009年《刑法修正案(七)》增設出售、非法提供公民個人資訊罪和非法獲取公民個人資訊罪,2015年《刑法修正案(九)》進一步予以完善,將兩罪整合為侵犯公民個人資訊罪,擴大了犯罪主體和侵犯個人資訊的範圍,並將該罪法定最高刑由三年有期徒刑提高到七年有期徒刑。2017年,最高人民法院、最高人民檢察院聯合發佈《關於辦理侵犯公民個人資訊刑事案件適用法律若干問題的解釋》,對“公民個人資訊”的範圍作出界定,明確了侵犯公民個人資訊罪的定罪量刑標準。

In terms of criminal law, the 2009 Criminal Law Amendment (VII) added the crime of selling or illegally providing citizens’ personal information and the crime of illegally obtaining citizens’ personal information. The 2015 Criminal Law Amendment (IX) was further improved to integrate the two crimes into the crime of infringement of citizens’ personal information, expand the scope of criminal subjects and infringement of personal information, and increase the maximum penalty for the crime from three years’ imprisonment to seven years’ imprisonment. In 2017, the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate jointly issued the Interpretation of Several Issues Concerning the Application of Laws in Handling Criminal Cases Involving Infringement of Citizens' Personal Information," defining the scope of "citizen's personal information" and clarifying the standards of conviction and punishment for the crime of infringement of citizens' personal information.

在個人資訊安全治理方面,2016年《網路安全法》把個人資訊保護作為一項重要制度,全面系統地對收集、使用個人資訊作出規定,強化個人資訊收集、個人資訊使用主體的保護責任。全國資訊安全標準化技術委員會於2017年發佈的《個人資訊安全規範》適用於各類組織個人資訊處理活動,它針對個人資訊面臨的安全問題,規範個人資訊控制者在收集、保存、使用、共用、轉讓、公開披露等資訊處理環節中的相關行為,重在遏制個人資訊非法收集、濫用、洩露等問題,最大程度地保障個人的合法權益和社會公共利益。

In terms of personal information security governance, the 2016 Cybersecurity Law regards personal information protection as an important system, comprehensively and systematically regulates the collection and use of personal information, and strengthens the protection responsibility assumed by the subject in the collection and use of personal information. The Personal Information Security Specification issued by the National Information Security Standardization Technical Committee in 2017 applies to various organizations’ activities in processing personal information. It targets the security issues of personal information, and regulates the relevant behaviors in the information processing links such as collection, preservation, use, sharing, transfer, and public disclosure, focusing on curbing problems including the illegal collection, abuse, and disclosure of personal information, and maximally protecting the legitimate rights and interests of the individual’s and the public’s interest.

(四)關於所謂“對少數民族人員造成格外影響的旅行限制”

(4)    Concerning “travel restrictions that disproportionately affect members of ethnic minorities”

中國政府保護每一位公民出境入境合法權益。中國公民出境入境,應當依法申請辦理護照或者其他旅行證件。《護照法》《出境入境管理法》等法律法規對中國公民申領護照、出入境等作出了詳細規定,明確護照簽發機關不予簽發護照以及不准中國公民出境的情形,同時賦予相關人員救濟措施。如《護照法》第六條規定,不符合規定不予簽發護照的,公安機關出入境管理機構應當書面說明理由,並告知申請人享有依法申請行政覆議或者提起行政訴訟的權利。

The Chinese government protects the legitimate rights and interests of every citizen in exiting and entry into [China’s] territory. Chinese citizens who enter into or exit [China’s] territory shall apply for passports or other travel documents in accordance with the law. The Passport Law, the Exit and Entry Administration Law, and other laws and regulations have detailed provisions for Chinese citizens’ application for and obtaining of passports, and exit and entry, etc., that clarify circumstances where passport issuing authorities not issuing passports and not allowing Chinese citizens to exit [China’s] territory, and at the same time entitle relevant individuals to remedial measures. For example, Article 6 of the Passport Law provides that if a passport is not issued in accordance with the provisions, the entry and exit administration of the public security organ shall explain the reasons in writing and inform the applicant of the right to apply for administrative reconsideration or file an administrative lawsuit in accordance with the law.

(五)關於公佈所謂“過去五年裡根據締約國的要求遣返中國的維吾爾族學生、難民和尋求庇護者目前所在何處和他們的情況”等

(5)    Concerning the disclosure of “the current location and status of Uighur students, refugees and asylum seekers who returned to China pursuant to a demand made by the State party in the past five years,” etc.

近年來,受境外“東突”恐怖組織蠱惑煽動,中國境內人員非法出境參加“聖戰”情況突出。這些人多是受宗教極端主義迷惑侵蝕,被境外“東突”恐怖組織蒙蔽裹脅而非法出境,對中國及有關國家的安全和邊境管理秩序構成了很大威脅。對此,中國執法部門依法與相關國家開展國際執法合作,穩妥有序開展引渡或遣返工作,並區分不同情況作出處理。對受宗教極端主義蠱惑影響、被蒙蔽裹脅的人員,做好安置幫扶、教育轉化;對涉嫌出境參加恐怖組織或負案在逃人員依法嚴厲懲處。對被引渡或遣返回國人員,中國政府依法處理並保障其合法權利。

In recent years, the situation of individuals in China deluded and incited by "East Turkistan" terrorist organizations outside the country and illegally exiting the country to participate in "jihad" is acute. Most of these individuals came under the spell of and are corroded by religious extremism, or are hoodwinked and coerced by "East Turkistan" terrorist organizations outside the country to illegally exit the country, posing a great threat to the security and border management order of China and that of relevant countries. In this regard, Chinese law enforcement departments have carried out international law enforcement cooperation with relevant countries in accordance with the law, carried out extradition or repatriation work in a safe and orderly manner, and differentiated among situations before handling them. For those who are deluded and influenced by religious extremism or those who are hoodwinked and coerced, resettlement assistance and education transformation are conducted well. Those who are suspected of exiting the country to join terrorist organizations or those who are at large are harshly punished in accordance with the law. The Chinese government handles, in accordance with the law, those who are extradited or repatriated and safeguards their legitimate rights.

三、關於“提供有關促進和任何限制使用少數民族語言的資訊”

III. Concerning “providing information regarding the promotion of, and any restrictions on the use of, ethnic minority languages”

中國政府依法保障少數民族使用和發展本民族語言文字的自由。包括《憲法》《民族區域自治法》《教育法》《國家通用語言文字法》在內,中國已有近40部法律法規對少數民族使用和發展自己的語言文字作出規定。政府保障少數民族語言文字在行政司法、新聞出版、廣播影視、文化教育等各領域的合法使用。在中國共產黨全國代表大會、全國人民代表大會和中國人民政治協商會議等重要會議上都提供蒙古、藏、維吾爾、哈薩克、朝鮮、彝、壯等民族語言文字的檔和同聲傳譯。加強地區廣播電視基礎設施建設,在青海、新疆、西藏等邊疆民族地區將廣播電視公共服務重點工程的實施納入國家精准扶貧戰略,大力推進廣播電視服務進村入戶。交通困難、資訊閉塞的邊遠山區和邊境地區農牧民群眾通過直播衛星接收設備都能收看收聽到50多套高品質、清晰的廣播電視節目。2017年,全國少數民族語言廣播、電視節目製作譯製時間分別達到約12.2萬小時、4.2萬小時;全國11個少數民族語言節目譯製中心共完成1104部次影片的民族語譯製工作,訂購譯製完成影片累計超過21萬場。民族語言節目類型日趨豐富,中央電臺5種少數民族語言廣播《全國新聞聯播》節目上線播出。各譯製中心也通過升級節目譯製硬體設施、舉辦培訓班、與社會機構合作等多種方式,開展對民族語言類節目譯製人才的培養工作。

The Chinese government safeguards the freedom of ethnic minorities to use and develop their own spoken and written languages. Including the Constitution, the Law on Regional National Autonomy, the Education Law, and the Law on the Standard Spoken and Written Language, nearly 40 laws and regulations in China regulate ethnic minorities’ use and development of their own written and spoken languages. The government safeguards the lawful use of ethnic minority languages in areas including administration and justice; press and publication; radio, film and television; and culture and education. Documents in and simultaneous interpretation of Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur, Kazakh, Korean, Yi, Zhuang and other ethnic languages are provided at important meetings such as the National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the National People's Congress, and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. [The government] strengthens the construction of regional radio and television infrastructure, incorporates the implementation of key radio and television public service projects into the national targeted poverty alleviation strategy in frontier ethnic areas such as Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Tibet, and vigorously promotes [the reach of] radio and television services into villages and homes. Farmers and herdsmen in remote mountainous areas and border areas with traffic difficulties and information blockage can watch more than 50 high-quality and clear radio and television programs through live satellite reception equipment.

In 2017, the national ethnic minority language radio and television program production and translation time totaled about 122,000 hours and 42,000 hours, respectively. The 11 ethnic minority language program translation centers nationwide have completed the minority language translation of 1,104 films, and the number of orders of films with completed translations has exceeded 210,000.

The types of ethnic language programs are becoming more abundant day by day, and the National News Network with five ethnic minority languages are broadcast by the Central Radio Station.

The translation centers also carry out training of talents in translation of ethnic languages by many methods, including upgrading program translation hardware facilities, holding training courses, and cooperating with social institutions.

中國政府高度重視藏語文的學習、使用和發展,切實保障藏民族使用和發展本民族文字的自由。目前,西藏自治區和各藏族自治地方,所有的法規、決議、正式檔以及報刊、廣播、電視都使用藏漢兩種語言文字,西藏已經建立起從幼稚園到大學完整的教育體系,藏語教學得到保障。西藏自治區每年出版發行的藏文圖書都在100種以上,發行數十萬冊。人民法院還通過西藏拉薩市、甘肅甘南藏族自治州舟曲縣等培訓基地,培養藏漢雙語法官,人民檢察院在西藏林芝設立了全國檢察機關藏漢雙語培訓基地,培養藏漢雙語檢察官,為藏族公民使用本民族語言文字進行訴訟提供更多便利。同時,藏語文已步入資訊化時代,藏文字元編碼已通過國家標準和國際標準,成為中國第一個具有國際標準的少數民族文字,藏文已成為廣受歡迎的互聯網交流語言。

The Chinese government attaches great importance to the study, use, and development of the Tibetan spoken and written language, and effectively safeguards the freedom of the Tibetan people to use and develop their own language. Currently, in the Tibet Autonomous Region and all Tibetan autonomous localities, all regulations, resolutions, official documents, and newspaper publications, broadcasts, and television use both Tibetan and Han languages. Tibet has already established a complete education system from kindergarten to university, Tibetan language teaching is safeguarded. The Tibet Autonomous Region publishes and distributes over 100 kinds of books in the Tibetan language each year, with several hundred thousand copies distributed. The people's courts train Tibetan-Han bilingual judges through training bases, including in Lhasa in Tibet and Zhouqu County in Gansu's Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture; the people's procuratorates train Tibetan-Han bilingual procurators in a national procuratorial organ language training base established in Nyinchi [Prefecture] in Tibet, providing more convenience for citizens of Tibetan ethnicity in using their own ethnic spoken and written language in litigation. At the same time, the Tibetan language has entered the age of informatization, the encoding of Tibetan characters has met the national and international standards, and the Tibetan language is the first ethnic minority language in China attaining international standards and has become a widely popular language for interaction on the Internet.

綜上,中國政府希望以上答覆材料能有助於委員會更加全面客觀地認識中國政府在消除種族歧視領域所做的努力和取得的進展,中國政府也願繼續在平等和相互尊重的基礎上與委員會開展合作與交流,不斷提升少數民族享受各項人權的水準。

In summary, the Chinese government hopes the response materials provided above can assist the Committee to more comprehensively and objectively understand the Chinese government's efforts and progress in eliminating racial discrimination. The Chinese government is also willing to continue cooperation and engagement with the Committee on the basis of equality and mutual respect, and continue to improve the levels of ethnic minorities’ enjoyment of various human rights.

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