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Fifth Anniversary of 709 Crackdown: Updated Chart of Persecution of Lawyers and Legal and Rights Advocates

Last updated: July 9, 2020

The 709 Crackdown affected some 300 lawyers and legal and rights advocates. Below is a chart that summarizes the charges against them, their sentences, and their status as of July 2020. (The order of the case listing in the chart is based on the severity of the charge and length of time in custody.)

Those Convicted

Name
Occupation

Detention, Charge, and Sentence

Status

“Subversion of State Power”


Hu Shigen

(胡石根)
Democracy and religious freedom activist

Taken away on July 10, 2015 and criminally detained on the July 11. Convicted of “subversion of state power” and sentenced to seven and a half years of imprisonment and five years of post-release deprivation of political rights. Source.

Serving his sentence as of July 2020. Suffering from heart disease, Hu has been denied medical parole multiple times. On August 6, 2019, Gary Bauer, head of U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, called for his immediate, unconditional release. Source. Source.


Zhou Shifeng
(
周世鋒)

Lawyer and law firm director

Portrayed in official media a “die-hard” (sike)lawyer.

Taken away on July 10, 2015. Convicted of “subversion of state power” and sentenced to seven years’ imprisonment and five years of post-release deprivation of political rights. Source. Source.

The Beijing Justice Bureau revoked his lawyer's license in January 2018, and, two months later, revoked the license of his law firm, the Beijing Fengrui Law Firm.

Serving his sentence as of July 2020. Source.


Wang Quanzhang
(
王全璋)
Human rights lawyer

Taken away on July 9, 2015. Convicted of “subversion of state power” and sentenced to four-and-a-half years’ imprisonment and five years of post-release deprivation of political rights. Source.

Through continuous public advocacy, his wife, Li Wenzu, raised international attention to his case.

Released on April 5, 2020 but was sent to his hometown of Jinan for COVID-19 quarantine. Was finally allowed to return to Beijing on April 27 to reunite with his wife and children. Source.


Li Heping
(
李和平)

Human rights lawyer

Taken away on July 10, 2015, and later convicted of “subversion of state power” and sentenced to three years in prison, suspended for four years, and four years of post-release deprivation of political rights. Source.

Sentence completed on May 9, 2017.

His wife, Wang Qiaoling, had continued to call for international attention to his. She also helped other 709 family members defend their rights, in an informal “709 Family Resistance” alliance. Source.

Zhai Yanmin
(
翟岩民)
Law firm employee

Detained on suspicion of “gathering crowds to disturb social order.” Convicted of “subversion of state power” and sentenced to three years’ imprisonment, suspended for four years, and four years of post-release deprivation of political rights. Source.

Sentence completed. Source.

Gou Hongguo
(
勾洪国)
Rights activist

Taken away on July 10, 2015. Placed under residential surveillance in a designated location (RSDL) on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” on July 11. Convicted of "subversion of state power" and sentenced to three years in prison, suspended for three years, and deprivation of political rights for years. Source. Source.

Permitted to undergo gallbladder removal surgery in Beijing in June 2017. Completed his sentence. Source.

“Inciting Subversion of State Power”


Wu Gan
(
吴淦)

aka Tufu屠夫)
Rights activist

Detained in May 2015 on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble.” Convicted of “inciting subversion of state power” and sentenced to eight years’ imprisonment and five years of post-release deprivation of political rights.” Source.

Serving his sentence as of July 2020.


Yu Wensheng
(
余文生)
Human rights lawyer

Represented many 709 cases. Detained on January 19, 2018 on suspicion of "picking quarrels and provoking trouble" allegedly committed several years earlier. The accusation was later changed to “obstructing official business,” and then changed again, on January 27, to "inciting subversion of state power." Yu had issued a proposal to amend the constitution by deleting the “Preamble.”

On June 17, 2020, his wife Xu Yan received a phone call from the Xuzhou Procuratorate informing her that Yu has been convicted of “inciting subversion of state power” and sentenced to four years’ imprisonment and three years of post-release deprivation of political rights. Source.

Servicing his sentence as of July 2020.


Jiang Tianyong
(
江天勇)
Human rights lawyer

Administratively detained on November 22, 2016, on suspicion of “impersonation by using another resident’s identity card.” Placed on residential surveillance in a designated location (RSDL) on December 1, 2016, under suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power.” Officially arrested on May 31, 2017. Convicted on November 21, 2017 and sentenced to two years’ imprisonment and three years of post-release deprivation of political rights. Source.

Has been under house arrest in his hometown of Xinyang, Henan Province, since his release on February 28, 2019, under round-the-clock surveillance. Prevented from seeking medical treatments and leaving China to reunite with his wife. Source.


Xie Yang
(
谢阳)
Human rights lawyer

Taken away in Changsha, Hunan Province, on July 11, 2015. Officially arrested on January 8, 2016. Permitted to meet with a lawyer November 21, 2016, nearly a year-and-a-half in detention. January 19, 2017, Xie Yang's lawyer Chen Jiangang and Liu Zhengqing published the "Transcript of Meeting Xie Yang," which disclosed details of his torture, raising international attention. Later, Xie Yang pleaded guilty on CCTV and refuted reports of his torture. Xie was released on bail in May 2017. He was convicted of “inciting subversion of state power” on December 26, 2017 but was exempted from punishment. Source.

On February 19, 2017, his wife Chen Guiqiu and two daughters fled to Thailand before flying to the United States.

Xie Yang has been under surveillance and is forbidden to leave China to reunite with his family. He had continued to represent 709 cases, including those of Wang Quanzhang, Yu Wensheng, and Jian Tianyong.

In June 2019, he disclosed that he was forced to confess guilt under threat of harm to his daughter and admitted to cooperating with authorities in order to avoid revocation of his lawyer's license. Source.

“Picking Quarrels and Provoking Trouble”

Yin Xu’an
(
尹旭安)
Rights defender

Taken away from his home on July 28, 2015, after participating in a protest on July 25 in Wuhan against Wu Gan’s persecution and for posting photos of the protest online. Officially criminally detained on August 23 and officially arrested on September 26 on suspicion of "picking quarrels and provoking trouble. " Convicted on May 27, 2017 and sentenced to three years and six months’ imprisonment.  Sustained abuse and beating in prison resulting in physical and psychological trauma.

Released on December 27, 2018, after serving his full term. Arrested again in May 2019 and detained in a detention facility in Daye City, Hubei Province. Source.

Wang Fang
(
王芳)
Rights defender

Detained on July 28, 2015. Convicted of "picking quarrels and provoking trouble" on July 18, 2017 and sentenced to three years’ imprisonment.

Released on June 11, 2018. Source.

Li Yanjun
(
李燕军)
Rights defender

Taken away on June 15, 2015. Convicted of "picking quarrels and provoking trouble" on September 8, 2017 and sentenced to two years and five months’ imprisonment. Source.

Released on October 6, 2017. Source.

Yao Jianqing
(
姚建清)
(known online as Little Lamb)
Rights defender

Detained on June 15, 2015, on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble." Released a month later. Arrested on July 17, 2015, on suspicion of “gathering crowds to disturb social order." Convicted in late 2016 of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” and sentenced to two years’ imprisonment. Source. Source.

Released on June 4, 2017. Source.

Liu Xing
(
刘星)
(aka Lao Dao)

Rights defender

Detained on June 15, 2015. Convicted of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble" and sentenced to two years’ imprisonment on December 28, 2016. Source.

Released on May 25, 2017. Source

Zhang Weihong
(
张卫红)
(aka Zhang Wanhe

张皖荷)
Rights defender

Detained on June 15, 2015. Convicted of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble" and sentenced to one year and eight months’ imprisonment on December 29, 2016. Source.

Released on January 3, 2017.

Those taken into custody but not tried

Name
Occupation

Form of suppression

Status

Li Chunfu
(
李春富)
Human rights lawyer

Brother of lawyer Li Heping. Detained detained by the Tianjin police on August 1, 2015, while searching for his brother.

Obtained bail on January 12, 2017. Diagnosed with schizophrenia on January 14. Resumed legal practice a year-and-a-half later. Revealed that during his detention, he was forced to take daily medications characterized as hypertension drugs by authorities. On December 16, 2019, he was stopped at the border when crossing from Yunnan Province into Laos. Source.


Xie Yanyi
(
谢燕益)
Human rights lawyer

Detained in Beijing on July 12, 2015. Source; Source

Released from detention on January 5, 2017 but was kept in a hotel in Tianjin until January 18. In December 2019, it was revealed that the family was still controlled by the authorities and was prevented from leaving the country. The three minor children were also refused passports by the authorities. Source.


Liu Sixin
(
刘四新)
Has doctorate degree in criminal law and post-doctorate degree in economics

Criminally detained by the Tianjin police on July 10, 2015, on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble,” and formally arrested on January 8, 2016, on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” Source.

Release on bail from detention on September 29, 2016.Source.


Lin Bin
(
林斌)
(aka Monk Wang Yun (
望云和尚))
Rights defender

Taken away by the Tianjin police on July 10, 2015, and placed under residential surveillance in a designated location (RSDL) on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power.” Officially arrested in January 2016. Source.

Obtained bail pending trial on August 6, 2016 and was placed under house arrest in Tianjin for more than two months and then in the Ziguo Temple in Fujian. In August 2017, he was transferred to another temple and placed under relaxed house arrest. He was finally released on July 24, 2018. Source.

Liu Yongping
(
刘永平)
(aka Lao Mu)

Rights defender

Taken away on July 10, 2015 and placed under “residential surveillance in a designated location” (RSDL) on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” Source.

Released on bail pending trial in late August 2016. Source.

Tang Zhishun
(
唐志顺)
Rights defender

In the course of helping lawyer Wang Yu's son Bao Zhuoxuan escape from China, Tang was detained on October 10, 2015 from a hotel in Myanmar by the Myanmar police. Charged by the Chinese authorities with the crime of "crossing the border." Source.

Released in December 2016. Source

Xing Qingxian
(
幸清贤)
Rights defender

In the course of helping lawyer Wang Yu's son Bao Zhuoxuan escape from China, Tang was detained on October 10, 2015 from a hotel in Myanmar by the Myanmar police. Charged by the Chinese authorities with the crime of "crossing the border." Source.

Released in December 2016. Source.


Wang Yu
(
王宇)
Human rights lawyer

Taken away on July 9, 2015 and was placed under “residential surveillance in a designated location” (RSDL) on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power.” Shown on CCTV On October 17 condemning of foreigners for assisting his son Bao Zhuoxuan to escape from China. Source.

Granted bail pending trial in July 2016.

In July 2017, the Tianjin Municipal Public Security Bureau lifted the coercive bail measures against her. She later revealed to the media that she “confessed” guilt under torture and threat of harm to her son. Source.


Bao Longjun
(
包龙军)
Legal workers, husband of lawyer Wang Yu

Taken away on July 9, 2015, in Beijing Capital International Airport while on his way accompanying his son Bao Zhuoxuan to Australia to study. After being placed under “residential surveillance in a designated location” (RSDL) on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power,” he was formally arrested. Source

Granted bail pending trial in July 2016. In July 2017, the Tianjin Municipal Public Security Bureau lifted the coercive bail measures against him. Bao Zhuoxuan arrived in Australia on January 17, 2018 to study. Wang Yu and Bao Longjun were prevented from leaving the country. Source.

Zhao Wei
(
赵威)
(aka Kao La)

Assistant to lawyer Li Heping

Detained on July 10, 2015. Formally arrested on January 8, 2016 on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” She was 24 years old at the time. Source. Source.

Released on bail pending trial on July 7, 2016 and was under surveillance of national security for a long period. In May 2017, she disclosed on Weibo that she had been forced to cooperate under the pressure of interrogation, saying she was terrified of the future. Source.


Li Shuyun
(
李姝云)
Lawyer intern

Detained in Beijing on July 10, 2015, and later formally arrested on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” Source. Source.

Granted bail pending trial in April 2016. Coercive bail measures against her were lifted a year later. In May 2017, she disclosed details of the torture and abuse she suffered during detention, including being made to stand for 16 consecutive hours and being forced to take medications. Source.


Sui Muqing
(
隋牧青)
Human rights lawyer

Detained on July 10, 2015. Placed under “residential surveillance in a designated location” (RSDL) on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” Source.

Released on January 6, 2016. His lawyer's license was revoked in February 2018. Source.

Xie Yuandong
(
谢远东)
Lawyer

Taken away and detained by Beijing police on July 10, 2015.

Released on bail pending trial in January 2016. Source.

Wang Liqun
(
黄力群)
Lawyer

Taken away and detained by Beijing police on July 10, 2015.

Released on bail pending trial in January 2016. Source.

Wang Fang
(
王芳)
Law firm cashier

Detained on July 10, 2015.

Released on January 7, 2016. Source.

Ren Quanniu
(
任全牛)
Human rights lawyer

Zhao Wei's lawyer. Disclosed Zhao’s he announcement revealed that Zhao’s abuse in detention. Detained on July 8, 2016 by the Zhengzhou Municipal Public Security Bureau on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble.” On August 1, Zhengzhou Public Security Bureau made public a  photo of his handwritten repentance and granted him bail pending trial.

Coercive bail measures against him were lifted on August 3, 2017. Source.

Geng Caiwen
(
耿彩文)
Rights defender from Wuhan

Administratively detained on July 28, 2015 for 15 days. Criminally detained on August 11. Source.

Released on September 26, 2015. Source

Persons Still Missing or Detained (Updated as of: February 5, 2016)

709 Crackdown: A Brief Chronology (Updated as of: September 15, 2017)

2017

Jan 3

Wu Gan (aka Tufu) formally indicted for subversion of state power (indictment dated December 23) and will stand trial at Tianjin Municipal No. 2 Intermediate People's Court, according to an online statement made by his defense lawyer Ge Yongxi (葛永喜).

At the Tianjin’s No 2 Detention Center this afternoon, Ge Yongxi was told that he would not be allowed to meet with his client until his representation of Wu Gan was confirmed by the court. Source.

Jan 4

Lawyers Chen Jiangang (陈建刚) and Liu Zhengqing (刘正清) meet with their client, lawyer Xie Yang, who has been detained since July 2015 on charges of “inciting subversion of state power.” Transcripts released from the lawyers’ interview with Xie Yang reveals the following: he remains in detention after refusing to plead guilty and frame fellow lawyers as conditions to his release on bail; he has suffered extensive torture while in detention. Source

Jan 5

Yuan Shanshan says that her husband, Xie Yanyi, has been released from detention but remains under surveillance in a hotel in Tianjin. Source.

RFA reports that Tang Zhishun and Xing Qingxian have been released from detention: Tang Zhishun has returned to his home in Beijing, but Xing Qingxian’s whereabouts remain unknown, according to his wife, He Juan. Source.

Jan 12

Lawyer Li Chunfu, brother of human right lawyer Li Heping, is released on “bail pending further investigation” and returned to his Beijing home in psychological distress. Wang Qiaoling, wife of Li Heping, reports that Li Chunfu was skin and bones, dazed, and in a state of extreme fear. In the days following his return he was anxious, aggressive, and violent towards his wife Bi Liping (毕丽萍). Source.

Jan 14

Li Chunfu is hospitalized and diagnosed with symptoms of schizophrenia after experiencing extreme torture while being under “residential surveillance in a designated place” for 500 days. Source

Jan 19

Xie Yanyi returns home after being detained since July 2015. He was first released on January 5 but held under surveillance in a hotel in Tianjin. Source

Jan 23

According to China Human Rights Lawyers Concern Group, while under “residential surveillance in a designated location” for six months, Li Heping, Wang Quanzhang, and other lawyers suffered extreme torture, including electric shock with voltage high enough to cause fainting. Source.

Wang Qiaoling, wife of 709 lawyer Li Heping, finds out after numerous inquiries that her husband is held at the Tianjin No. 1 Detention Center under a different name, Li Xiaocun. The detention center had previously denied that it was holding Li Heping. Source.

A group of senior judges, lawyers and jurists from countries around the world including Australia, France, Spain, U.S. and U.K. issue an open letter expressing continued concern over the treatment of lawyers and legal assistants, as well as their colleagues, supporters, and family members in China. Source.

Jan 28

The European External Action Service issues a statement calling for an investigation into the account of torture of Xie Yang, and allegations of torture of Li Heping and Wang Quanzhang, and the release of the lawyers and human rights defenders that remain in detention. Source.

Feb 1

TIt is confirmed online that Xing Qingxian has been released on bail and has returned home to Chengdu, approximately one month after his actual release from detention. Source.

Feb 14

Wang Quanzhang is indicted is on “subversion of state power. “ Source.

Mar 1

An article in the state-run The Global Times claims that lawyer Jiang Tianyong fabricated reports of lawyer Xie Yang’s torture, and states that Xie Yang told reporters that he was in good condition and able to contact family members while being held under residential surveillance. Xinhua accuses four foreign media outlets of producing “fake news” in reporting Xie Yang’s torture claims. Source

Mar 4

China Central Television (CCTV) broadcasts an “interview” with lawyer Jiang Tianyong “confessing” to distributing fabricated reports of lawyer Xie Yang’s torture. Source

Mar 9

Chen Guiqiu, wife of Xie Yang, releases a video calling for international attention on her husband’s case. She also condemns the deterioration of the rule of law in China and urges the authorities to release all those detained. Source

Mar 10

Lawyer Chen Jiangang releases a half-hour video in which he stands by the veracity of his transcripts of his meetings with detained lawyer Xie Yang, who detailed acts of torture he suffered in detention. Chen also denounces state-run media reports that claimed that Xie’s allegation of torture was fabricated. Source

Apr 5

Xie Yang’s wife, Chen Guiqiu (陈桂秋), writes letter to the state-appointed lawyer, He Xiaodian (贺小电), criticizing him for meeting with Xie Yang without the knowledge of or permission from Xie’s family, while the authorities have repeatedly refused to allow the two family-appointed lawyers, Chen Jiangang (陈建刚) and Liu Zhengqing (刘正清), to meet with Xie. Source.

Apr 10

Chen Jiangang (陈建刚) receives another phone call from Beijing Chaoyang Bureau of Justice stating that he will be investigated for the transcripts he posted online regarding Xie Yang’s alleged torture in detention. Chen also reports that lawyer He Xiaodian has again met with Xie Yang, and stresses that the authorities refusing to let Xie meet with the lawyer of his family’s choosing is unreasonable and unlawful. Source.

Apr 20

Xie Yang’s wife, Chen Guiqiu (陈桂秋), issues statement that Changsha Intermediate People’s Court will try Xie Yang on April 25, 2017 for inciting subversion of state power and disrupting court order, and that his defense lawyer at court will be He Xiaodian. Source.

Apr 25

Dozens of supporters gather outside Changsha Intermediate People’s Court for Xie Yang’s trial on charges of inciting subversion of state power and disrupting court order but were told that the trial has been postponed indefinitely. Source.

May 3

While on holiday in Xishuangbanna, lawyer Chen Jiangang (陈建刚), his wife, two children, and two of his friends are detained at a Jinghong, Yunnan police station around 1pm. At around 5pm, all six are taken away from the station in vehicles by armed police. Source. In January 2017, published transcripts of his meetings with his client Xie Yang (谢阳), detained 709 lawyer, who detailed torture he suffered in detention. Xie is charged with “inciting subversion of state power.”

May 8 

Lawyer Xie Yang is tried at Changsha Intermediate People’s Court for inciting subversion of state power and disrupting court order. No verdict is announced. The court announces in a Weibo post that lawyer Xie Yang is charged with “inciting subversion of state power and disrupting court order.” The court also releases a video on a Hunan TV station showing Xie Yang admitting to working with foreign media outlets to sensationalize stories, and stating that he had not been tortured. Source.

State-run media outlet The Global Times reports that Xie Yang has been released on bail following the trial. Source.

Earlier this year, on January 13, Xie said in a hand-written note that was later released online: “If, one day in the future, I do confess—whether in writing or on camera or on tape — that will not be the true expression of my own mind. It may be because I’ve been subjected to prolonged torture, or because I’ve been offered the chance to be released on bail to reunite with my family.” Source

May 9

Lawyer Li Heping returns home. In photographs and a video clips released online, he appears to have lost weight and has visibly aged, with his hair now white. He was first detained on July 10, 2015. Source.

May 18

At an U.S congressional hearing titled “Disappeared, Jailed, and Tortured in China: Wives Petition for Their Husbands’ Freedom,” Chen Guiqiu, wife of Xie Yang, along with Wang Yanfeng, wife of lawyer Tang Jingling, and Lee Chin-yu, wife of Taiwanese human rights activist Lee Ming-che, testify about their husbands’ cases—including their disappearances, denied access to lawyers, and torture in detentionLi Wenzu, wife of lawyer Wang Quanzhang, also testifies via a video message. Source.

May 26

Family of lawyer Wang Quanzhang, including his father, mother, and wife Li Wenzu, are followed by police as they attempt to file a lawsuit against the Supreme People’s Procuratorate for illegal procedures in the processing of his case. Wang has been missing for 685 days and no information has been released to his family or lawyers. The lawsuit was not accepted by the procuratorate, which claimed the family did not follow appropriate procedures. Source.

Jun 5

Jiang Tianyong's father receives an official notice, dated May 31, 2017, stating that Jiang has been formally arrested on suspicion of subverting state power. The notice also states that he is being held at Changsha City No. 1 Detention Center. This is the first time his family has been made aware of his whereabouts in the six months since his detention. Source.

See full chronology starting from June 2015 >

Responses
Domestic Actions
UN & Governments

United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “UN Human Rights Chief deeply concerned by China clampdown on lawyers and activists,” February 16, 2016

Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, “Recent human rights developments in China,” July 17, 2015.

Government of Canada, “Canada Gravely Concerned by Detention and Disappearance of Lawyers and Activists in China,” July 16, 2015

United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “'Lawyers need to be protected not harassed’ – UN experts urge China to halt detentions,” July 16, 2015

European Union External Action, “Statement by the Spokesperson on recent developments in the human rights situation in China,” July 15, 2015

Congressional-Executive Commission on China “'Increasingly Bold Disregard for Basic Human Rights,” July 14, 2015.

Federal Foreign Office of Germany, “Human Rights Commissioner Strässer condemns the arrest of scores of lawyers in China,” July 14, 2015.

U.S. Department of State, “U.S. Condemns Detention of Human Rights Defenders in China,” July 12, 2015.

 
Professional Associations
 
Civil Society

Actions

Statements

August 5, 2016

This week, Chinese authorities put on trial and convicted one rights lawyer and three activists on charges of “subversion of state power”: Zhai Yanmin (翟岩民), a law firm employee; Hu Shigen (胡石根), a democracy and religious freedom activist; Zhou Shifeng (周世鋒), a lawyer and law firm director; and Gou Hongguo (勾洪国), a rights activist. According to available official trial transcripts and media reports, all four defendants admitted guilt, expressed remorse, and accepted their trial verdicts. In addition, on August 1, Chinese authorities released a video of Wang Yu (王宇), another lawyer charged with “subversion” but recently released on bail, in which she referred to her former colleague Zhou Shifeng as not being a “qualified” lawyer,” and expressed remorse about her own “inappropriate” remarks and speaking with foreign media.

These five individuals are among the more than 300 lawyers and activists targeted in a nationwide crackdown that began in July 2015. To date, 18 others remain in police custody and have been formally arrested, five of whom are also facing “subversion” charges.

What do these events mean for Chinese civil society? How should the international community respond?

The targeting of those who are at the forefront of defending fundamental rights and promoting the growth of civil society underscores the true aim of the Communist Party of China’s policy of “ruling the country by law”—to maintain the supremacy of the CPC. Instead of safeguarding the people's rights, the current regime uses the legal system as a political instrument to undermine the very forces needed to sustain a rule of law: an independent judiciary, an independent bar, and a robust civil society. See more

As the crackdown on lawyers and defenders that began in July 2015 continues with prolonged incommunicado detention of individuals without trial, family members of those still detained, and of those released after suffering abuses in custody, have not stopped speaking out to demand justice. In these narratives, what we are witnessing is a rising activism among a group determined to hold the authorities accountable for unlawfully suppressing citizens who are exercising rights protected by Chinese and international law. (All text translated by Human Rights in China.)

International Community Urges China to Uphold Rule of Law

See more: Crackdown on Chinese Lawyers

Professional Associations

Governments

NGOs

Lawyers & Activists Charged
Resources

Update Sites

Reports

Analysis and Commentary

HRIC

Relevant Legal Resources:
  • UN Committee Against Torture, “List of issues in relation to the fifth periodic report of China,” 2015: EN
  • UN Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers (1990):  EN, CH
  • Draft Criminal Law Amendment (9) (2015): CH, EN
  • Criminal Procedure Law: CH